Psychology 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
each inherited factor
"Decoding Schizophrenia" investigators have applied gene chips to study rain tissue and determined that many genes important to signal transmission across synapes are _____ active in schizophrenics
intimacy vs. isolation
early adulthood
complex adaptive processes ex: learning, perception, and motivation
Delta waves
synchronized brainwaves; 2 waves/second
Conduction of information within neurons is an _____ process.
These substances function like neurotransmitters in that they're released by neurons into synapses (and modulate the activities of adjacent/distant neurons), but they're different from neurotransmitters in that they're not reabsorbed or bro
lizards, snakes, turtles; 300 million years ago; 1st to lay shell covered eggs and 1st to be covered in dry scales
Postsynaptic Neuron
The neuron that receives the signal. (After the synapse)
Circadian rhythm
usually about 25 hoursUsually inherited
In Alzheimer
Impair is progressive and uniform
Imparied facial recognition, difficulty recognizing familiar objects by touch, and an inability to perform complex, purposeful movements (apraxia) are most suggestive of damage to thea. parietal lobesb. frontal lobesc. temporal lobes
a. parietal lobes
General term referring to primates that walk upright, including all forms of humans, living and extinct.
large furrows in a convoluted cortex
Action potentials travel through myelinated axons at a rate between ____ m/sec and ____ m/sec.
12, 120
all other cell division in the body
unconcious aspects of the mindone of the six contemporary perspectives
part of the limbic system; produces feelings of happiness...awwwwww; releases dopamine
Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy
(BSE or "Mad Cow Disease")
a contagious brain disease
the degenerative process gives the brain a spongelike appearence
caused by the accumulation of misfolded prion (or protein infectious agents)
Rising Phase
1 millisecond later, Na+ channels close, marking end of rising phase
The lateralization of functions has been demonstrated by studies examining the effects of severing the _____ in order to control epilepsy.
corpus callosum
The branch of biology concerned with naming and classifying the diverse forms of life.
Types of Neurons
1 unipolar2 bipolar3 multipolar4 multipolar interneuron
This hormone, synthesized and released by gonadotropes in the anterior pituitary gland, triggers ovulation, and stimulates the production of testosterone by Leydig cells.
luteinizing hormone
Bundles of individual axons are called what?
The main function of this forebrain structure is to control autonomic nervous system (ANS) motivations (hunger, thirst, etc.) and maintain a state of homeostasis.
cartesian dualism
Descartes argued that the universe was made of 1-physical matter and 2-human mind/soul; views mind and brain as separate entities
clinical and counseling
most widely practiced area of psychology is clinical and counseling
sounds where you let the air flow freely
MAO -Inhibitors
When taking this meds clients cannot have yogurt, ripe avocados, soy sauce or ripe cheese
Cottage and cream cheese is ok
The ______ may be responsible for the pain relief produced by acupuncture.
Areas of the brain responsible for his memory loss include the _____ lobes, which are essential for long-term memory, the ______ which is involed in memoey that has emotional significance
temporal; amygdala
Cerebral Cortex
Heavily folded outer layer of brain tissue composed of neurons
Temporal Lobes
the two regions of the cerebral hemispheres, one in each hemisphere, that are inferior to the lateral fissures
Schwann cells
glial cells in the peripheral nervous system; constitutes one myelin segment; guide axonal regeneration after damage
The ____ lobe of the brain controls motor, speech, reasoning, and problem solving.
Wernicke's aphasia is also known as receptive aphasia, fluent aphasia, or ____ ____, because sufferers speak with normal rhythm using proper syntax, but produce sentences that have no meaning.
jargon aphasia
How many pairs of cranial nerves are there?
Drug Tolerance
Occurs when a larger dose is required to produce the same effect as the original dose; body has adjusted to the presence of the drug
New mammalian brain
Consists of reptilian brain and old mammalian brainAdded the cerebrum, which lets us learn in new ways due to long-term memory, and sensory cortex
Cognitive Symptoms of Schizophrenia
a symptom charachterized by cognitive difficulties
deficits in learning and memory
poor abstract thinking
poor problem solving
Obesity has been linked to a number of factors including an unusually large number of _____ and greater responsivity to ____ cues.
lipocytes; external
Reticular Formation
a complex network of nuclei and short interconnecting tracts that is located in the core of the brain stem, from the medulla to the midbrain; its nuclei play a role in controlling many vital body functions and in the promotion of arousal, attention, and sleep
Aside from connecting the PNS to the brain, the spinal cord also acts as a minor coordinating center for simple reflexes, such as the ____ ____ (when you touch a hot object).
withdrawal reflex
Sodium and Potassium
The cell starts out negative on the inside and positive on the outside. Sodium ions rush inside when sodium channels open, creating a positive charge inside and negative outside. Then Sodium channels close and Potassium channels open, letting potassium rush out of the cell. The cell becomes negative on the inside and positive on the outside again. Ion pumps move sodium out of the cell and potassium into the cell.
The retina contains two types of receptor cells: The _____ are concentrated in the center of the retina and mediate _____ vision.
cones; daytime and color
Subarachnoid space
the space between the main part of the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater; it contains cerebrospinal fluid, the web-like processes of the arachnoid layer, and many blood vessels
A ____ synapse (or ____ ____) usually refers to a presynaptic terminal containing neurotransmitters, a gap (junction), and a postsynaptic neuron with receptor sites for the neurontransmitters.
chemical, synaptic cleft
Sleep cycle
lasts 90 minutes; I → II → III → IV → III → II → I
The nerves of the ____ ____ ____ send impulses to increase blood sugar concentration.
sympathetic nervous system
Forebrain - the Cortex:

The occipital lobe contains the visual cortex.
Damage ►in visual cortex can cause deficits in visual sensation, perception, and memory (for example, visual agnosia, loss of depth perception, persistent after images) and, when damage is extensive and bilateral, cortical blindness. Prosopagnosia is a type of visual agnosia involving an inability to recognize familiar faces. It is caused by bilateral or right hemisphere damage to the occipitotemporal area (although there is evidence that some forms of prosopagnosia may also involve damage to certain areas in the right parietal lobe).
When compared to normals, people with schizophrenia are shown to have
______ function of the prefrontal area compared with ______
When compared to normals, people with schizophrenia are shown to have
DECREASED function of the prefrontal area compared with NORMALS
Average Deviation
in charge of
Extraneous variables
Uncontrolled variables
Three Processes of Memory
region of impaired tissue
two cognitions are contradictory
involves interpreting new experience in terms of existing mental structures without changing them
the reinforcement of closer approximations of a desired response, necessary when the organism doe not on its own emit the desired response
alter perception of external environment and innner awarenessshrooms, acid, PCP, cannibus, higher risk of physiological dependence, lower of physical dependence
defense mechanisms
repression, denial, displacement, sublimation, projection, rationalization, reaction formation, regresssion
Switchboard Operator for sensory information, especially visual, but NOT olfactory.
Information relayed from thalamus to cortex and basal ganglia
investigates mental processes, including reasoning and thinking, problem solving, memory, perception, metal imagery, and language
cognitive psychology
anxiety disorders
psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety
Social facilitation
increase in an individual's performance because of being in a group
-Negative mood state with physical tension and apprehension about future.-useful, perform better
disadvantage of naturalistic observation
doesnt EXPLAIN behavior
heuristic that involves judging the probability of an event by its superficial similarity to a prototype
awareness of body position and movement
difficult to retrieve material; well below the surface of awareness—all psychic energy originates here. Contains all three.
branch-like extensions of cell body that receive info from other cells
3 bones in ear
hammer anvil stirrup
temporal lobe
processing auditory input: speech, visual recognition
Sensory reduction
Filtering and analyzing incoming sensations before sending a neural message to the cortex
Social Psychology
Deals with people's social interactions, relationships, social perceptions, social cognition and attitudes. And a group's influence on an individuals thinking and behavior.
(sometimes known as face blindness) is a disorder of face perception where the ability to recognize faces is impaired, while the ability to recognize other objects may be relatively intact. The term usually refers to a condition following acute brain damage, but recent evidence suggests that a congenital form of the disorder may exist. The specific brain area usually associated with prosopagnosia is the fusiform gyrus.[1]
nervous system
the body's speedy, electrochmeical communication system, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems.
-photoreceptors in retina that respond to greater light intensities (bright light)-color sensations-in fovea-day vision -low sensitivity - high acuity (ability to perceive detail)-1:1 connections to later cells - 2 weak signals that are separate remain below threshold of next cell-high threshold: lot of light energy to be noticed
4 subtypes of schizophrenia
paranoid schizodisorganized schizocatatonic schizoundifferentiated schizo
pertaining to the semiconscious state prior to complete wakefulness
a statistical measure that indicates the extent to which two factors vary together and thus how well either factor predicts the other
Wernicke's Area
Controls language reception: a brain area involved in language comprehension & expression, usally in the left temporal lobe
The rapid spread of emotions or behaviors through a crowd
Random Assignment
The process of assigning participants tothe conditions of an experiment such that all persons hae the same chance of being in a given condition.
the image of oneself that develops from interactions with important, significant people in one's life.
Synaptic Cleft
microscopic gap between the terminal button of one neuron and the cell membrane of another neuron.
behavior modification
application of learning principles to change people's actions and feelings
Negative Reinforcer
continue behavior to aviod a consequence
Concrete operational stage
Thinking logically about concrete events;grasping concrete analogies and performing arithmetical operations.(7-11yrs)
Central NS
Includes the spinal cord and brain.
third-variable problem
when the experimenter cannot directly maipulate the independent variable and therefore cannot be confident that another, unmeasured variable is not the actual cause of differences in the dependent variable
undifferentiated type of schizophrenia
mixture of schizophrenic symptom
What is Person Centered Therapy
Client Centered therapy
Huntington's Disease
a genetically transmitted disease that progressively destroys brain cells in adults.
Religion and Health
Promotes health through lifestyle issues, social networks, and coping with stress
Loose Association
A commong thinking disturbance in schizophrenia, characterized by rapid shifts from one topic of conversation to another.
shortcuts which are rules of thumb that allows one to make quick but often wrong judgments
What type of behaviors are concerned with manipulating the environment according to rules and standards to attain a desired goal?
Sleep deprivation
Being prevented from getting desired or needed amounts of sleep.
the temporary loss of congintion of motor functions usually as the result of emotionally upsetting experiences
phonological loop
using recitation to temporarily hold on to a phone number
belief that your culture is better than others; when researcher apploies own backgrounds and judges differences based on own
*problems lie within individuals
*need to look at WHY there is a diff not just that a diff exists
*non-dominant culture= "missing something"
a procedure, as a reward or punishment, that alters a response to a stimulus
to strengthen the probability of a response to a given stimulus by giving or withholding a reward
middle ear
the chamber between the eardrum and cochlea containing three tiny bones (hammer, anvil, and stirrup) that concentrate the vibrations of the eardrum on the cochlea's oval window. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 217)
sensorimotor stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 149)
Basic science
the pursuit of knowledge about natural phenomena for its own sake
developmental psychology
the branch of psychology that studies the patterns and change that occur throughout life.
Juan's toe was severed and was quickly sewn back on by a surgeon. As a result, he regained some function and felling in his toe. Which of the following are responsible for Juan's ability to regain function and feeling in his toe?
Observational learning
A process in which an individual learns new responses by observing the behavior of another (a model) rather than through direct experiences; sometimes called vicarious conditioning.
a diverse group of drugs that have powerful effects on mental and emotional functioning, marked most by prominently by distortions in sensory and perceptual experience ex: LSD, mescaline, psilocybin, produce euphoria, increased sensory awareness, and distorted sense of time, can produce nightmares-bad trip
Gender Stereotype
Concept about males or females that assigns various characteristics to them on the basis of nothing more than being male or female
Fight or Flight
Body changes that occur when encountering a stressor. Pg 382
mnemonic methods
way to improve encoding & create better retrieval cues
emotional intelligence
ability to understand our own emotions and those of others, and to apply this information to our daily lives
In which disorder do people alternate between states of lethargic hopelessness and wild overexcitement?
bipolar disorder
basic level
level you most quickly identify things atmost info for the effort spent identifying itusually single simple word
Inner ear
the innermost part of the ear, containing the cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibular sacs.
Biological explanations for homosexuality?
Prenatal exposure and masculanizing androgensMay be moderately heritable
Aversion Therapy
a type of behavioral treatment where an aversive stimuli is paired with a negative behavior in hopes that the behavior will change in the future to avoid aversive stimuli
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
an originally neutral stimulus that, after being paired with an unconditioned stimulus, takes on the ability to bring about the response that originally went with the unconditioned stimulus
Define structuralism
Identifying the basic elements of the mind and to determine how those elements combine with one another to produce more complex thoughts
A measure of central tendency that is the halfway point in a set of data; half the scores fall above the median, and half fall below it.
In what step of the scientific method do you use statistical procedures to determine the mathematical and scientific importance of the data and then interpret those findings?
Social Readjustment Rating Scale
To investigate the relationship between change and stress.
Type B
a pattern of behavior characterized by an unhurried, patient, tolerant manner, an ability to relax easily, and amiability
Preoperational Stage
The second stage in Piaget's theory, marked by well-developed mental re[resentation and the use of language.
Operant Conditioning
occurs when we reinforce or punish a behaior (aka an operant) so as to change its frequency in the presence of a discriminate stimulus (learning is specific to a situation or context)
*learning to choose what gives pleasant results
set point
value that establishes a range of body and muscle mass we tend to maintain
outer ear
visible part on your head; gathers and delivers sound to middle ear
Cognitive based  attitudes
Based on beliefs about the properties of the attitude object. Focus on relative facts.
blind spot
the point where the optic nerve leaves the back of the eye; the blind spot has no rods or cones.
specific areas on a strand of DNA that carry hereditary information
Flynn effect
find that average IQ scores have been rising at a rate of approximately 3 points per decade
Out-of-body Experience (OBE)
Sense of our conciousness leaving our body
Kinethesis(p 220)
The sense of a body position and movement of body parts.
You looked up a friend's address for a letter you wrote. Suddenly the phone rings-wrong number. Even though you were interrupted for only a few seconds, you've forgotten the address. Which memory system failed you?
short-term memory
Who usually but not always has a medical degree?
clinical psychologist
Terminal Buttons
The bulb-like structures at the end of the axon. The Terminal Buttons pass information on to glands, muscles, or other neurons.
the act of going back to a previous place or state; return or reversion.
psychometric approach
intelligence is a trait that an be ID and measuredcharacterized people to a greated extent than others -differences among ind. can be described
memory color
if we know something is a color we will always perceive it that way
Execitory Impulse
Go impulse. Spur of the moment. All or nothing, if the action impluse reaches the threshold, it will fire
residual schizo
tells you how far along a person is from baseline functioning
What do biopsychologists do?
They study the inheritable traits of behavior and the structures of the body responsible for them.
What are the three types of dual-earner families (describe)?
a. High status- Housework division more equal- Greatest role overload- Lower levels of love and marital satisfaction- More marital conflict of all three groups.b. Low status- Lowest amount of role overload and marital conflict- Highest scores of marital satisfaction and love for their spousec. Main-secondary- Husbands are in the primary position, with higher prestige.- Women have less education and more household responsibilities.
D: axon terminals
Branches at the end of the axon that hold neurotransmitters and empty them into the synapse
frequency of a sound is related to
the pitch of a sound
The three types of strains
1) Physiological - illness, high blood pressure, headaches, back pain 
2) Psychological - depression, anxiety, forgetfulness, loss of clarity
3) Behavioral - substance abuse, compulsive behaviors, overeating   
what are the 2 main functions of the brain
1)regulate psychological functions2)controls behaviour
Joan Kellerman, James Lewis, and James Laird
wondered if intimate gazes would arouse mere strangers
What is a cognitive contribution to depression that women are more likely to do?
• Rumination - dwelling on problems and negative feelings tends to amplifly the feelings which can lead to depression
Ethnic and Gender differences in life expectancy
females likely to live longer than males and majorities live longer than minorities
When humans perform a task in which they are shown pictures of objects classified in different categories (e.g. pictures of animals, picture fruits) and must verbally name the object presented:
The right hemisphere is more active then the left
Left Brain
General Adaptation Syndrome
our observable traits
J.B. Watson
Argued classical conditioning.
3 forms of touch
memory fades with time
Dissociative Fugue
Dissociative disorder featuring sudden, unexpected travel away from home, along with an inability to recall the past, sometimes with assumption of a new identity.
Reinforcing the connection between different parts of a sequence.
bipolar disorder
-person alternates between hopelessness and lethargy, and the overexcited state of mania-"manic-depression"-MRI scan: brain energy consumption rises and falls with emotional switch-depressed brain has less serotonin and norephinephine
active ingredient is THC low-to-mod doses: euphoria, relaxationhigh doses: sensory distortionsamplifies sensitivity to taste, sounds, smell
any even that strengthens behavior
Types of interviews
Unstructured vs. structuredfree-flowing vs. predetermined
senses pick up visual, auditory
placebo effect
experimental results caused by expectations alone, any effect on the behavior caused by the administration of an inert substanse or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent.
this old perspective studied the function of our thoughts
Larger amounts can cause schizophrenia and small amounts decrease it.
Disordered by blows that impair language, understanding or speaking.
Intelligence has a high heritability quotientT or F
psychosexual stages
developmental periods with a characteristic sexual focus that leave their mark on adult personality
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
Commonly called “shock treatment”. A treatment for mood disorders which uses electrical current to cause a brain seizure. Pg 377
Proactive- old memories block the formation of new ones
Retroactive- new memories replace old ones
act of purposely repeating information to maintain it in short-term memory
Carl Jung
emphasized the collective unconscious, shared inherited reservoir of memory form our species' history
 2. Which of the following was not a reinforcement schedule we talked about in class?
Follicle Stimulating Hormone
*Released by Anterior Pituitary
*Develops egg in follicle, whch causes estrogen release
*Also sperm production
• Statistics
branch of math involving the tabulation, analysis, and interpretation of numerical data
Dissociatve-Specific Disorders
Dissociative Fugue: amnesia, identity confusion, wandering, \"la belle indifference\"
Dissociative Identity Disorders: Two + identities
What is taste sensitivity shaped by?
a clinically based approach to understanding and treating psychological disorders; assumes that the unconscious mind is the most powerful force behind thought and behavior.
one whose personality type is intermediate between extrovert and introvert
attachment style in which they seek little contact with their caregiver and are not distressed when the caregiver leaves
the dimension of color that is determined by the wavelength of light; what we know as the color names blue, green, and so forth.
resting potential
slight polarization of the fluid inside the neuron in comparison to the fluid outside. this provides the electrochemical means for a nerve cell to produce an action potential
structured personality tests
paper-and-pencil tests consisting of questions that respondents answer in one of a few fixed ways
the raw, unorganized, inborn part of personality whose sole purpose is to reduce tension created by primitive drives related to hunger, sex, aggression, and irrational impulses
a chemical substance that is released by transmitting neurons at the synapse and that alters the activity of a receiving neuron
exist in the brain, spinal chord, peripheral nerves and certain glands
affect mood, memory and well being
focal point of sight (everything else is in your peripheral)
maternal malnutrition
increases the risk of birth complications and neurological deficits for the newborn, been linked to vulnerability to schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders
chemicals released into the blood by the various endocrine glands to help control a variety of internal regulatory functions.
size constancy
One form of perceptual constancy. Although the retinal image of an object becomes smaller as the object recedes into the distance (or larger as it approaches), the viewer adjusts for this change and perceives the object to be constant in size.
OBSERVING BEHAVIOR IN A NATURAL ENVIRONMNET WITHOUT MANIPULATING OR CONTROLLING IT-Jane Goodall- studied socialist behavior of the Great Apes in their environment
Eidetic imagery
the ability to reproduce unusualy share and detailed images of somthing one has seen.
bottom-up processing
- relies on specific, detailed information, from the senses- feature detector cells identify basic features that are combined to create the sensory experiences- ex: recognize dog by its features
what's hypothalamus?
neural structure lying below the thalamus, directs eating, drinking, body temp, helps govern endocrine system via pit. gland, linked to emotion
The fovea is specialized for ?
High Acuity
Parietal Lobes
The lobes that contan the somatosensory cortex and other areas that are responsible for body awareness and spatial orientation.
Conversion disorder
is a somatoform disorder characterized by the sudden, temporary loss of a sensory function
Technical name for the sense of taste.
Basilar membrane
A stiff structural element that separates two liquid-filled tubes that run along the coil of the cochlea
psychoanalytic approach
-unconscious motives & experiences in early childhood govern personality & mental disorders-Freud, early 1900s
Ames room
A viewing environment, designed by Albert Ames, that demonstrates how our perception of size may be distorted by manipulating our depth cues.
a test, trial, or tentative procedure; an act or operation for the purpose of discovering something unknown or of testing a principle, supposition, etc.:
a visual image or other sense impression that persists after the stimulus that caused it is no longer operative
A branched fiber that extends outward from the main cell body and carries information into the neuron.
ABC analysis re: behavioral assessment
BEHAVIOURISMAntecedents: what happens before (feelings, enviro, role as triggers)Behavior: what client doesConsequences: how client thinks/feels after (rewards, role in maintenance)
Behavioral Measures
Ways to study overt actions and recordable reactions
Direct Observations/Naturalistic/Case Study
Occipital lobe
division of the cerebral cortex that interprets visual information
Punishment (OC)
The presentation of a stimulus or event following a behavior that acts to decrease the likelihood of the behavior's being repeated.
hierarchy of needs
a systematic arrangement of needs, according to priority, in which basic needs must be met before less basic needs are aroused
the way the alternatives in a decision making situation are structured and described.
case study
A research technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles.
Hypothalamus –
a neural structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temp), helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is liked to emotion. (both monitors blook chemistry and takes orders from the other parts of the brain)
Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis
Whorf proposes that language shapes the nature of thought.
Exemplar Theory
theory that the natural concepts we form in everyday life are structured around prototypes or typical representations of categories (such as robins and jays as protoypes of the concept bird)
type A personality
Meyer friedman and Ray Rosenman; characterized by drive, competition, aggressiveness, and tension; Grant Dahlstrom linked it to heart disease and other health problems
Measure that asses the amount of time saved when learning material a second time
standard deviation
The most commonly used measure of dispersion that indicates approximately how far, on the average, scores differ from the mean
False Memory
a report that an individual believes to be a memory but that does not correspond to actual events
The brain structure that provides a communication link between the hemispheres is called the:
corpus callosum
Somatic nervous system
the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles. Also called the skeletal nervous system
false positive
error of recognition in which people think that they recognize some stimulus that is not actually in memory
primary reinforcer
a reinforcer that is rewarding in itself, such as food,water, and sex.
Psychodynamic therapies
Therapies based on the idea theat mental disorders stem primarily from the kind of hidden inner conflicts fort described by Freud.
mild mental retardation
IQ of 52-67, special education students, unskilled labor
Unconscious Motivation
Having a desire to engage in an activity but being consciously unaware of the desire. Freud's psychoanalytic theory emphasized unconscious motivation.
Stage 1: sensorimotor period
first stage in piaget's theory.lasts from birth to age two.ability to coordinate sensory input with their motor actions.gradual appearance of symbolic thought.innate the end of the stage, children can use mental symbols to represent objects.object permanence
The part of a neuron that contains the nucleus and keeps the entire cell cell alive and functioning is the ______.
how many cortex's do humans have?
what are they called?
2; left and right
Opponent-Process Theory
red -- green
blue -- yellow
black -- white
opposing processes in ganglion cells enable color vision; ganglion cells respond best to certain types of cells but when we remove the stimuli, they over process and over excite and sense the opposite perspective color; this allows us on ganglion level to process 3 colors
Wernicke’s Aphasia is also known as _________________, while Broca’s aphasia is also known as _________________.
Fluent and Nonfluent
circadian rhythm and cues
any rhythmic change continues at close to a 24 hour cycle in the absence of 24 hr cues body tempcortisol secretionsleep and wakefiulnessin absene of time cues...rhythms will be about 25 hr long
response criterion
internal rule a person uses to decide whether or not to respond to a stimulus
is depression genetic?
yes. identical twins are 30% more likely to be depressed than fraternal twins
Opium or any of the drugs derived from opium, including morphine, heroin, and codeine.
Bobo Doll experiments
Conducted by Albert Bandura Showed that we learn by observingKids shown videos of adults using violence towards bobo dolls and kids follwed pursuit
the bulk of neurons in the brain are this...which relay messages from sensory neurons to other interneurons or to motor neurons
small hair like cells located in upper part of nasal passage that detect smell
Olfactory Cilia
Split-half reliability
The correlation between a scores on a two parts of a test.
Attribution theory
the theory that we tend to give a casual explanation for someone's behavior, often by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition
frontal lobe
the top, front regions of each of the cerebral hemispheres, used for reasoning, emotions, judgment, and voluntary movement
The Flynn Effect
The trend of increasing IQ scores from one generation to the next
2 locations of decreased brain volume
prefrontal lobes (planning and inhibiting thoughts) and temporal lobes (processesing auditory info)
Gestalt: Law of Closure
We perceptually close up, or complete, objects that are notcompleted by edges
Fixed ration reinforcer
a fixed number of responses is always required for reinforcementresponding is high
Human sin orgins-
GEN 1:27, the fall, adam and eve, ect.
Batson's work: Elaine study
altruism view if easy or hard escape, will still help
Skinner box & Operant conditioning
responses becomes more or less likely to occur depending on consequences...push lever and get food = more likely to push lever
post synaptic potential
a voltage change at a receptor site on a post synaptic cell membrane
Institutional Review Board
What is the name for the review board at any federally funded institution responsible for reviewing all research to determine if it is ethical before it is conducted?
"Antero vs. Retrograde amnesia in Korsakoff's"
"""Mostly retro, but can show some antero"""
I-O Psychology ψ 
Chapter 2
4 Goals of Research Methods
4 goals & descriptions/examples
1. To Describe- i.e. to paint an accurate picture of workplace phenomenon
2. To Explain- i.e. to discover why certain work behaviors occurr.
3. To Predict- i.e. such as using a test to predict the best employee for a job.
4. To control/alter behavior to obtain desired outcomes- i.e. Raising feelings of job satisfaction by involving the employee and making them feel of use.
What is the 1st stage of Psychosexual Development
Oral Stage 1st yearTrust and Love
Rate of teenage sexual activity
75% by 18-19 years old. 27% do not use contraception.
What is Burnout Syndrome? Can it be measured?
The effects of job stress result from over work can be seen in the condition called burnout. Employees affected by burnout become less energetic and less interested in their jobs. In general, they are emotionally exhausted, as demonstrated in a survey of 64 firegihters. Yes it can be measured by specific questions in a survey.
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