Psychology 22 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
37
phobia
INterneurons
send info
p. 253
intrinsic motivation
inner ear
internal ear.
Cones
involved in color vision
Schemas
our Point of View
Neurotic ism
Stable - Moody
Antonio Egaz-Moniz
Frontal Lobotomy-dealt with anxiety
-cut connecting fibers in brain (no anxiety, but also no emotion at all)
Learning
Relatively permanent change in behabior that results from experience
child maltreatment
child maltreatment- injury, intentional harm to omeone under 18 by someone over 14
type A
comeptitive, impatient, aggressive, and anger-prone
Pineal gland
part of neuroendocrine system
releases melatonin-->affects depression
thalamus
the brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem; it directs mesages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla.
cognitive
of or pertaining to cognition.
hallucinations
false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 277)
behavior modification
the application of operant conditioning principles to change behavior
Sensory Depravation
No stimulation or external arousal.
People don't like it.
Long term lack of arousal leads the mind to create it's own arousal=hallucinations.


Ex: Prison cell (isolation=awful)
Ex: Flotation tank, people like them for brief periods of time.
chromosomes
threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes
insomnia
inability to obtain sufficient sleep, esp. when chronic; difficulty in falling or staying asleep; sleeplessness.
summarize why money can't buy happiness
__________ is the rhythm of speech.
Prosody
In Marcia's stages of identity formation, which one means that a young person is actively exploring career possibilities, but has not yet made a decision.A) DiffusionB) ForeclosureC) MoratoriumD) Acheivement
C
introspection
"to look within" method of structuralism- what people observe about
ways to study brain
autopsyelectrical stimulationbrain damagebrainwaves (EEG)
Spacing
retaining information better when it is rehearsed over time
T/F-Research has shown that most people repress painful memories.
false
DYSTONIA
ABNORMAL MUSCLE TONE - INCLUDES TORTICOLLIS OCULOGYRIC CRISIS AND SUSTAINED CONTRACTION OF OTHER MUSCLE GROUPS INCLUDING THE TONGUE AND JAW
Variable-interval schedule
In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals.
compulsive
characterized by an irresistible urge to act; governed by an obsessive need to conform coupled with an inability to express positive emotions
anima
an internalized female image, men only
hormones
chemicals that are released by the ENDOCRINE system
Qualia
Qualitative feel - major property of phenomenal consciousness
Conditioned stimulus
A previously neutral stimulus that, after repeated association with an unconditioned stimulus, elicits the response produced by the unconditioned stimulus itself.
behavioral genetics
an interdisciplinary field of study concerned with the genetic bases of individual differences in behavior and personality
The cerebellum is found in the _____brian.
hind
Jean Piaget
believed infants begin at a cognitively "primative" level and progress in distinct stages
dissociation
a split in consciousness, which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others
UNCONSCIOUS
Freud believed this was the largest part.. Part that wasn't aware.. We are unaware because thoughts are threatening or disturbing. Revealed through free association, psychoanalysis, dream, and Freudian slips.
Compulsion
Behaviors that people feel they must do lest something horrible happen. For example people with OCD that wash their hands excessively. Pg 380
Reinforcement
What strengthens the likelihood that a behavior response will occur in the future?
SEMANTIC MEMORY
MEMORY FOR MEANING WITHOUT REFERENCE TO THE TIME AND PLACE OF LEARNING
reliable
Everything else being equal, the more items a test has, the more ...the test is.
multiplicative observation
method of discerning personality from a variety of observations and situations
“If cell A repeatedly or persistently takes part in the firing of cell B, then the ability of cell A to excited cell B will be increased” summarizes
Hebbian theory
encoding
placing or storing information such as images events or sounds in memory by making mental representations so the nervous system can process it
hierarchy of needs
maslow's hierarchical division of motivation into levels that progress from basic physical needs to psychological needs to self-fulfillment needs
VARIABLE-INTERVAL SCHEDULES:
Reinforcement occurs AFTER a variable number of responses.
areas in hypothalamus that terminate eating
satiety system
Are divorce rates going up or down?
up
Law Of Effect
behaviors followed by pleasant consequences will be more likely to occur. Conversely, behaviors that are followed by unpleasant consequences wil be less likely to be repeated
schema
a concept or framework that organizes && interprets info.
telekinesis
the purported ability to move or deform inanimate objects, as metal spoons, through mental processes.
introversion
the state of being concerned primarily with one's own thoughts and feelings rather than with the external environment
anchoring heuristic
a type of heuristic that invoves making decisions based on standard or ideas that are important to us
temporal lobes
portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each receiving information from the opposite ear
Harmful affects of pseudo psych
-confirmation bias-waste money, talent, time, life-Diminish public support for legit psych
Friedman and Rosenman referred to competitive, hard-driving, impatient, and easily angered individuals as ______ personalities.
C) Type A
Critical Period
limited time span in the development of an organism when it is optimal for certain capacities to emerge.
Subjective Well-Being
What indiviuals think of their own level of happiness or their quality of life
Confirmation Bias
Tendency to search for evidence that confirms ones beliefs, ignoring any evidence to the contrary.
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
class of antidepressant medications that increase the availability of serotonin in the brain and cause fewer side effects than earlier antidepressants; they include Prozac, Paxil, and Zoloft
family therapy
which of the following types of therapy does not belong with the others?
Labouvie-Vief’s view of adult cognition
Post formal thought-Subjective feelings and personal experiences must be integrated with objective, analytic thought-Relativism- awareness of multiple truths-Contradiction-Synthesis
tolken economy
a therapeutic method based on operant conditioning by which individuals are rewarded with tokens which act as secondary reinforcers
Drug Therapy...
 
what is it? 
 
is it safe?
Psychopharmacology
- generally safe & effective
- most popular bio treatment
- has side effects. 
SOCIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE
STATES IT IS NECESSARY TO UNDERSTANT ONES CULTURE ETHINIC IDENTITY AND OTHER SOCIOCULTURAL FACTORS TO FULLY UNDERSTAND A PERSON
STATES THAT OUR PERSONALITIES BELIEFS ATTITUDES AND SKILLS ARE LEARNED FROM OTHERS
Control Condition
The condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.
action potential
shifting change that moves down the axon.
Naturalistic Observation Study
descriptive research method in which the behavior of people or animals is studied as it occurs in its everyday natural environment
Basic Trust
According to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers.
A formerly neutral stimulus that acquires the capacity to elicit a reflexive response.
conditioned stimulus (CS)
Evolutionary
how certain traits allow us to adapt to the environment and pass on our
genes




Wernicke's area
Which hemisphere is dominant in verbal processing?
what do antagonists do
prevents neurotransmitters from doing there job
mass hysteria
a condition affecting a group of persons, characterized by excitement or anxiety, irrational behavior or beliefs, or inexplicable symptoms of illness
Deindividuation
Occurs when being part of a group reduces personal identity and erodes sense of personal responsibility
primary sampling units (PSUs)
selected from the population of counties and metro areas in the US (used in multistage area sample)
Mere exposure effect
tendecy for liking to increase with the frequency of exposure
Sympathetic nervous system
a division of the autonomic nervous system that energizes and prepares for emergencies
Bona fide pipeline
A technique that uses priming to measure implicit racial attitudes.
primacy effect
the better memory for items near the beginning of a studied list compared with mid-list items.
The family life cycle
a sequence of phases characterizing the development of most families around the world
Filtering theory
at the entrance to the nervous system allows only those stimuli that meet certain requirement to pass through
SURVEY METHOD (RESEARCH)
ASK A SET OF PREDETERNIED QUESTIONS THAT CAN BE ANSWERED ON A SCALE (LIKE 1-10)
Down Syndrome


3 copies of chromosome 21, slow to develop language, accelerated aging
Complex cells
*Like simple cells, but not ted to location: will respond to light shined anywhere on retina
*Respond with more or less
*sensitive to orientation
forgetting - transcience
storage decay over time - unused information fades.
FEATURE DETECTORS
-each cell in visual system has a preferred target, so it responds maximally only to an input that has just the right shape & size-cells that detect certain elements within the visual pattern
Foot-in-the-door Phenomenon
The tendency fo rpeople who have first agreed to a small request to comply late with a larger request.
father substitute
a male who replaces an absent father and becomes an object of attachment
What is Astigmatism?
-blurring of vision for lines in one direction (horizontal or vertical)
- caused by asymmetric curvature of eyes
- in 70% of infants
- can lead to permanent damage in visual cortex 
major classifications of drugs, and examples of each
stimulants-speeds up central nervous system-caffine, nicotine, speed, cocaine.depressants- slows down central nervous system. alcohol, tranquilizers, habituates.opiates-painrelievers. opium, morphine, herionepsychedelics-disrupts normal thought, hallucinations. LSD, mushrooms
Systematic Desnsitization
step by step removing the fear of the affected. teaching the client to associate relaxation with object instead of anxiety
relative size
if 2 objects are assumed to be about the same size, the object producing a larger image on the retina is perceived as closer than the one producing a smaller image
Rorschach Ink Blot Test
The most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots designed by Hermann Rorschach seeks to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots.
levels of processing model
a model of memory suggesting that differences in how well something is remebered reflect the degree or depth of mental processing
PET (Positron Emission Tomography) Scan
Radioactive form of glucose is injected into the bloodstream; scanner records amount of glucose used in particularly active areas of the brain and produces computerconstructed picture of the brain. PET scans, originally designed to detect abnormalities, are also used to identify brain areas active during ordinary activities.
e.c. tolling
who put the rat into a maze for a couple of days, the rat learned about it's surroundings, and was to reach it's food as fast as a rat trained through operant conditioning
cultural bias in intelligence tests
there are many differnet biases. for example "what would you do if someone stole your hat and ran away?" most white childern will select tell a teacher which is scored as correct. many black will say fight back, this is scored incorrect.
What is a hypothesis?
Attempt to predict or account for a set of phenomena;specify relationships among variables, and areempirically tested
Piagete concrete operational stage
last from aproxiamtely 7 to 11 years of age. Children can perfrom concrete operations, and they can reason logically as long as reasoing can be applied to specific or concrete examples.
BIG FIVE TRAIT THEORY
Just 5 traits can explain much of the personality differences from person to person. 
OCEAN
 
Openness - related to creative/intellectual profession.
 
Conscientious - related to health-protective behavior
 
Extroversion - related to physical health
 
Agreeableness - related to longevity, community involvement and negatively related to criminality
 
Neuroticism - related to criminality and morbidity.
What are some criticisms of Piaget's Theory?
little description of changes after formal operations, underestimated kids' abilities, stages aren't invariant, lack of attention to culture/social influences
Chapter 1: (9)What new school of thought was born from the struggle between Behaviorism and Psychoanalytical Theory?
Humanism was born from the struggle between Behaviorism and Psychoanalytical Theory.
what is the white tough outer wall of the eye
sclera
 
keeps the eye shape and protects it
CR
conditioned response
Psychoanalysis
SCHOOL/PIONEER OF THOUGHT
(Freud)
emphasized unconscious determinants of behavior and the importance of sexuality
generalized seizures
seizures involving entire brain
Subjective Experience
Private perceptions of reality
Character
Personal characteristics that have been judged
Control
group that doesn't recieve IV
generalization
similar response to similar characteristics (ex. white rabbit/rat/Santa Claus)
correlational studies
a research method
-survey
-self reported attitudes/behaviors: random sampling
amino acids
the breakdown products from protein
Fourier analysis
mathematical procdure for breaking down complex waves into their component sine waves
Independent Variable
Conditions altered by the experimenter, causes for behavioral differences
Self
Flexible and changing perception of one's identity
Aggression
physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone.
motor neurons
neurons that carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands
Pavlov Formula 1
(meat powder) UCS_____unlearned_____ (salivate)
conditioning
association, 2 events, close together in time
entorhinal cortex
the cortex within the rhinal fissure
syphilis
produce a syndrome of insanity and demntia known as general paresis
cerebral ischemia
disruption of blood supply(lack of blood flow to an area)
Clinical Psychologist
Treats psychological problems or does research on therapies and mental disorders
Genital Stage
Realization of full adult sexuality occurs here
TRUE OR FALSE : negative correlations are weak
FALSE
naturalistic observation
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.
neurotransmitters
chemical messengers that the cross the synaptic gaps between neurons. when released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron will generate a neural impulse
spontaneous recovery
dogs started salivating again after extinction
the forebrain
the forebrain (cerebrum) is largest area of the brain
1) the corpus callosum connects cerebral hemispheres on the cerebral cortex
the forebrain enables perceiving, thinking and speaking.
2) the cerebral cortex (surface of cerebral hemispheres) is the control and info processing center and has 4 parts: -the frontal lobes are involved in thinking, planning, emotional control (frontal cortex) and executing voluntary movement (motor cortex) -the parietal lobes receive sensory input for touch and body position, spatial sense and navigation (sensory cortex) -the occipital lobes receive visual info -temporal lobes receive auditory info
Hebb's theory
old learning theory stating: where the synapses oscillate to make memory stronger
free nerve endings
neuron endings with no specialized structures on them that are hella sensitive to temperature and pain
Ideal Self
Idealized image of oneself (the person one would like to be)
gender identity
one's sense of being male or female.
in a experimental design, what varable does the experimenter manipulate?
the independent
axon
the extension of a neuron ending in branching terminal fibers through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands
Dorsal-column medial-lemniscus system
tends to carry information about touch and proprioception
Six basic elements of scientific method
Making observationsDefining a problemProposing a hypothesisGathering evidencePublishing resultsBuilding a Theory
Behavior Genetics
the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior
Who were the humanistic psycholigsts?
Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow
somatic nervous system
the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles
glands of endocrine system
1) pituitary gland: controls your growth/other glands
2) thyroid gland: important for metabolism
3) thymus: helps our immune system
4) adrenal gland: facilitates 'fight or flight'/release adrenaline
5) pancreas: regulates level of sugar in our blood
6) testis: secrete male sex hormone
7) ovary: secrete female sex hormone
Pros of survey method
Low cost and can reach many people
where was the birth of scientific psychology?
leipzig, germany in 1879
Phineas Gage
he had a bar stuck through his head and it was the first time ppl realized that there were different parts in the brain
at the border "limbus"
1) the limbic system is associated w/ emotion, memory, and motivation
2) the amygdala influences aggression and fear
3) the hypothalamus directs maintenance activities (hunger, thirst, temperature, sex) important for motivation and emotional drives
4) the hippocampus is linked to memory
What does the B stand for in Banduras reciprocal causation?
Behavior- persons response or action
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