Psychology 17 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
25
reliability
zygote
fertilized eggs
15
Stage 3 sleep
Synapses
spaces between neurons
Endoderm
digestive and respiratory systems
BIOLOGICAL (basics)
nervous system, hormones/genes
I/O psychologist
studies in workplace
sexual prejudice
negative attitudes toward an individual because of her or his sexual orientation
Maturation
Biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience.
DABDA
Denial, Anger, Bargain, Depression, Acceptance
Consciousness
A persons awarness of feelings,sensations, and thoughts at a given moment
 
 
Clozaril
(clozapine)
first molecule to come out of the a-typical: the most effective antipsychotice espessally for severe schizopphrenia, helps with both the negative and positive symptoms, later research has shown it to be effective with disorganized, life treting side effect agranulocystosis (decrese of white blood cells), need weekly blood tests in first months, sedation, weight gain, constipation, if discontinued too fast: delusions, halucinations, hostility, paronaoid reaction - zyprexa has been used to block the withdrawl
NREM
non rapid eye movement sleep
no \"dreaming\"
sleepwalking/talking, night terrors
ACTIVE: amygdala, hippocampus
Hypochondriasis
A disorder involving preoccupation with fears of disease or illness.
amphetamines
drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 300)
schemas
mental frameworks that develop from our experiences with particular people, objects, or events
psychoanalytic theory
Freud's theory of the mindIdEgoSuperego
Similarity
the perceptual tendency to group together elements that seem alike
Punishment
decreases the likelihood of operant being repeated.
define addiction
compulsive drug craving and use
_____ is the neurotransmitter responsible for reinforcement in operant conditioning, ______ is the neurotransmitter associated with aversive learning.
Dopamine, Acetylcholine
latent learning
learning that's not directly observable
eardrum
- tightly stretch membrane inthe middle ear that generates vibrations that match the sound waves striking it- also known as tympanic membrane
Harlow's
Monkeys running towards the terry cloth monkey over wire frame monkey.
Delusions
False beliefs that often accompany schizophrenia
Newborn Capabilities
Newborns have reflexes, sensory capabilities, and preferences for certain people. They scream, cry, and have a preference for facial structures.
The process of accessing stored information.
retrieval
TARDIVE DYSKINESIA
UNUSUAL MOTOR MOVEMENTS; COMMONLY ASSOCIATED WITH THE USE OF NEUROLEPTICS
Temporal Lobe
Temporal – (auditory cortex) receptive language (understanding language), as well as memory and emotion
insight
an understanding of the motivational forces behind one's actions, thoughts, or behavior; self-knowledge
interneurons
central nervous system neurons that intervene directly between the sensory inputs and motor outputs
perceptual constancy
perceiving objects as unchanging (in lightness, color, shape, size) as illumination and retinal images change; relating to top-down processing)
Contextual factors
how are ppl feeling and environment
Axon
Second basic feature of a neuron. Carries neurons message to other body cells.
Schizophrenia - Eugen Bleuler


"Split Mind"
Key symptom: dissociative thinking-disturbances in thought and difficulty relating events properly
Other symptoms: loosened associations, emotional disturbances
wavelength
distance between the crests of light or sound waves
Longitudinal research
A research method that investigates behavior as participants age.
Hypnosis
A procedure in which the practitioner suggests changes in the sensations, perceptions, thoughts, feelings, or behavior of the subject, people can't be forced to do things against their will
panic disorder
anxiety disorder in which sufferers experience unexpected, severe panic attacks that begin with a feeling of intense apprehension, fear, or terror
Circadian Rhythm
Literally “circle around the day”, this is a term for the body’s biological rhythm. Pg 398
Umbilical Cord
What connects the embryo and placenta?
TARGET PARAMETER
The unknown population parameter that we are interested in estimating
job enrichment, Herzberg's Two-Factor
...involves increasing employees' autonomy, authority, and freedom, and encouraging employees to take on challenging tasks. It is partially based on ... Theory, which predicts that increasing employees' responsibility (a motivator) will result in increased satisfaction and performance.
Inductive Reasoning
reasoning that draws broad conclusions by generalizing from specific instances.
consistency paradox
possibility that people may behave inconsistently
Stimulus Discrimination
Displaying a less pronounced response to stimuli that differ from the original stimulus
unconditioned response
an organisms automatic or natural reaction to stimulus
Medieval Theories
prior to 11th cnetury- natural/bio perspective; Inquisition- witches/satanists arrested (poor nutrition/social control); Epidemics and hysteria: (st Vitus' Dance)
STIMULUS GENERALIZATION:
After conditioning, the tendency to respond to a stimulus that resembles one involved in the original conditioning.
a psy's who investigates differences between females and males and how they develop
gender psy's
Is sexual dysfunction more common in men or women?
women
Otogeny
a second ultimate cause that works refers to changes to that occur during an organisms lifetime
ones heredity, enviroment and behavios ar ethe three factors the determine ones _____ at any stage of life.
developmental level
imagination
the power of reproducing images stored in the memory by the suggestion of associated images, or recombining former experiences in the creation of new images
Latency Stage
This period in Freud's Psychosexual stages occurs during middle and late childhood when the sexual urges and interest is repressed and quieted down. Same sex paly and involvement in non-sexual related activities tends to be emphasized.
REM sleep
rapid eye movement sleep, a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. Also known as paradoxical sleep, because the muscles are relaxed (except for minor twitches) but other body systems are active. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 276)
Inattentional Blindness
Failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere.
psychological perpectives
general points of view used for explaining peoples behaviors and thinking whether normal or abnormal
Attachment system
The sum of emotional and physical proximity-seeking behaviors toward the caregiver, developed by the child as a result of adaptive and maladaptive parent behaviors. Regulates the pattern of attachment characteristics of the child.
Phenotype
the ways in which a person's genotype in manifested in observable characteristics.
negative transfer
An interference with learning due to differences between two otherwise similar tasks.
retrograde amnesia
a person loses memories for events that occurred prior to the injury
dream interpretation
a technique used in psychoanalysis in which the content of dreams is analyzed for disguised or symbolic wishes, meanings and motivations
Ruminate
to mentally go over and over certain thoughts pg 378
Cognitive/Perceptual Distortions
Perception of world around you is distorted
Conditioned response
a response elicited by a previously neutral stimulus that has become associated with the unconditioned stimulus
Psychotherapy: General Conclusions....
 
What is Cognitive-behavioral best for?
Humanistic?
Psychodynamic?
Cognitive-behavioral - best for fear or anxiety...
 
Humanistic - best for self-esteem problems. 
 
Psychodynamic - best for achievement problems...
DESCRITIVE STATISTICS
STATISTICS SUCH AS THE MEAN AND STANDARD DEVIATION THAT SUMMERIZE THE NUMERICAL RESULTS OF STUDIES
Nuclear Family
A family consisting of a husband, wife, and their children.
gyrus
a bulge between sulci in the cerebral cortex
Instinct
a behavior we are born with and therefore does not need to be learned.
Short term memory
Lasts 2-3 minutes, working memory, last as long as you're attentionallows integration of info puts single into whole
This type of disorder deals with shutting things off, the patient isolates thoughts.
Dissociative Disorders
Psychodynamic Therapy
interpret current symptoms in terms of themes in relationships
throughout a patient’s life. Explore
defended-against
thoughts and feelings.
Enables
insight into maladaptive thought and behavior patterns.


Terminal Buttons
What is the junction between neurons where information is transmitted from one neuron to another?
the grouping of isolated behaviors and thoughts into a higher-order system
1. Simple reflexes
personality test
an instrument, as a questionnaire or series of standardized tasks, used to measure personality characteristics or to discover personality disorders
Validation - Family Therapy
Therapist expresses understanding of all family members
random digit dialing
a means of including a telephone sample the significant number of homes for which the number is unlisted
A kindergarten teacher who gives her pupils sugar-free lollipops when they finish their coloring is using ________ to motivate them.
An extrinsic reward
peripheral nervous system
the part of the nervous system consisting of the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system
CONDITIONED STIMULUS (CS)
A stimulus that is initially neutral and produces no reliable response in an organism.
orienting response
an inborn tendency to shift our focus of attention toward a novel or surprising event
Schaie’s stages of cognitive development in adulthood – first 3 stages
1.Acquisitive Stage- childhood and adolescence- acquire information- "What should I know?" "How should I use what I know?"2.Achieving Stage- young adulthood- apply knowledge to one's major life decisions3. Responsibility Stage- Middle adulthood- cognitions extend to social obligations and responsibilities
Mood Management Hypothesis
the idea that people use helping tactically to manage their moods
Harlow and attachment
infant monkeys became more attached to soft inanimate surrogate than to wire, milk providing surrogate
Gender differences in Personality
Men have extroversion and openness, where women have conscientiousness and agreeableness
 
 
Four Dopamine Pathways when blocked by neuroleptic AP's (older anti-phsycotic)
mesolimbic pathway: blocking dopamine, relieves delusions and hallucianations (Positive symptoms)
mesocortical pathway: block dopamine, increases cognitive dysfunction and negative symptoms
nigrostriatal pathway: blocking dopamine, produces EPS (extra privital side effects)
Tuberoinfundibular pathway: produces proclactin secretion when dopamine is blocked and prolactin level rises
 
case study
study one individual in depth in hope that it will reveal things about all of us.
Place theory
In hearing, the theory that links the pitch we hear with the place where the cochleas membrane is stimulated
Primacy effect
better memory for items at the start of a list
externalizer
a person who draws a source of control from the external world, depending on others as a source of values, ideas, and security
Flashbulb Memory
A vivid memory of a certain event and the incidents surrounding it, even after a long time has passed
variable interval (VI) schedule
a reinforcement schedule in which a reinforcer is delivered for the first response that occurs after an average time interval, which varies unpredictably from trail to trial.
approach-avoidance
a person has to make a choice that has both negative and positive aspects
What does NASH stand for?
Dying of natural cause, accident, suicide, or homicide
Primary auditory cortex
The part of each temporal lobe where hearing registers in the cerebral cortex. 
Define Cultural Relativity
the idea that behavior must be judged relative to the values of the culture in which it occurs (The Indian believing spirits are haunting her)
What forms of prejudice have women experienced in our society?
Careers-traditionally channeled into domestic chores even when they wished to do otherwise. Education-refused admittance to higher educational colleges and vocational status. Scientific research- assumes the male behavior represents the norm for women as well due to male only course studies.
purpose of central nervous system
to receive, process, interpret & store incoming sensory information
Belongingness and love needs
to be with others, be accepted, and belong
Erikson's Social Development Theory**
(must go through stages to advance in age)adolescence crisis: identity vs. role confusion (refining self identity)young adulthood crisis: intimacy vs isolation (struggle to form close relationships)
How long does it take to see significant benefits in the body due to exercise?
6 to 8 weeks
The hippocampus, within the temporal lobes,
is involved in the consolidation of long-term memory.
Thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala
What part of the brain is involved in forming and retrieving memories?
What are the Causes of APD and Psychopathy?
Abnormalities in the CNS. Impaired frontal-lobe functioning Genetic influences
4. Ego defense mechanisms serve to ...
a) prevent the id from being dominated by the superego.b) ensure that conscious thoughts do not become unconscious.c) protect the ego from anxiety-provoking information, situations and impulses.d) distract the superego and allow the id to gratify its impulses. e) assure that a nuclear attack will not result in the complete destruction of our national pride.
cornea
outer lens
comparison group
control group
chionophobia
fear of snow
algorithm
a step-by-step problem-solving procedure that guarantees a correct answer to a problem
storage
involves maintaining encoded information in memory over time
procreation
the ability to reproduce
Shaping
In operant conditioning, the development of a new response by reinforcing successively more similar versions of that response. Both desirable and undesirable behaviors may be learned in this manner.
Hormones
chemical regulators that control bodily processes such as emotional responses, growth, and sexuality
Adaptation
including / adjusting new information
Systematic Desensitization
Gradually increasing anxiety triggering stimuli and association with a pleasant, relaxed state.
iconic memory
momentary memory of visuali
chunking
organizing items into familiar, manageable units - often occurs automatically.
Storge
-not comfortable in dating relationship unless there’s a friendship first
Cognitive Dissonance
psychological discomfort (dissonance) caused by two inconsistent thoughts
photoreceptors
light-sensitive cells (neurons) in the retina that convert light energy to neural impulses - pg. 119
Limbic system
Interconnected group of forebrain structures located roughly along the border between the cerebral cortex and the lower-level brain structures. Responsible for emotions, drive reduction, and memory.
A major inhibitory neurotransmitter.
GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)
Albert Bandura
Emphasized importance of observational learning, especially for children learning the rules of behavior.
fixation
when mind gets stuck on something
CS
neutral stimulus that becomes paired with a response.
VRIN and TRIN
specifically measure response inconsistency or random responding
self confidence larger when people make PUBLIC estimates rather than PRIVATE
Cataplexy
Complete loss of muscle tone (experienced by narcoleptic)
Purposes of Job Analysis
-career development-legal defense-performance appraisal-Recruitment and selection-Training-Vocational counseling-Job classification, description, design-Research
parapsychology
the study of paranormal phenomena, including ESP and psychokinesis
type b personality
laid back, calm, relaxed.
problem-focused coping
attemptimg to alleviate stress directly-- by changing the stressor or the way we interact with the stressor
hypnopompic
pertaining to the semiconscious state prior to complete wakefulness
Growth
Sleep Theory. During deep sleep, the pituitary gland releases a growth hormone.
Procedural
motor, what you always remember to do
Development
Changes over time in the physical structure, thought, or behavior as a result of bio and environ influence
endorphins
a group of neurotransmitters that are involved in pain relief and feelings of pleasure
cell body
contains important machinery 2 keep cell alive, determines whether or not to send msgs out
pupil
hole in the iris where light enters
The Mullerian system will "dominate" if anti-Mullerian hormones don't initiate ___________ & _____________ processes.
defeminization, masculinization
retinal disparity:
the slight difference in lateral separation between two objects as seen by the left eye and the right eye
mild retardation
people with retardation that have minor deficits. 90% of all people who have retardation have a mild form. can function almost normally
surveys
administer a question to a large number of people, self reporting, asked to describe behavior, attitudes, or beliefs-limitations: validity has to do with wording the question, who is surveyed and who responds
cognitive perspective
modern perspective that focuses on memory, intelligence, perception, problem solving, and learning
Prejudice
The negative evaluations of persons or their activities because they belong to a particular group
observational learning
o Learning by observing or imitating others.
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
involves enduring psychological disturbance attributed to the experience of a major traumatic event (rape, car accident, war, natural disasters, witnessing a death), more common than assumed, ppl w/ intense reactions more vulnerable to this
against animals
generalising from animals to humans has delayed advances in knowledge. Taking findings about the effects of drugs on animals and extrapolating them to humans has been dangerous and misleading.
efferent neurons
messages from brain to spinal cord
Dissociative Disorders
Disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts and feelings
The misinformation effect
exposing people to misleading information can cause their memories to become distorted
repression
According to Freud, a mental process that automatically hides emotionally threatening or anxiety-producing information in the unconscious. Repressed information cannot be retrieved voluntarily, but something may cause it to be released and to reenter the person's consciousness at a later time.
thc
a compound, C21H30O2, that is the physiologically active component in cannabis preparations (marijuana, hashish, etc.) derived from the Indian hemp plant or produced synthetically.
Cognitive psychologist
Higher mental processes ex. memory, language, problem solving
Optic Nerve
the nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain
janet werker
used phonemes to examine innate basis of speech perception abilities.
What are the 5 reasons for occupational injuries? (Causal models)
no answer?
 
 
 
Population
 
All the cases in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn. (Note: Except for national studies, this does not refer to a country's whole population.)
You're looking for the best school to help your child develop intellectually, a school that fosters high academic achievement. Which of the following school characteristics might make you hesitate?A) Several award winning athletic teams.B) Very involved p
A
Depersonalization Disorder
A dissociative disorder in which the individual feels unreal and estranged from the self and surroundings enough to disrupt functioning. People with this disorder may feel that their extremities have changed in size or that they are watching themselves from a distance.
biopsychosocial model
the belief that physical health and illness are determined by the complex interaction of biological, psychological, and social factors.
foot-in-the-door phenomenon
The tendency for people who first agree to a relatively minor request to comply later with a more major request.
grasping reflex
an infant's clinging response to a touch on the palm of their hand.
Frontal Lobe
assumes major role in especially human functions, including creativity, emotion regulation,language production, logical thinking, and personality (including planning future action, monitoring personal behavior,and strategic functioning)(motor cortex)
Reciprocity Norm
An expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them.
synaptic cleft
a microscopic gap between the terminal button of one neuron and the cell membrane of another neuron-- signals jump this gap to allow neurons to communicate
Naturalistic Observations
natural conditions without the need of manipulation
selective attention
focusing of mental resources on only part of the stimulus field
edward tolman
behaviorist - worked with rats in wagon - mapping and implicit learning.
explain hypermnesia
highly focused and relaxed state of mind produced by hypnosis that enhances memory
Muller-Lyer Illusion
Illusion of line length that is distorted by inward-turning or outward-turning corners on the ends of the lines, causing lines of equal length to appear to be different
Serotonin
plays a role in mood, sleep, appetite, and impulsive and aggressive behavior
Anorexia Nervosa
An eating disorder in which a normal-weight person (usually an adolescent female) diets and becomes significantly (15 percent or more) underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve.
parietal lobe
the middle part of each cerebral hemisphere behind the central sulcus.
CT (computed tomography) Scan
X-RAY photographs taken from different angles and combined by a computer to show a composite representation of a slice through the body.
External Validity
The extent to which we can generalize our findings beyond the study itself is called
Fear
A reaction that you have to a very specific imminent threat.
Migration of functioning
Transfer of functioning that can occur when part of the brain is damaged. The healthy part of the brain takes over the functioning.
Suzanne Kobasa
did a lot of research on hardiness, people who tolerate stress well seem to thrive on it; she noticed several characteristics:open to changeinternally motivateddeeply committed to workimmerse themselves in a meaningful hobby/activityview stress as a challengesee themselves as in control of their lives
secure attachment
-if the mother is present the child wanders the room and returns to her periodically for comfort-baby may or may not cry when she leaves-very receptive when the mother returns
escape conditioning
- process of learning a response to stop an aversive stimulus- ex: dog can jump over to the other side of the box to stop the shock
Cognitive psychology
Focuses on the study of higher mental processes
T cell
A type of white blood cell that matures in the thymus
keyword method
as an aid to memory,using a familiar word or image to link 2 items
The assesment method that would have the most validity and reliability
MBPI~ Meyers Briggs
How do we smell?
chemical particles float through air to nose; particles dissolved by mucus in nose
Wilhelm Wundt (1832–1920)
In 1879 (remember this date!), Wundt set up a psychology laboratory in Leipzig, Germany, now considered the birthplace of experimental psychology. Although others went before Wundt, he is credited with giving psychology its independence from philosophy and physiology. He did so by applying the scientific methods of physiology to questions of philosophy. Before Wundt, people evaluated the question of how the mind worked only by way of argument, not by scientific investigation.
whenever you have a cold you rest, take aspirin, drink lots of fluid, can't determine which remedy most effective because of
confounding of variables
Formal Operational Stage
- in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts.
Reflex Transfer
Ex: A reflex to food is transferred to tone. (In animal's brain, tone becomes food)
Components of Gender Stereotypes
A distinct aspect of gender sterotypes that can be identified, such as personality traits, role behaviors, occupations, and physical appearance
crying to be picked up
2 months, earliest evidence of interaction
Cerebral Hemispheres
The two sections of the cortex on the left and right sides of the brain
laws of common fate
the gestalt principle that we tend to group similar objects together that share a common motion or destination - pg. 144
disruptions in conscious awareness and sense of identity
Dissociative disorders are most likely to be characterized by
3/2/09
5. For psychological tests, reliability can also be viewed as ___, while validity can be viewed as__.
 
1. Reliability = Consistancy
2. Validity = Accuracy
What is the social role theory?
o Sex difference stem from different social roles
from the eardrum to the cochlea
where does sound travel thru the middle ear?
Is foraging considered an altruistic bahaviour?
No, because the actor gains from performing the behavior
Coping styles: way men deal with stress:
    Fight or Flight response: Stay and deal with danger, or run away from it
 
   More accurately this is the way men deal with stress.
Kinds of stresses that woman endure can’t be fought or run from
If you want to help your roommate attract the attention of someone on campus, what advice, based on your knowledge of emotion, might you offer?
Suggest that your roommate appear "by chance" at the target's gym workout.
to examine the influence of cultural and ethnic similarities and differences on pschological and social functioning
What are the main areas of research in psychology?
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