Psychology 10 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
sympethetic
arouses
mean
arithmetic average
inner ear
receptor cells
Ions
Electrically charged particles
Echoic Memory
Auditory sensory memory
dopamine
-neurotransmitter -regulates movement and experiencing pleasure-decrease= Parkinson's disease-increase= schizophrenia
psychodynamic
insight-oriented therapies, usually work within Freudian methods
 
 
Functionalism
Minds with a purpose
William James--what mental processes do for a person’s adaptation and survival.
John Dewey--School of functionalism
Learned habits to adapt to environment
conditioning
involves learning associations between events that occur in an organisms environment
seratonin pathways
mood, memory, sleep, cognition
external attribution
situational/environment, external to the person, something about the context
Glutamate
main excitatory transmitter (essential for almost all brain activities)
chemical messengers manufactured by the neuron
neurotransmitters
mood disorders
psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes
In-group
group with which an individual identifies
chemical castration
lower testosterone level via hormones
Cohort effects**
Differences between people of different age group
independent variable
variable that an experimenter manipulates
Psychology
Systematic study of behavior and experience.
Rorschach
projective test consisting of ten symmetrical inkblots
olfaction epithelium
mucus membrane containing smell receptors; of all of our senses, smell is most primitive and evocative, we rarely see odor as neutral and we can detect over 10,000 different smells
vitreous humor
jello stuff giving eye shape
Opponent-process theory
- color-sensitive elements are organizedin pairs- pairs inhibit each other- pairs: red-green, blue-yellow, black-white
transduction
receptors convert energy from the previously detected simuli into neural impulses, which are sent along to the brain.
Lateralization of Function
Left vs Right hemispheres
Door-in-the-face
is a persuasion method. Compliance with the request of concern is enhanced by first making an extremely large request that the respondent will obviously turn down. The respondent is then more likely to accede to a second, more reasonable request than if this second request were made with out the first, extreme request. There is also a feeling of guilt associated with the DITF technique of sequential requests. A person is also more likely to agree with the second request because they feel guilty for having rejected the first request. A reference point (or framing) construal can also explain this phenomenon, as the initial bad offer sets a reference point from which the second offer looks like an improvement.Will you donate $1000 to our organization? [Response is no].Oh. Well could you donate $10?''
sensory neurons
neurons that carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the central nervous system.
ILLUSION
-when experience is different than what's physically there-mechanism distorts psychological relative to the physical
dissociative disorders
class of disorders involving disruption in person's identity & memory
introvert
a person characterized by concern primarily with his or her own thoughts and feelings
mind
the totality of conscious and unconscious mental processes and activities
Testosterone
The most important male sex hormone. Both male & females have it. In men it stimulates growth of sex organs in the fetus & the development of sexual characteristics in puberty.
modes of measurement
various approaches to operationally defining a construct
Illusory Correlation
Perception of a relationship where none exist, or perception of a stronger relationship than actually exists.
Ego
part of the personality that develops out of a need to deal with reality; mostly conscious, rational, and logical.
Afterimage
the visual sensation the occurs after the original stimulus has been removed
operant conditioning
learning where certain action is reinforced or ppunished
Automatic Processing

Unconscious encoding of everyday information, such as space, time, frequency, and well-learned word meanings.
does research support the notion of the "empty nest syndrome"
no
Control Group
Similar to the experimental group EXCEPT the independant variable. (Placeabo)
random assignment
the procedure for placing research participants into the conditions of an experiment in which each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to any level of independent variable
psychosomatic disorder
genuine physical ailments caused in part by psychological factors, especially emotional distress
Effect of institutional authority
Bridgeport office building-47.5% obey
instead of the 60-65%
Gamete
the reproductive cells, or sperm and ovum. Also called germs cells.
Altruism
Unselfish regard for the welfare of others.
Mortality
The state of being subject to death
Benzodiazepines
The most common group of antianxeity drugs, which includes Valium and Xanax.
Confirmation Bias
tendency to search for information that confirms a personal bias, often leads us astray from the right answer
Which of the following is classified as a depressant?
alcohol
Biological rhythm
Any repeating cycle of biological activity, such as sleep and waking cycles or changes in body temperature.
Donald Broadbent
liMits on attention - bottle necl
Donald Broadbent
person
flashbulb memories
detailed & vivid recollections of momentous events
accomodation
refers to the process of changing one's understanding of the world to accommodate ideas that conflict w/ existing concepts
consciousness-raising
a group-therapy technique in which the aim is to enhance the participants' awareness of their particular needs and goals as individuals or as a group
zoophilia
an abnormal fondness or preference for animals
primary sex characteristics
the body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 165)
Eclectic
2 or more approaches. No one method can fully account for all behavior or mental processes.
Bipolar Disorder
(Mood Disorder)
 
When a person alternates between dpression and mania.
Which endocrine gland controls all of the other endocrine glands?
Pituitary Gland
Stimulus descrimination
The tendency to respond differently to two or more similar stimuli; in classical conditioning, it occurs when a stimulus similar to the CS fails to evoke the CR.
activation synthesis
proposes that dreams are side effects of the neural activation that produces "wide awake" brain waves during REM sleep
Positive Psychology Movement
A perspective that recommends shifting the focus of psychology away from the negative to a more positive focus on strengths, well-being, and the pursuit of happiness
Hypochondriasis
Also the term hypochondriac is used. Patients show an intense fear and worry about developing many different health problem. The worrying is serious, extended and unfounded. Pg 384
method of loci
encoding technique that creates visual associations between already memorized places and new items to be memorized (ex: wundt in the sink)
Specific Abilities
particular ability of levels in a narrow domain
drug abuse
what is the most common mental disorder?
conjunction fallacy
occurs when people estimate that the odds of two uncertain events happening together are greater than the odds of either event happening alone
Visual Capture
the tendaency for vision to dominate the other senses, as when we perceive voices in films as coming from the screen we see rather than from the projector behind us.
Extrinisic motivation
The pursuit of an activity for external rewards such as money or fame.
Broca's Area
an aphasia associated with damage to the Broca's area of the brain, demonstrated by the impairmet in producing understandable speech.
What was the UCS in Pavlov's experiment?
dog food
Describe Skinner's emphasis?
That stimuli are consequense of reponses: Operante responses: any behavioral actiontaht operates on the environment to produce a consequence like an electric shock
Operational Definition
A statement that defines that exact operations or methods used in research.
Pituitary gland
What contains bundles of axons that carry information from the brain to the body and from the body to the brain?
Avoidance-Avoidance conflict
Forced choice between two or more undesirable alternatives.
Type A
pertaining to a pattern of behavior characterized by competitiveness, a sense of urgency, impatience, perfectionism, and assertiveness
Sensorimotor Stage
The first stage in Piaget's theory, during which the child relies heavily on innate motor responses to stimuli.
The ______ effect is a decrease in an intrisically motivated behavior after the behavior is extrinsically reinforced and the reinforcement discontinued.
overjustification
A disorder in which an individual is overexcited, hyperactive and wildly optimistic is known as
B) mania
What are the effects of sleep deprivation?
Lecture: 
 
Impairs controlled processes
Impairs automatic processes (ex: driving)
Produces irriability, moodiness, and disinhibited
 
Book:
Studies indicated that sleep restriction can impair individuals' attention,
reaction time, motor coordination and decision making. It may also have negative
effects on endocrine & immune system functioning.
 
Mere-exposure effect
The more you are exposed to something the more you like it.
pupil
the hole in the centre of the iris through which light enters the eye, the size of the pupil changes with light intensity.
self-fulfilling prophecy
having a strong belief or making a statement about a future behavior and then acting, usually unknowingly, to fulfill or carry out the behavior
Standford-Binet IQ test
intelligence test based on the measure developed by Binet and Simon, adapted by Lewis Terman of Standford University
motivation in observational learning
unlikely to reproduce an observed response unless motivated to do so. motivation depends on whether you encounter a situation in which you think response is likely to pay off
Physical dependence 
Dependence on a drug that occurs when people continue to take it to avoid withdrawal symptoms
Social Cognition(p 284)
An area in social psychology concerned with social influences on thought, memory, perception, and beliefs.
Rod needs to decide what to wear on his date tonight. Although he doesn't care if he makes the perfect choice, he doesnt' want to be subject to the "fashion police" either. He is running late, so he has to make the selection quickly, and there
heuristics
What is the view of modern science?
everything is physical
Cerebral Cortex
which is involved in a variety of higher cognitive, emotional, sensory, and motor functions, is more developed in humans than any other animal. . It is what we see when we picture a human brain, the gray matter with a multitude of folds covering the cerebrum.
short term memory
information retained in the brain and retrievable from it over a brief span of time (
mere exposure effect
the process through which you begin to like something simply because you are exposed to it over and over again
what groups to we organize info into
proximity, similarity, continuity, connectedness, closure
Standard Deviation (SD)
How much scores deviate from the mean and from eachother
What classifies as an anxiety disorder?
PTSD, OCD, phobias, panic attack
Sensory-Somatic nervous system
Part of PNS that consists of neurons in the sensory organs that convey info to the brain as well as neurons tha actually trigger muscles and glands.
Describe Birren's Biological Age.
- Condition of the individual's organ and body systems.- Theoretical lifespan of organism (potential life span)- Most say similar to chronological age.
What is Culture?
shared values, customs & beliefs of a group of community
Young- helmholtz trichromatic (three color) theory
the theory that the retina contains three different color receptors one most sensitive to red, one to green, one to blue- which, when stimulated in combination, can produce the perception of any color
depth perception
see things in 3dits dif bc its 2d when enters brain brain changes into 3dthere ar clues so we can see depth perception  called stimulus
What is the unconditioned stimulus? (US)
Natually and automatically triggers a responce
Pavlov experiment: US=Meat
theoretical equivalence
the degree to which a theory or set of hypotheses being compared across cultures are equivalent (i.e. meaning, relevance)
reciprocal determinism
Nina got a bad grade on her 1st exam. This led her to think she could never pass the class, so she quit trying and failed. Bandura calls this ___________.
What are men's attitudes towards marriage?
They are supposed to elude marriage, considering it a "trap"
Piaget's Stages
1. Sensorimotor (object permanence)
2. Preoperational
3. Conversation task and catergorization task
 
1. birth to 2 focus on what the hear and now. op - if object is not in front of them then it does not exist.
2. age 2 to 7 - children can now have mental representation of things but what they need to learn is how to perforem operations on these mental things. like learning symbols for things.
3. basic knowledge of the world but cant do mental operations or cant perform operations or categorize.
1. Milgram Paradigm
2. Now a days
  1. he put out newspaper ads. People came in and led to believe that they were randomly assigned to play the role of a teacher and that another volunteer was the learner. The way they were going to teach the learner was by electric shocks every time they learner go the word incorrect.62% administered highest level of shock
2. Today 70% willing to continue shock, no different conformity
through
Census
entire population
mainstreaming
intergration into classrooms
precognition
ability to foretell events
Counterbalancing
This technique eliminates order effects by dividing the group so they all go in different orders
obsessions
persistent ideas, thoughts, or impulses that are unwanted and inappropriate, causing marked distress
bottom-up
processing controlled by physical message delivered to the senses
 
 
Academic Areas
Social, Developmental, Cognitive Neuroscience, and Evolutionary 
Psychological Testing
Mental Ability tests -IntelligenceaptitudeachievementPersonality Tests -
Hindsight Bias
the "knew-it-all-along" phenomenon; after discovering the outcome of an event, many people believe they could have predicted the same outcome
Rods
throughout retinamore plentifulmany : 1greater sensitivity
masking
obscuring, partially or completely, one sensory process by another, as the dulling of the sense of taste by smoking
Left Brain
Deals with logic/reasoning, number manipulation, language, and right handed touch and movement.
4 hypothesis
dramatic improvements in learning, memory, and problem solving4 hyp. explain memory improvment
DSM-IV
(actual book)
The American Psychiatric Associations Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental disorders, a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders.
Consciousness
Our subjective experience of the world, our bodies, and our mental perspectives
mnemonic devices
are strategies for enhancing memory
Trial-Spacing
The longer the interval between studying topics, the better chance of remembering.
id
Contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. It operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification.
pitch
the dimension of auditory experience related to the frequency of a pressure wave; the height or depth of a tone
 
one cycle is known as a Hertz
Experimental Condition
Specific procedures that manipulate the independent variable(the experimental group)
perception
process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting sensory information
Premenstrual syndrome
disorder characterized by anxiety, irritibility, and depression during days just before menstruation
Secondary reinforcers
are associated with unconditioned reinforcers
In psychoanalytic theory, the ego defense mechanism that involves unconsciously shifting the target of an emotional urge to a substitute target that is less threatening or dangerous.
displacement
Define medical treatments.
o Intervention of biological processes
vertigo
Feelings of dizziness and nausea resulting from malfunction of the semicircular canals in the vestibular system.
learning
the modification of behavior through practice, training, or experience
Plasticity
In cases of injury, certain structures of the brain can take on new tasks.
Double-blind Control
Procedure in outcome research that prevents bias by ensuring that neither the subjects nor the providers of the experimental treatment know who is receiving treatment and who is receiving a placebo.
Neurotransmitters
- because neurons dont touch and impulses cant jump the synapse, they must be carried by neurotransmitters, which are released in tiny vesicles (sacs)
- each neurotransmitter has a particular chemical structure and will only fit into one type of receptor site. when they arrive, they lock into place and cause chemical changes.
-changes have either excitatory (makes action potential more likely) or inhibitory (makes it less likely) effect
Client-centered therapy
(also called Rogerian therapy or nondirective therapy) is a form of humanistic therapy in which the therapist provides a warm, supportive atmosphere to improve the client's self-concept and to encourage the client to gain insight into problems.
frontal lobe
forward part of cerebral cortex containing the motor cortex and the prefrontal cortex; responsible for motor function, language, and memory
myelin sheath
an insulating material that encases some axons, speeds up the transmission of signals that move along axons
Self-Monitoring
Refers to how motivated and able people are to monitor their behavior in response to others’ expectancies.
Define tolerance
the diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug's effect.
Synesthesia
Rare condition in which stimulation or one sense also evokes a sensation in another
(Able to taste color)
EX: "Cow"--If we were in a dark room--heard, smell, touch, taste- we would be able to identify that it is a cow.
manifest content
In Freud's psychoanalytic thory, the elements of a dream that are consciously experienced and remembered by the dreamer
Mental Set
Persistence in using strategies that have worked in the past
constructionists
those who believe that notions of gender are socially determined
mode
The most frequently occuring score in a distribution of scores is the
Post-Partum Depression
caused by hormones and brain neurotransmitters out of balance. Sometimes post-partum depression is accompanied by psychotic symptoms of delusions and/or hallucinations.
Cognitive Psychologist
Memory, Thinking (Do people have several kinds of memory?)
confounding variable
anything that may have affected dependent variable that isn't the independent variable; got in the way of indep var
States that emotional feelings follow bodily arousal and come from awareness of such arousal.
James-Lange theory
Stereotype
beliefs to the effect that all members of specific social groups share certain traits or characteristics; a schema
Working Memory
Active maintenance of information in short-term storage
history of diverse physical complaints with no known physical cause
somatization disorder
The system of medical practice which treats disease by the use of remedies like medication and surgery --- Western medicine
Allopathic
reaction time
the interval between stimulation and response
lesion
tissue destruction, a brain lesion is a naturally or experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue
inferiority complex
Adlers term for the pattern of avoiding feelings of inadequacy rather than trying to overcome it
nativist perspective
all children posess an innate system for language acquisition
 
language acquisition device (LAD)
 
universal grammar
Disorganized/ Disoriented Attachment


show the greatest amount of insecurity, in the reunion show disorganized, confused behaviors. Seem confused, glazed and spacey.  Mothers are more avoidant and inconsistent with a lack of sensitivity to infant’s needs. For example, when a child falls down, the mother laughs “haha, you fell down!” rather than being comforting (~5% of infants in the US)
Anima
According to Jung, the female part of the female personality.
source misattribution
attributing a memory to the wrong source, resulting in a false memory
Sport psychologist-
works with athletes to help them improve their performances.
STATE-DEPENDENT RETRIEVAL
The tendency for information to be better recalled when the person is in the same state during encoding and retrieval.
amplitude
how much wave varies from the base line
Identify the areas of the brain that are associated with various aspects of memory.
focused awareness
a state of heightened alertness in which one is fully absorbed in the task at hand
trichromatic theory
the theory of color perception that proposes three mechanisms in the visual system, each sensitive to a certain range of wavelength
one is blue, the other green, the last is red
Schizophrenia subtype: paranoid
dominated by delusions of persecution, along with delusions of grandeur
drive reduction theories
drive reduction theory is a psychological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need. need ->drive-> drive-reducing behavior(water)(thirst) (drinking)
Amygdala
A structure in the limbic system that plays an important role in emotion, particularly in response to unpleasant or punishing stimuli. 
manic
mood's become elevated to the point of euphoria, self-esteem sky rockets, optimism, energy, and extravagent plans, hyperactive, may go days w/o sleep, talks rapidly, shifts topics wildly, judgement impaired, impulsive, reckless
activity theory
the view that older people remain active in a variety of social spheres and become withdrawn only unwillingly
Natural setting
typical environment in which a person or animal lives
_____ begins in infancy and and children receive it from their peers, the media, and your own behavior.
sexual learning
What waves dominate during stage 4 of non-REM sleep?
Delta
critical period
an optimal period shorty after birth when an organisms exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development
Rorschach test
a test for revealing the underlying personality structure of an individual, using a series of inkblot designs which the subject describes in his own words
Parasympathetic Nervous System
the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy
Natural Environment Phobia
Fear of situations or events in nature, especially heights, storms, and water.
Social phobia
Fear of humiliation in the presence of others, characterized by intense self-consciousness about appearance or behavior or both.
punishment
you didnt eat dinner so you dont get dessert
Continuity
The GESTALT trend to see an object as a whole, instead of as individual parts
Just noticeable difference
lowest level of change in stimulus that can be noticed 50% of the time.
Problems with Anxiety Disorders
-only 1 anxiety disorder (separation anxiety disorder) is written w/ children in mind.. All others were written for adults.
-problem with this:
anxiety looks different in kids
being scared is normal
usually goes away
Extinction
Niko was hit by a line drive, and afterward he duck whenever he heard the sound of a bat hitting a baseball. After hearing that sound many times without getting hit with a baseball, Niko no longer ducks at the sound.
scientific method
system of gathering data so that bias and error in measurement are reduced by perceiving the question; forming a hypothesis: testing the hypothesis; drawing conclusions; report your results
Bipolar Disorder(425)
a mood disorder in which periods of mania and depression alternate, sometimes with periods of normal mood intervening. (425)is characterized by mood swings, between major depression and normality, or between major depression and normality and mania. Mania comes in two degrees: hypomania (more common) and full blown mania. A hypomanic person feels good (the only mental disorder in which the person feels good), energized, and invincible. Hypomanic people may go days without sleep. They use poor judgment, and may spend all of their money foolishly. They make poor business decisions. They may be hypersexual, and sleep with anyone available. But they are functional. For example, a hypomanic artist may be very creative and productive, and may produce many works of art in a short period of time. However, the period of hypomania is very likely to be followed by a crash into severe depression.
foot-in-the-door technique
involves getting ppl to agree to a small request to increase the chances that they will agree to a larger request later
The big 5 model
How many human personality traits exist?
5 OCEAN
openness,conscientiousness, extraversion,agreeableness, neuroticism
ex: Hysterical person: High on neuroticism, extraversion low on conscientiousness
True or False: Men are more likely to diet than to exercise?
False.
Directional hypothesis
One tailed. Eg IQ is higher or lower.
Over the past 50 years, American women have expressed ________ satisfaction with their physical appearance and have experienced a(n) _______ incidence of serious eating disorders.
D) decreasing; increasing
SIGNAL DETECTION THEORY
An observation that the response to a stimulus depends both on a person's sensitivity to the stimulus in the presence of noise and on a person's response criterion. 
Anoxia
What is the term of the lack of oxygen during birth?
encoding specificity principle
the value of a retrieval cue depends on how well it corresponds to the memory code
comparison of 2 means
A statistical technique that can be applied (usually after obtaining a significant omnibus F-test) to locate the specific source of systematic variation in an experiment.
jones and heider came up with the _____
fundamental attribution error
A term used to describe the dynamics of biofeedback with its sensors attached to various parts of the human body
Closed-loop feedback system
are there sex differences? are they caused by or are the result of behavioral differences?
sex differences are stereotypes.they are the result of behavioral differences.
Diffusion of Responsibility
The effect of being in a group that apparently reduces the sense of personal responsibility of each group member or act appropriately.
What is the function of the myelin sheath?
to speed neural transmission
Rods have what inside them? what do they do? during darkness?
Discs- they have Potassium channels
Darkness- remain open- Glutamate released- depolarization 
Eg of contextualism
Going to the store and taking a box of cereal without paying
For autogenic training to work, the individual must be (6)
1. Highly motivated and receptive
2. Strong ability for self-direction
3. Comfortable position
4. Strong awareness of here-and-now
5. Minimize sensory reception
6. Focus on the internal physiological processses
Early physiologists who used phrenology believed which of the following statements:
Lumps on the skull could be used to identify abilities and personality traitsb. Different parts of the brain were responsible for different functions
The development of breasts and the growth of facial hair are examples of _____.
Hot tits and a beard (secondary sex characteristics)
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Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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