Psychology 15 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
34
superego
accommodation cues
43
cognitive dissonance theory
brocas area
make word
frontal lobe
planning, motivation, memory
rorschach
projective personality test; inkblot
insomnia
the inability to sleep
Questionnaire**
asks questions re: behaviors, attitudes, preferences...
Anesthetics=
used to block pressure/sensation in child birth; makes baby irritable when awake, sleepy, and feed poorly
Formal
11+ continue to developAbstract, indepth reasoning
% of women radio hosts
5%
dendrites
branchlike structures that recieve messages from other neurons
personality
an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.
Diagnosis
Identification of the specific problems (mental disturbances) currently being experienced by individuals.
Sensory Neutrons
Neurons that carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the central nervous system
Genotype
Specific genetic makeup of an individual.
factor analysis
statistical technique that analyzes the correlations among responses on personality inventories and other measures
Cochlea
the fluid-filled structure of the inner ear that transmits sound impulses to the auditory nerve
Parapsychology
the scientific investigation of claims of paranormal phenomena and abilities.
coarse, distinct -- close
 
 
fine, indistinct -- distant
Textures (monocular cue)
elaboration
thinking of examples of a concept
acquisition
learning phase during which a conditioned response is established
biopreparedness
natural tendency for certain stimuli to become a CS
Psychodynamic Therapy
Therapy deriving from the psychoanalytic tradition that views individuals as responding to unconscious forces and childhood experiences, and that seeks to enhance self-insight.
Hypothalamus
controls maintenance functions such as eating; helps govern endocrine system; linked to emotion and reward
Shaping
encouraging a new behavior by reinforcing successive approximation (teaching an animal new tricks)
bio-psycho-social perspective
assumes that biological sociocultural and psychological factors combine and interact to produce psychological dosorders
Biological: evolution genes brain structure chemistry
Social: roles expectations definition of normality
Psychological: stress trauma learned helplessness mood related perceptions and memories
KT. The psychosexual development stages from ages 3 to 7 during which Freud said the genitals were the focus of children's pleasure.
Phallic Stage
association - key elements
frequency & timing
mind
the totality of conscious and unconscious mental processes and activities
surface traits
clusters of highly related behaviors
stroboscopic movement
brain perceives continuous movement in rapid series of slightly varying images
Instinct theories
Historical belief about a behavior that one attributes to instincts, why is it instinct? because they showed behavior... just a label can't define anything
Neuroplasticity
The brains ability to reorganize and change its structure and function through the life span.
Glutamate Hypothesis
Schizophrenia results from an under activation of glutamate receptors
 
People carrying one variant of the gene fro mGlu receptor more likely to develop schizophrenia
kinesthesia
sensory system for body posture and orientation
Human Potential Movement
an existential-humanistic movement in which people are encouraged to realize their inner potentials through small group meetings, self-disclosure and introspection
subliminal perception
simple visual stimulus can indeed affect your behavior even when you are unaware that you saw for it
understand the impact of the presence of others on a peroson performance on well learned tasks as well as the impact of the presence of others ona perosns performance on unmastered or difficult tasks.
Gene-environment interaction
The idea that traits and characteristics result from an interaction between specific genes and specific experiences. Pg 374
Zygote
What new cell is created, at conception, when the genetic material of the mother's ovum and the genetic material of the father's sperm unite?
Adultoids
youths who engage in adult like behavior
semantic
The feature of speech that would normally be remembered best by a listener is (semantic, syntactic, phonemic, or acoustic)?
Anterograde Amnesia
memory loss for information processed after an individual experiences brain trauma caused by injury or chronic alcoholism.
longitudainal research
longterm study of people, rats, schools etc
Secondary Reinforcer
Neutral object that becomes associated with a primary reinforcer
neutrotransmitters
the chemical released by neurons which determine the rate at which other neurons fire
chromosome
slender thread inside a cell's ncleus that carries genes. We have 46 chromosomes
Which treatment approach did Sigmund Freud develop for treating his patients?
psychoanalytic therapy
Occurs when an actual criterion includes information unrelated to the behavior one is trying to measure.
Criterion Contamination
Cardiovascular disease is one of the chronic diseases: True or False.
True
Sensory Memory
an immediate, initial, very brief recording of sensory information
the study of human strengths, virtues and optimal behavios is called _______ psychology
positive
extrovert
a person concerned primarily with the physical and social environment, a person whose attention is directed outward, not towards inner feelings
Biological Clock
Internal timing devices that are genetically set to regulate various physiological responses for different periods of time.
Noam Chomsky
theorist who believed that humans have an inborn or "native" propensity to develop language. (Native = Nature).
Fovea
The central focal point in the retina, around which th eye's cones cluster.
cognitive psychology
the school of psychology that views humans as active participants in thier enivorment;study mental processes such as memory, problem solving, decision making, perception, language, and other forms of cognition.
Deindividualism
The less of self awareness and self restraint occuring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.
synapse
the junction point of two or more neurons; a connection is made by neurotransmitters
Present orientation
A perspective in which one emphasizes the here and now, looking to the present to experience pleasure and satisfy needs.
visuospatial sketchpad
permits ppl to temporarily hold & manipulate visual images
authoritative
sets rules, but is also responsive and nurturing. just right
Paranoid schizophrenia
A subtype of schizophrenia. The primary symptom is delusions of persecution. The person believes others are trying to harm him. Pg 365
what is the key to experimentation?
A dependent variable
Socialization of African-Americans
Strong kinship bonds. Grandmothers and older siblings tend to share childcare responsibilities. Typically, parents use physical punishment to discipline their children. However, their children a less likely to continue being treated like babies at age 3 and more likely to assume adolescence for the care of younger siblings. (156)
Heuristics
rule of thumb, the use of heuristics may lead to problems, being persuaded merely on basis of number of arguements, bring persuaded on basis of celebrity or sexual image in advertisement
INEZ PROSSER
THE FIRST AFRICAN AMERICAN TO RECEIVE A PHD IN PSYCHOLOGY IN US (1933)
Which lobe deals with balance and body position?
Parietal
motor neuron
sends signals to muscles to control movement
Humanistic Psychology
a theoretical view of human nature which stresses a positive view of human nature and the strong belief in psychological homeostasis
Retroactive Interference
New learning disrupts recall ex.lock combo
These are mechanisms that defend against anxiety. Protects the ego or conscious mind.
Ego Defense Mechanisms
Antipsychotic drugs
drugs used to treat schizophrenia and other forms of severe thought disorders
Consciousness
What were the first two schools of thought in psych?
- 2-4 years- Child gains the ability to mentally represent an object that is not present- Egocentrism, animism
Intuitive thought substage
information overload
an excess of incoming information that forces one to be selective in the information received and retained
Bipolar (manic depressant disorder)
Alternate between hopelessness and mania Symptoms: Very confident risk taker fast talking and then depressed, constipated, weak, don't feel like self.
sociometric questionnaire
asking each member of a group what other group member they would prefer to partner with on various occasions, and which members they would not like to
pituitary gland
releases hormones that play a role in stress response
node of ranvier
a noninsulated segment of a myelinated axon
SENSORY MEMORY STORE
The place in which sensory information is kept for a few seconds or less
temporal lobes
one of four anatomical regions of each hemisphere of the cerebral cortex, located roughly on the sides of the brain; involved in certain aspects of speech and language perception.
Heterosexual Attitudes
-Don't have as many sex partners as you think, 70% only had one in the past year. Committed relationships generally bring greater happiness. -Americans today have had more partners though
socioeconomic status
a way of assessing a family's standing which combines three related variables 1)years of education2)the pretige of skill required by one's job, both of which measure social status, and 3)income, which measures economic status.
functional fixedness
the tendency to perceive an item only in terms of its most common useyoung children less vulnerable to this than adults
3/11/09
2. Which theory of management suggests that employees are lazy?
Scientific-management approach:
Theory X
Long-term memory involves recollection of skills, things you know how to do, preferences, etc? (e.g., riding a bicycle)
Implicit (also known as nondeclarative) Memory
ORAL STAGE:
The first year of life, when babies experience the world through their mouths.
Gestalt principle of continuity
we perceive smooth, continuous patters rather than discontinuous ones
telegraphic speech
go car, short sentences that follow a strict word order and contain ojnly essential content words
externalizer
a person who draws a source of control from the external world, depending on others as a source of values, ideas, and security
so if you are scared of a ladybug because you were bit by a japanese beatle that would be an example of..
stimulus generalization
Fixed interval (FI) schedule
a reinforcement schedule in which a reinforcer is delivered for the first response that occurs after a preset time interval.
step 5 of scientific method
publish, replicate and seek scientific review. replicate the study with systematic variation of relevant variables, tweak the study to see what results make the most influence
What is the 4 Constitutional challenges to SVP?
1) Due Process2) Equal Protection3)Double Jeopardy4) Ex Post Factor3 & 4 and 4 are heard most often. Law gets around this by treating through civil court, not punishing in civil court.
critical period
o a time in the early stages of an organism's life during which it displays a heightened sensitivity to certain environmental stimuli, and develops in particular ways due to experiences at this time. If the organism does not receive the appropriate stimulus during this "critical period", it may be difficult, ultimately less successful, or even impossible, to develop some functions later in life.
Define actualizing tendancy?
an inborn set of drives that go beyond basic animal needs and lead the individual to engage in creative activities
Positive Correlation
more of factor one makes factor two go up.
Sensorineural hearing loss
- hearing loss caused by damage to the cochlea's receptor cells or to the auditory nerves; also called nerve deafness.
antisaccade eye movements and implications
look in direction opposite side of stimulus
poorer performance of those in the acute stage of schizo
Why are different MHC are more compatible than similar MHC
avoid inbreeding, and increase immunity on offspring & fitness
Seligman believes in the effectiveness of positive psychology. What does that mean?
Psychology should be concerned with human strength as it is with weaknesses, as interested in building as much as repairing
Good Boy/Good Girl and Law and Order
The two substages of Kohlberg's Conventional Morality
Theories permit psychologists to make the leap from...
...the description of behavior to the understanding of behavior.
What is a problem with mental disorders as emotional distress?
Does not explain behavior of clearly disturbed individuals who are not troubled by their actions
A psychologist wants to determine whether the lighting levels affect test scores. DV is _____ and IV is ______
DV is the test score, IV is the brightness
occipital lobe
vision
Arachnephobiba
fear of spiders
recall
retrieval of info
belief
conclusion regarding factual evidence
descriptive stats
describe your data
Kholer
Insight leardning in animals
measuring correlations
direction of a relationshp
-positive
-negative
correlation coefficient indicates the strength of relationship between the two variables  
cerebral cortex
outer surface of brain
irb
international review board approves for human research
Operant Conditioning
behavioral therapycondition with rewards/punishment
dopamine
major neurotransmitter, learning and memory
• Reflex
automatic, unlearned response to particular stimuli
cues..shading
helps define shapeaccentuates the (interposition cue)other clues
formal operations
12-adult, hypotheses, beyond appearances, hypothetical reasoning
puberty
the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 165)
 
animism
belief that all things are living
sensory neurons
neurons that carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the central nervous system.
Psychological Situation
JULIAN ROTTER: individuals unique combination of potential behaviors and the value of these behaviors to the individual.
Difference Threshold
The smallest noticeable difference between intensity of stimuli.
electroconvulsive therapy
treats severe depression; electric shocks through the brain
Counter Conditioning
Un-learningGet rid of bad responseChange stimuli for different effect (gum instead of smoking)
RESEARCH METHODS
DESCRIPTIVE STUDIES METHODS OF OBSERVATION USED TO DESCRIBE PREDICTED BEHAVIOR AND MENTAL PROCESSES
Comparative
behaviour of animals / animal-human dist.
phobia
exaggerated, unrealistic fear of a specific situations, activity or object
old-old
those who suffer severe physical, mental, or social problems in later life
explain withdrawal.
physical illness with symptoms resulting from stopping drug use. indicates physical dependence. symptoms opposite of drug's initial effect. due to compensatory responses to drugs
experiment
powerful research method that permits conclusions about cause & effect relationships b/w variables
convergent
thinking that produces one correct answer and is characteristic of the kind of thinking tested by standardized intelligence tests.
self-actualization
the achievement of one's full potential through creativity, independence, spontaneity, and a grasp of the real world
dream
a sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person's mind. Dreams are notable for their hallucinatory imagery, discontinuities, and incongruities, and for the dreamer's delusional acceptance of the content and later difficulties remembering it. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 285)
adoption studies
adopted children share values of adopted parents, but tend to have personalities based on genetics
transference 
the patients transfer to the analyst or emotions linked with another relationships (such as a loved one or hatred for a parent)
Four Perspectives in Study of Personality
Psychoanalytic
Behavioristic (including social cognitive theory)
Humanistic
Trait perspectives
 
 
 
Correlation coefficient
 
 
A statistical index of the relationship between two things (from -1 to +1).
Neurotransmitters
chemicals in the endings of neurons that send information across synapses
Dopamergenic antidepressants
Antidepressants that act on dopamine receptor sites.
autism
disorder that appears in childhood and is makred by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of other's states of mind.
Positive reinforcement
Pleasant stimulus is added to encourage behavior
experimental control
in research, controlling as many factors as possible
Punishment
-Mild punishers are often as effective as strong ones-Punishement cant be issued mindlessly and must be distrubuted immediatly -The recepient of punishment often responds negatively -The punisher has to be present-Punishement converys little information-Make sure the intended punishment doesnet reinforce things like a desire for attention
sexual disorder
a problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning
Prejudice
A harmful attitude based on inaccurate generalizations about a group of people.
malingering
the tendency to make ourselves appear psychologically disturbed with the aim of achieving a clear cut personal goal.
Correlation Research
Basic observation and reporting, with the addition of using statistical techniques to examine whether events, behaviors, etc are more likely to occur together.
Informed consent
the principle that before consenting to participate in research, people should be fully informed about any significant factors that could affect their willingness to participate
Multiple Regression
a multivariate analysis that includes a criterion and two or more predictor variables; the predictors will have different weights
Mood Disorder
Major depressive disorder and bi-polar disorder
Observation
a way to discover personality; an observer simply notes the behavior of a person or a group of people; uncontrolled - naturalistic observationcontroled - situational testing
Hypothesis

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 


a specific, informed and testable prediction of
the outcome of a particular set of conditions in a research design
Cataclysmic events
strong stressors that occur suddenly, affecting many people at once (natural disasters like tornadoes)
Dissociative amnesia
Profound amnesia stemming from the active motivation to forget specific events or information.
behaviorism
the theory that human psychology can only be accurately studied through the analysis of objectively observable and quantifiable behavioral events
controlled processing
requires concentration and effort put forth toward task
Two-word stage
Beginning at age two, children speak mostly in two-word sentences.
variable interval (VI) schedule
a pattern of intermittent reinforcement in which responses are reinforced after time periods of different durations of time
anxious-ambivalent attachment
baby anxious when mother near, and protest excessively when she leaves, but not comforted when she returns.
Cardinal Traits
dominant themes affect all aspects of life
Transduction
-conversion of one form of energy into another.
binocular disparity
distance between out pupils, right eye and left eye images are different
Assimilation
take new experience and put it in similar group
Visual Imagery Encoding
Storing new information as mental images. Activates left/frontal/occipital lobes.
Remembering an event involves the use of __________ memory, while learning a new skill or recalling how to complete a task involves the use of ___________ memory.
Explicit; Implicit
Schizoid Personality Disorder (Detached)
Distant Unapproachable, Absence of close friends, Hung up on own agenda, Extreme Introversion, Desires
Mirror Neurons
-frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so.
Glial Cells
Insulate axons and speed up electrical messages
Blind spot
Near the fovea, where blood vessels and the optic nerve enter and exit the eyeball.
Menopause
Starts around 51 and the period stops completely
syntax
the set of language rules that govern how words can be combined to form meaningful phrases and sentences
self-efficacy
the degree to which a person is convinced of his or her ability to effectively meet the demands of a particular situation
Name the FIVE PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES:
1. Biological, 2. Learning/Behaviorism, 3. Cognitive, 4. Psychodynamic, 5. Sociocultural.
unite genetics and psychology to explore the causal link between inheritance and behavior
human behavior genetics
controlled experiment
when an experiment uses control goups as well as experimental groups
major depressive disorder
consists of persistent feelings of sadness, despair, disinterest in pleasurable activities; has emotional, cognitive, & physical symptoms
control group
receives no treatment or some other comparison treatment
Gate-control theory
Maintains that a "gate" in the spinal cord determines whether pain signals are permitted to reach the brain. Neural activity in small fibers opens these: activity in the large fibers or information from the brain closes these.
Resting potential
At rest the cell membrane is polarized maintaining a negative interior charge of -70mv.
General Adaption Syndrome
A model of the body's stress response, consisting of three stages: alarm, resistance, and exhaustion.
Soma
The cell body of a neuron; it contains the nucleus and much of the chemical machinery common to most cells
rooting reflex
A newborn infant will turn his head toward anything that strokes his cheek or mouth, searching for the object by moving his head
ebbinghaus forgetting curve
A typical graph of the forgetting curve shows that humans tend to halve their memory of newly learned knowledge in a matter of days or weeks unless they consciously review the learned material
Correlational Method
A method that assesses the degree of relationship between two variables
mental disorders due to a general medical condition not elsewhere classified
syphilis, cystic fibrosis
Theories of attachment (psychoanalysts and behaviorts)
feeding drives attachment, harry hallow's monkeys
amplitude
the height of the peaks in a light wave
a source of error in interviews and rating scales
"halo effect"
stimulus generalization
the transfer of a learned response to different but similar stimuli
Hindsight bias
What are the steps to the scientific method?
serial position
-the tendency for recall of the first and last items on a list to surpass recall of items in the middle of the list
Single blind study
A study where the subjects are blind to whether they are in the control or experimental group
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
technique that uses magnetic fields to indirectly visualize brain structure
According to the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion, one's conscious experience of emotion occurs
Simultaneously with autonomic arousal
Glucose and digesstive regulation
-lower blood suger more hungry you are-stomach sends info to brain about wether they are full or not and what nutrients it contains
conventional moral reasoning
a stage of moral reasoning based on conformity to social expectations, laws, and duties
natural concept
a mental category that is formed as a result of everyday experience.
What are possible explanations of the gender differences in mortality and morbidity?
o Women’s reproductive health requires more medical attention
o Women suffer more minor health issues than M en
Problems of transformation
hobbits and orcs problem and water jar problem
explosive disorder and substance abuse
men are diagnosed with these disorders more often than women
If the eye ball is too long...
This is myopia (short sight).
Retrograde Amnesia
A loss of memory for events prior to a brain injury.
What did Carolyn Rovee-Collier reveal about infants and memory?  What technique did she use? 
Attaching a mobile to a childs foot.Readily learned connections between events (shaking mobile) and own actions (kicking)Recall this connection laterRemember events as sequences of actions with beginnings, ends 
What are the basic characteristics of a wave?
(when referring to light)
The basic characteristics of light waves are:
 
 
Wavelength
 
Intensitiy (Amplitude)
 
Complexity 
differentiate between an in group adn an out group
In group "us"-people with whom we share a common identityOut "them" those perceived as different or apart from our group
What was the activity called when you ranked the kind of help your friends provide? How did you rank them?
Assess Yourself: Social Support

On a scale from 1 to 5
How many hours do a long sleeper sleep?How many hours do short sleeper sleep?
long 9 plusshort 5 or lessaverage 8 hours
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