Fire officers handbook of tactics Flashcards

Terms Definitions
3 steps your dept can immediately take to reduce FF death and injuries? P. 247
1. Improve hazard awareness 2. Provide emergency escape and self rescue capability 3. Deploy RIT
What are " The 6 question ff's survival survey"? P. 248
1. Occupancy type. 2. Occupant location. 3. Fire location. 4. How to get in. 5. How to get out. 6. What's happening to the building
What should tell a FF what type of attitude he should have at an alarm? P. 248
The occupancy
Where does the greatest loss of civilian life occur each year? P. 248
1 and 2 family dwellings. 70% 425,000 residential fires a yr.
What are Normans 3 rules of survival? P. 249
1. Always know escape routes. 2. Always know second escape route. 3. Never put yourself into a position where you have to be rescued. ( violate one of these and you might survive/ violate ALL and your chances plummet)
What might hinder FF 's from recognizing flashover potential? P. 249
High ceilings
What is the best thing to do if your entangled? P. 249
Back up , get down and then proceed
When entangled where is it usually caught up on? P. 249
Between cylinder and FF's back
Where is it most common to use a reduced profile maneuver? P. 249
Between a building and fire escape. *Most critical use is between a 14 inch space between studs*
If you are cutoff between fire what do you do? P. 250
1. Find area of refuge. 2. Call for help. 3. Seek another escape route
If entangled and unable to Jump what is your last ditch effort? P. 251
Throw helmet out window unless of course you think your gonna jump!!
Most common method of forcible EXIT? P. 251
Breaking a window
Best way to breach a wood lath and plastic wall? P. 251
Create a 13 1/2 inch wide opening in it with haligan or pike pole. May have to resort to reduce profile to get through. Breaching gypsum board is easier!!
Best way to get through a window that has fire in the upper portion and a ladder is already is set up there? P. 251
Bailout head first.
Best method to use when there is more than one member that needs to bailout? P. 252
Everyone stays head first all the way down while dragging feet on rungs
What is the last emergency escape skill to perform if you have no ladder? P. 252
With rope and harness. If you have no harness do an emergency body wrap with rope.
How to do an emergency body wrap? P. 253
1. Anchor rope. 2. Pull 3ft slack of rope. 3. Put under armpits, Around back, and over scba cylinder. Done only under extreme circumstances
4 critical points to remember in an emergency body wrap bailout? P. 253
1. Don't allow hands to spread further than shoulders width. 2. Take all rope slack out before exiting out window. 3. Always belay during training. 4. Never do without bunker jacket. 5. Always use an NFPA RATED RESCUE ROPE suitable for a 1- person load
Best way for accountability in a career department? P. 253
Create a riding list
Describe a riding list? P. 253
A small sheet of paper with all names/assignments. Fill out in duplicates or better yet triplicates at start of each shift and update. 1st copy- officers. 2nd- on dashboard. 3rd- at command post on large incidents
In a NONCAREER dept what is the best way for FF accountability? P. 253
Basically like a PAT tag system. Pat tag is on key chain. Hook onto bunker jacket and when u arrive on scene you give to IC. This method doesn't record the persons assignment though!!
At the command post best way to record the location of units? P. 254
A command chart. It indicates the company, floor, and area
Absolut minimum amount of radios for a hoseline team? P. 254
At least 1 radio should be with hose team. Anyone operating alone should have one. Other than the radio being a necessity, a PASS device should be mandatory
A roll call on the fireground indicates 2 things? P. 254
The situation is bad or well in hand
Most IC's do not conduct a roll call until after some precipitating event......why? P. 254
Cause it involves contacting alot of FF's over a wide spread location
Currently the technology for a wireless PAR system is avalable but what is needed to implement it? P. 255
Demand from the fire service. Cost factor is not high
Which NFPA and OSHA standard requires the 2 IN/2 OUT rule? P. 255
NFPA 1500 and OSHA Respiratory Protection Act
The 4 prerequisite to a successful RIT operation? P. 256 PPTT
1. Peeps ( Most important) 2. Policies 3. Tools 4. Techniques
In Normans opinion , absolute number of FF's to carry out a successful RIT? P. 256
In simple circumstances it takes 4. Ladders are better than engines at this task.
Is it easier for smaller or larger dept's to create SOG's? P. 256
Large
Name one critical task the RIT can perform without reducing their readiness? P. 257
Assist IC in tracking operating crews
If a RIT is under Forward Deployed who do they report to? P. 257
IC or OPS officer. Same as in a HR FIRE
How to minimize the standing fast syndrome? P. 257
A new RIT is assigned as each additional alarm is called for. The old or previous RIT is then permitted to operate.
RIT tools? P. 258
Building floor plan, radio and 200ft of search rope for each 2 member team, and NFPA rated personal rope of 3/8 inch nylon 40ft long
As as as a report of FF DOWN , 3 things need to happen? P . 259
1. First call an ALS unit. 2. Call 2nd alarm. 3. Take a hoseline, spare mAsk, and resuscitator to down FF area * WET BUNKERS CAN ADD UP TO 30-35lbs*
When is the only exception to share your mask? P. 261
Trapped FF that is unable to move and out of air
If 2 FF's are available and space permits, what's the preferred way to drag a FF out? P. 263
With both FF's at head side by side. If area is narrow FF# 1 is at feet and FF #2 is at head
When arriving at an unconscious FF, what's the first action? P. 262
Assess breathing status
How to move a FF downstairs? P. 264
Light to moderate FF- can be brought down by one FF with same drag it took to get him to bottom of stairs. Very large FF- needs 2 FF's. One FF starts at head first and 2nd FF controls legs with clove hitch around ankles
How to move unconscious FF upstairs? P. 264
1. Convert harness. 2. Place FF face up with appr 3/4 body on stairs. 3. One FF between legs with face in groin area. 4. Other FF at top loosens strap or both to carry. 5. Bottom FF stands straight up and they both go upstairs
What to do if to hot to stand or FF is too heavy while bringing upstairs? P. 265
1. Convert harness. 2. Tie a rope around SCBA around shoulder straps and the other end of rope to top of stairs and lift. FF at bottom guides down FF
Another approach to carrying an unconscious FF upstairs? P. 265
1. Lay backboard on stairs. 2. Secure with clove hitch around ankles and both ankles and grasped 2 - 4 FF's. 3. Pull feet first onto backboard and then pull both ends of rope up bringing both backboard and FF up
Best way to remove an unconscious FF over a high windowsill? P. 267
Best accomplished using a rope and a ladders an anchor point. The rope should be passed out the window and over a rung that is at least as high as the top of the window.
When possible, removal by ladder out a window can be made easier and safer by what? P. 265
By placing two or even three ladders side by side with a rescuer and a backup (this could be a civilian) on each.
When raising an unconscious FF out a window or where the straps might not handle load or does not have an SCBA, how to raise? P. 267
Use the handcuff method on the FF's legs or arms. This time the rope is passed over a rung slightly above the top of the window. Members inside guide FF. one person always bucking ladder. Members on ground should be in line with ladder.
If fallen through a hole or floor which is the most direct way out? P. 268
Through the same opening FF fell. The most appropriate way out though is up or downstairs or out a window.
What should be done before removing victim out vertically? P. 268
Area around the hole should be surveyed and reinforced. You can use ladders or doors to spread out the weight of FF's. If time permits strap FF to board and raise board out. Last ditch efforts include just raising with rope.
How many FF's does it take to raise another FF out vertically through a hole ? P. 269
Four
Advantage to raising a FF out a hole by the ankles or ankles? P. 270
1. Reduced body profile. 2. Knot can be tied in less than 30 sec. 3. Hoist anatomically positions head and neck to allow proper spine alignment and an open airway
Stats on private dwellings fires? P. 271
1. 425,000 homes burn a year. 2. Most fires begin on first story and most things that can start a fire are in the basement or first floor. 3. 70% of all civilian fire deaths are in PD. 4. Majority of victims found in bedroom. 5. Most of these stats are contributed to construction
Most serious problem pertaining to fire spread in PD's? P. 271
Lack of enclosed stairway. Second major problem is no code requirement for interior finishes
One thing that is in favor for PD's is small rooms leading to containing fires but most peeps leave doors open. How should you handle? P. 271
Stretch another line for backup. This is in addition to any line that is required to cover floor above fire. Plan on stretching 3 lines. Supply these lines with 400-600 GPMS and additional 250 GPMS For exposures.
Proper engine placement in PD fires when using in-line supply? P. 272
Just past fire building unless fire conditions dictates preconnected master streams
What should you expect in a serious cellar fire in an older home? P. 273
Suspect balloon frame construction and take steps to cut off vertical spread of fire.
How to confirm balloon frame construction? P. 273
Have a team on first floor get to an outside wall and tear off basement molding and punch a hole. If there is a 2x4 lying flat along the floor......then it's NOT balloon frame.
If a fire is traveling up a balloon frame wall.....where do lines go? P. 273
Cellar, first floor and top floor or attic. Make inspection Holes in bays between studs and if fire or high heat.... Point nozzle up and hit!!
One of the few cases where roof ventilations in PD's will be justified? P. 273
Cellar or basement fires in balloon frame construction. AND ALSO WHERE THERE IS ASPHALT SHEATHING SIDING ON A HOUSE DUE TO AUTO EXPOSURE
What acts as fire stops in balloon frame construction PD's? P. 273
Windows and doors
Assuming a six man fire attack crew in a 2story PD...what are their positional responsibilities? P.274
One man is hydrant person. One man Is driver setting up. 2 man fire attack teams does primary and attack on first floor( protect stairway). 2 other men do primary on second story.
Types of roof sheathing? P. 276
1. Furring strips- common in older homes and very easy to cut and step through. 2. Tongue and groove- most stable out of the three examples. 3. Plywood- latest method and difficult to open due to many more nails
Older wood shingles are easy to cut but what is the concern with this old method? P. 277
Fire spread. Many codes are requiring to replace wood shingles with asphalt shingles . Asphalt shingles are easy to cut too.
Tarpaper is applied between sheathing(decking) and shingles for what reason? P. 277
Moisture barrier
How to deal with slate and tile roof coverings?
Much more difficult to cut. First remove tile or slate to attack sheathing( decking) with a pointed tool or can be broken striking. Both are slippery!!
Safety dictates that how many FF's must do roof ventilation? P. 277
At least 2 experianced FF's.
Tool to use on low pitch and high pitch roof? P. 277
Low pitch(15-20 degrees)- use power saw. Anything higher than this degree a chain saw or circular would be dangerous. If you can't use a saw from a basket than go with an axe.
What can you use to pry loose or push down ceiling after you have completed ventilation hole? P. 278
A 6-8ft pike pole. Also take an pick head axe in case saw fails. Pick head is also good for prying up roof. Pares.
How to ventilate when seat of fire is below solar panels? P. 278
Move hole farther away or place hole on other side of peak. Conditions dictate the decision like what the wind is doing. If oppposite side of roof is upwind then the wind might push fire back into house and onto fire attack group. In this case put it on downwind side which is the skylight side just further away!!
Most authorities recommend what size of ventilation hole? P. 278
4 x 4. Spans two joist!!!
Quick cut ventilation method works well under what conditions? P. 280
Poor working conditions like limited manpower, straddling peak or working from a ladder or platform. This method spans one joist and is very effective on plywood.
Describe triangular opening? P. 279
1. Provides limited ventilation. 2. Spans several joist and hard to pull. 3. Limited by members reach and ability to maneuver basket. 4. Biggest advantage is it can be done inside a basket so you don't have to walk on roof.
Multiple dwellings house how many families? P. 281
3 or more
How to recognize MD's? P. 282
Counting gas meters, door bells, mailboxes or a fire escape.
Padlocks on interior doors indicate what? P. 281
SRO's, where a person or a whole family might rent just the room. Demands fast forcible entry and primary search in each one.
What should you do when you arrive at a converted MD? P. 282
Request additional units for most likely search and aerial equipment removal.
Loss of life in MD's is often caused by what? P. 282
Building features that promote fast spreading fires
While awaiting arrival of a hoselines, what can a search team do slow the entry of fire? P. 283
Removing all combustible material and by using an extinguisher sparingly. Or open a door or window opposite the shaft of the exposed apartment.
The 2 greatest threats of fire spread to upper floors in MD's are what? P. 284
Pipe chases and channel rails (the furred out spaces around vertical steel I- beams.
When a fire has involved either a kitchen or bathroom what is the priority? P. 284
Get to same location on floor above and the top floor to see if fire is traveling.
When searching for fire or taking a line into heavy fire conditions what wall should you look for? P. 284 in MD
Wall behind toilet to open up cause the toilet has the biggest diameter pipe chase for spread
How to locate channel rails? P. 284
Most of time steel framing is used in class 3 ( ordinary) that is more than 25ft wide. The architects try to hide these thick walls like in closets.
When waiting for people to clear stairwell and to initate fire attack the door to fire floor must be kept closed and what windows should be broken for ventilation? P. 285
On floor landing between fire floor and floor above. These are often wired windows so bring big tools.
If searching floor above fire what apartments to search first? P. 286
Search apartments other than the one directly over fire first.
When to break out the 2 1/2 line in a MD? P. 286
When heavy fire is showing from 2 or more apartments on one floor. If only a single apartment that's even extending up to floor above.....intermediate lines are good enough.
Fastest method to select proper stairway for attack line? P. 287
Have member climb to second floor and locate the proper apartment line. Etc. 5b
If members choose the wrong stairwell to do fire attack and they find themselves isolated from fire area what type of stairwell is this? P. 287
Isolated staircase. This is the worst case scenario cause the stairs serve only one or two apartments. A similar type is the wing staircase since the staircase only supplies access to that certain wing.
Single stairs?p. 287
Serves all aparmtments
Transverse stairway? P. 288
When all staircases connect to a common hallway on each floor. You can cross over on any floor.
Line placemet in MD's? P. 288
First line to the fire floor via interior stairway. Second line in the same manner to backup first line ( can go to floor above but notify initial line first ). Additional lines should take alterante route to minimize stairwell congestion.
How to designate wings with throats? P. 289
Far left wing is A and then going right B and so on. Wings are separated by "throats" which is where staircases elevators, or compactors are found.
Where would you be able to make a defensive stand in MD's with wings if severe fire conditions prevent your advancement down the hall? P. 289
The " throat" area. In this case the aerial platform and trench cut make the best defense.
Which platform enables you to operate at top floor windows with master stream to penetrate ceilings and extinguish cockloft fires? P. 290
Telescoping boom platform
Two members should always immediately proceed where in MD's? P. 291
To the top of the stairwell landing to access roof cause alot of people go up stairwell to escape through roof
Is the benefits from sending someone up to roof for roof ventilation great? P. 291
Yes and it should take priority over other duties assigned even if there were peeps jumping out windows. This ventilation will decrease mushrooming there by leading others to not jumping!
3 points to know about fire escapes? P. 292
1. Dangerous. 2. Pick one that is not threatened by fire. 3. Most only go to top floor not the roof. Gooseneck fire escapes located in rear usually go up to roof put are very narrow thus hard to climb with equipment
3 ways to get to roof for roof ventilation if you can't take interior stairways for some reason? Etc. crowded! P. 291-292
1. Fire escapes- most dangerous. 2. Aerial device- preferred way. 3. Access roof from top of adjoining roof top. This is safer and quicker and should be first choice even over aerial
After crews vented over stairways they should go in and help with search duties..... How to get inside? P. 292
NOT FROM DESCENDING INTERIOR STAIRWAY!! Use rear fire escape first and if cant, go back down the way they came up and re- ascend via interior stairwell.
In a top floor apartment fire how can the roof team help the interior crew to speed up search and attack? P. 292
By venting the top floor windows from the roof with swinging pike pole, hook, or heavy tool. Cutting vent hole would help too!!
Two factors that have changed the way FF's must look at MD's? P. 293
1. The vacant building situation 2. Lightweight or truss construction
If fire is blasting down hallway and is within reach from an outside stream, what is the best way to reach? P. 297
Low rise buildings- set up aerial. In high rise building like 20-30 stories up use the antique Navy fog applicator in residential Another option is to breach adjoining room wall from stairway. A third option is drive back gases with a fairly narrow fog stream teamed with another straight stream line going through the fog stream. Setting up a PPV fan below the fire floor can help by pressurizing the stairway. This won't work iN 15-20 MPH winds. Last option is HR window curtain. This is all for the HR class 1 blowtorch effect.
Navy fog nozzle GPM's? P. 297
2-1/2 inch model (1-1/2 pipe) is 100 GPM's and 1-1/2 inch model (1 inch pipe) is 60 GPM's. If you drill out holes on jets = 150-175GPM's.
Describe a high rise window curtain that FDNY uses? P. 298
10ft x 12ft wide and covers most residential windows. Made of HOTSPOT-M which can stand 1500 degrees for unlimited amount of time and 2000 degrees for 15 mins. 4th option for previous question.
Duplex? P. 299
Apartments with living spaces on two floors connected by stairways. Triplex is exact same just three stories. Duplex often have all bedrooms on one floor.
Description of garden apartments? P. 301
New style usually low rise MD's from 1-3 stories but may go up to 6 stories of WOOD FRAME!!! Living room only on one floor. No interior stairs. Entrance to stairs is exposed to street or yard but still a big concern and must be protected.
Describe townhomes? P. 302
One family home attached to another home with up to 5 living levels connected by an interior stairwell. The wood frame construction and combustible siding poses a serious fire threat of extending.
Key difference between garden apartments, townhomes, and other dwellings? P. 302
The attached nature of the combustible exterior. Typical house tactics should be employed at all these but at garden apartments there might be a problem with accessing the building with preconnected lines. Too far!!
What is the biggest difference in fire operations from garden apartments and townhomes from other apartments? P. 303
The heavy prevalence of lightweight combustible construction. This will cause sudden catastrophic collapse. Mainly the roof and floor, not the walls.
The likelihood of collapse in townhomes and garden apartments shold prompt what? P. 304
A rapid blitz attack from a position outside of collapse zone.
How to deal with a cockloft fire in a garden apartment or townhome fire? P. 304-305
Remember they are lightweight construction so you can't get on roof to cut a big vent hole. The only place to stop the fire is behind a fire wall or party wall that goes from foundation to preferably through the roof at least 3ft above roof line. Roof opened up on safe side and ceiling pulled and hoselines placed.
What is a true firewall? P. 305
Built of brick and extends at least 3ft above roof
When planning a defensive fire in garden apartments or townhomes what factors to consider when setting up next to a fire wall? P. 304
1) first be aware of Mansard roofs which wrap around outside of buildings so fire can around them. 2) most so call fire walls in these buildings are not true fire walls but more like a common or party wall. 3) be aware that fire will burn out the trusses on the fire side of the party wall
Which is more deadly commercial or residential? P. 309
Commercial is almost 4 times more deadly.
Taxpayer? P. 309
A row of stores housed within a single building. Used to be class 3 construction but is now class 2 noncombustible. Now called strip malls.
Describe old style taxpayers? P. 310
Partition walls only run up to ceiling level with a cockloft that spans the entire building. Type 3 so it has Brick exterior walls with everything else wood. Can have up to 20 stores and often built with cellars.
Types of roofs of old style taxpayers? P. 310
1) flat roof. ( do 8x8 hole ) 2) inverted roof. ( do 8 x 8 hole) 3) metal deck on bar joist. 4) bowstring. FIMB. REMEBER CUTTING A TRENCH ON A TAXPAYER ISNT PRACTICAL AND SHOULDNT BE DONE.
Describe new taxpayers? P. 311
Class 2 so it has cement exterior walls with unprotected roof decking and steel bar joist that leads to early collapse within 5 mins. Increased size of first floor. NO CELLARS!! fire spread through cockloft just like the old taxpayers.
The key factor that allows us to operate in a taxpayer with a metal deck and steel bar joist? P. 312
Steel can be protected by applying a straight stream. A 2-1/2 attack line into fire store and a 1-1/2 line into the exposed stores on either side and sweep cockloft overhead. These steel roofs can fail in 5 mins.
How to deal with taxpayers that are of lightweight wood trusses? P. 312
Evacuate and then use a master stream from outside from ground level to blast ceiling.
One of the most beneficial places to spot the pumper on a taxpayer fire? P. 313
In line with and across the street from the fire store. This permits the use of a preconnected master stream or deck gun.
On taxpayers when do you break out with the 2-1/2 hoselines? P. 314
If fire isn't blowing out windows on arrival the hand lines can handle. In serious fires go with the 2-1/2.
Advantages of using a 2-1/2 line in a taxpayer? P. 314
1. Volume and reach- delivers about 250 - 325 GPM's and has a reach of more than 80 ft. The average store is about 75ft deep. 2. Manpower - under these circumstances all you need is 3 guys to pull line since , unlike residences, there are no bends or corners to maneuver......just go straight back!! 3. Stream power - the 1-1/4 inch solid tip nozzle at 50 a PSI does 325 GPM's which can knock hole in ceiling to get to cockloft
Where are taxpayers difficult to force entry? P. 314
At the rear. At least one ladder crew should always be assigned to the rear of all serious fires
How to ID front of store and have it match up with rear of store? P. 314-315
From left start with letter A and then with succeding letters go right. Write that letter on the rear door in back to coincide.
Where are taxpayers easiest to enter? P. 315
From the front. With rapidly extending fire simply break glass. But before doing so look for signs of backdraft which would be greatest at late night or early morning and in occupancies that are protected with steel gates.
If fire store is heavily secured in taxpayer how to proceed? P. 315
First force adjacent stores to cut off fire extension and then Force fire store.
What should you expect if you encounter steel gates besides of course backdraft conditions
1/8 inch Steel plating on roof and walls for burglars. Expect High temperatures and early collapse. If backdraft conditions change tactics to indirect method.
Indirect method? P. 316
Create a small triangular opening in roll gate , insert 2-1/2 fog nozzle and apply h2o. Direct a medium power stream up to ceiling to maximize steam
Describe cellars in taxpayers and why they are so dangerous? P. 316
Only one stairwell mostly found at rear of store and cellar ceiling is usually low (rapid heat buildup). Usually this stairwell is reached by trapdoor. Layout differs from first floor to cellars. Conveyor openings between first floor and cellar offers fire extension.
Only success of a taxpayer cellar fire? P. 316
Combine a fast high volume attack with immediate cutting of vent holes in first floor right above fire.
What line to use in a taxpayer cellar fire? P. 316
2-1/2 hose with 1-1/4 inch solid tip provides reach and volume. When entering a cellar always pull twice the length of the store plus one length and always charge before descending.
Line placement in a cellar taxpayer fire? P. 317
Attack line, backup line at base of stairs, and line on first floor to protect vent hole you just cut over fire. Vent hole should be 4 x 4 minimum and place man at top of cellar stairs for lookout.
What should you do if haven't knockdown cellar fire in a taxpayer in 10 mins? P. 317
Change tactics. Withdrawn attack line to safe area and place distributor and/or cellar pipe in operation over body of fire. Set up for defensive ops simultaneously. Once pipes have been going 1-2 mins , shut them down and try advancing again. Introduce high expansion foam from everywhere and flood first floor with master streams- cellar is doomed. Adjacent cellars will need vent and hoseline exposure prootection.
Terrazzo floors? P. 317
When masonry floors are placed over wood floor joists. Common in older drugstores, in new laudrymats and front sales areas.
2 other floors that are like terrazzo floors and should be treated the same? P. 318
Concrete and tile floors. All 3 floors weight about 150 lbs. per cu. ft. Bathrooms and front sales areas have tile floors.
Does discovery of a masonry floor automatically mean collapse? P. 319
No you have to find out the support system. If structure is fire resistive construction like 75 ft tall than support system is reinforced concrete and it is safe. Class 3 or class 5 then you have unreinforced concrete. Make an examination hole above fire in a safe remote area.
How to handle heavy cockloft fires in taxpayers? P. 320
Forget about involved store. Position 2-3 ( 1-1/2, 1-3/4, or 2 inch ) lines in each store several stores down. With 10ft hooks pull ceiling down the entire depth of store and at least 3 ft wide. Main body of fire attacked by preconnected deck gun or master stream. A heavy body of fire may require at least 800- 900 GPM's. Placing a platform at sidewalk level will give you 1000GPM's.
What is the major cause of total loss of taxpayers? P. 321
Cockloft fires. REMEBER they also pose the dangers of ceiling and parapet collapse.
How to check for a built up ceiling in a taxpayer from the interior? P. 321
Make a ceiling opening at the entrance to each area that has a suspended opening and poke upward with hook until you find roof boards. If hollow sound then you might have built up roof. If solid sound then you just hit the roof.
If advancing into a taxpayer and you see no fire overhead but you feel a great deal of heat what can be occurring? P. 322
Backdraft in the cockloft.
When it is physically impossible to open up the ceiling in a taxpayer cockloft fire... What to do? P. 322
Use cellar pipes and distributors. Meat markets and butcher shops are known to have Formica ceilings. REMEBER to pull all personnel from underneath ceiling before operating to avoid injury.
What aerial ladder is best to use when knocking down a cockloft fire through the front display windows? P. 322
The tower ladder stream is the most maneuverable and versatile on th fireground. Move side to side and store to store without shutting down.
How to open all metal overhanging soffit that is along the front of the row is stores that allows fire to extend to adjacent store? P. 323
Using pike poles is extremely difficult. A faster method is using a metal cutting circular saw from basket to cut fascia.
What is one of the most unrecognizable problems with a taxpayer cockloft fire? P. 323
Collapse of the parapet wall. A show window up front indicates that the wall is carried on a steel I- beam that is connected to another I - beam that runs through the cockloft. Cockloft fire will expand this beam pushing front I- beam out collapsing parapet above.
When there is a serious cockloft fire or fire blowing out the display windows from a taxpayer what should be included in the collapse zone immediately? P. 323
The entire sidewalk on all frontages. Entry should not be made or sidewalk stepped on until after cooling of steel beams.
Roof ops at a cockloft taxpayer fire demands what immediately if you hope to cut the required vent holes in time? P. 324
At least 6 members with 2 saws, 2 axes, 2 halligans, and 4 hooks. Truck ops at taxpayers are very demanding!
Highrise ops discussed in this book shold be applied to any building over how many stories? P. 325
Any building taller 6 stories!!
Does a building have to be 20- 30 stories tall to be considered a HR? P. 326
NO. Any fire-resistive building exceeding the length of your ladders or in which all FF ops must be done from interior because lack of windows must use HR strategies!
HR strategies?? P. 326-327
1. Determine fire floor. 2. Verify fire floor. 3. Begin controlled evacuation. 4. Gain control of building systems. 5. Confine and extinguish fire
When evacuating peeps from Class 1 HR's which people are considered to be in immediate danger at least initially? P. 327
Fire floor and floor above!!
How many FF's per floor to search HR buildings? P. 327
Minimum of 2 FF's per floor for small areas fires and more for larger areas or heavily charged floors.
When you shut down HVAC system in HR's what mode do you put them in? P. 327
Non-recirculating mode (all dampers open up to the outside air)
Why are peripheral air supply systems at perimeter of building dangerous? P. 327
They are a likely area for fire to extend to floor above.
Class 1 HR have evolved into, unofficially, into 3 categories? P. 328
Class 1 HEAVYWEIGHT- older HR are very fire safe Class 1 MEDIUM WEIGHT- modern glass towers have potential to be towering inferno. Class 1 LIGHTWEIGHT - total collapse expected at every advanced fire in a steel skeleton
Lightweight bar joist floor trusses protected by spray on fireproofing should be considered what? P. 330
A grave danger In the event of a serious fire.
HR designs classified into 2 categories? P. 329
Pre WORLD WAR II and post
Description of PRE WW II era HR's? P. 331-333
Stairways often enclosed in fire towers enclosed in 4 HR firewall, fewer places for hidden fire to travel, more compartmentation , no hung ceilings or blind spaces, fewer electrical fire sources, WINDOWS CAN BE OPENED FOR HORIZONTAL VENTILATION and the most important feature regarding fire spread.....NO CENTRAL AIR CONDITIONING TO SPREAD FIRE.
How do we know engineers were uncertain how much a load can carry in Pre WW II days? P. 331
Prewar buildings were often overbuilt. Even a steel I - beam was encased in cement. The general theme was re-Inforce everything just in case.
How do we know prewar Era also saw a strong concern for life safety back then? P. 332
With the numerous means of egress provided and they were usually remote from each other.
Disadvantages of newer style HR's ? P. 335
Lightweight material, poured concrete replaced by sprayed on fireproofing, curtain wall construction, hung ceilings, core construction, and wider open floor spaces.
What is a curtain wall? P. 335
Where the exterior walls are non bearing walls attached to the edges of the floors. This creates a gap at the floor level that fire can travel through.
A fire involving the first how many floors of a fully occupied office building is gonna require a risk vs benefit decision for the IC? P. 335
The first 4 floors. If old style HR be aggressive but if newer lightweight HR be more cautious.
What's the greatest threat to life in a MODERN HR's ? P. 335
Being unable to rapidly ventilate. Architects virtually tried to seal these buildings due to savings cost so they decided to make windows unable to open anymore. Good thing is that in these HR's collapse is very remote.
When modern HR's started to construct with windows not be made to open, what 2 problems did it cause? P. 335
Now you have to break windows for horizontal, and more importantly, the effect smoke and heat have traveling through the HVAC system.
Best method to use to deal with the spread of smoke in HR's? P. 336
Put smoke detectors in HVAC system that would shut the system down. If don't have this now you have to meet with building engineer
What's a good policy to have to help stop the spread of smoke in HR's? P. 336
Have building employees shut down all HVAC systems upon report of fire alarm.
Prior to selecting ventilation strategy two factors that are the most important in HR ventilation? P. 336
Wind and stack effect
When. An HVAC system be beneficial in HR fires? P. 336
In a relatively small fire where you can't justify breaking sealed windows. A moderate amount of smoke can be handled as long as it isn't hot enough to melt fusible links on dampers in the ductwork.
Stack effect? P. 337
More noticeable in buildings larger than 60ft and gets stronger as building gets bigger. Normal stack effect occurs when outside is cold and the warmer air inside rises out across the upper floors, spreading smoke, and out the building. Inverse or reverse stack effect occurs in air conditioned HR's when it is hot outside. The results in smoke moving down below the fire floor. Not a big deal but on hot days it can cause problems if is on the upper floors
What should you do to fix the phenomenon Stratificaion? P. 338
Vent this cold air out the top of building by creating controlled currents of air up the stair shafts and across smoked filled floors. This should also be done when smoke has been cooled by sprinkler discharge.
Stratification? P. 338
Occurs in sealed buildings when the smoke is not hot enough to rise to top of building.
When breaking glass in HR fires explain outside surrounding happenings? P. 340
Fire lines at least block away. Outside base of building cleared unless specific tasks is needed. Pumper drivers should stay in cab when not actually pumping. Lines supplying FDC or Siamese connections might need to be covered by plywood.
Explain the slogan " high, high or low, low is a NO,NO!"
This means if there is a HR fire on a hot day in the upper floors or cold day in the lower floors then venting windows is a no, no since the smoke will go in the building.
When is it an absolute necessity to use elevators? P. 341
Buildings higher than 20 stories. It's also a requirement if you want your reflex time under 45-50 mins.
Reflex time? P. 341
Time alarm is received until an effective fire stream is on the fire. GAINING ACCESS TO THE FIRE AREA IS THE SECOND BIGGEST PROBLEM IN HR FIRES!!!
At just about the practical limit of ascent by stairways two factors come into play to help us in ascending HR fires? P. 342
Sky lobby and blind shaft elevators.
Sky lobby? P. 342
Found in very large buildings. Combo of expressed blind shaft and segregated elevators with a sky lobby on an upper floor. At the sky lobby it is necessary to change from the express elevator to upper floors. Selecting an elevator that reaches only the sky lobby below the fire is safe to do.
Blind shaft elevator? P. 342
In very large buildings it is inconvenient to have elevators serve every floor instead they built elevators that serve certain floors. Elevator A serves floor 1-20 and elevator B serves floors 21-40 ( Elevator B rides through a blind shaft from floors 1-20) If fire on 12th floor it would be safe to take elevator B.
If taking elevators in a HR fire when do you get off? P. 342
2 floors below fire. If access stairs also serves fire floor also get off 2 floors below fire
If fire is within this amount of floors of the elevator lobby or sky lobby you should walk? P. 343
If fire is within 8 stories
When traveling by elevator what should you do at the first sign of trouble? P. 343
Force open the inner door to interrupt the interlock and stop the car right where is at. Also it's good practice to test emergency button. As soon as elevator starts traveling push it in. If stops pull out and continue on. If doesn't stop .....pop open the inner door. Stop every 5 floors.
While using elevator why do you stop every 5 floors? P. 343
Make sure elevator is still working. Verify nearest stairway. Check shaft to make sure is clear
When exiting elevator 2 floors below fire to find stairway for ascent when do you close and recall elevator back to lobby?? P. 343
Once you have made sure you are at proper location and secured access to stairs. Never stand in the elevator doorway. You can lay a length of hose across doorway to prevent door from closing.
How many ladder companies needed on fire floor to do search and check fire extension? P. 344
At least 2 companies on fire floor with another ladder company on floor above for search.
Preferred line for a HR fire? P. 344
2-1/2 line with 1-1/4 solid tip with only 50 PSI.
NFPA states that fire pumps are required to discharge their capacity at what PSI? P. 344
65 PSI at the highest hose outlet. It also limits pressure within a standpipe zone to 125PSI
In a HR fire when the volume of fire is even to much for the solid tip what can help out? P. 344
The lightweight master stream device. Light enough for one man
What is the problem with using a lightweight master stream in a HR fire? P. 345
These devices tend to have a kick back when angle is lowered to only 15-20 degrees which is needed in a 8-9ft ceiling height. Fix this problem by using 2 steel handled haligan hooks to span a door opening.
Describe core construction ? P. 346
Practice of grouping all non rentable space in a central core ( lobbies, stairs, air shafts, etc. ) This provides floor space in excess of 30,000 sq ft per floor.
NFPA 14 requires a standpipe system to supply a max GPM of what? P. 346
Pre 1993- 2500 GPM's. 1993 revision- 1250 GPM's
What should you do in a HR fire if you have a floor over 3000 sq ft that is fully involved? P. 346
Get above it and drown the entire floor above, wait to burn itself out and then handle manually.
In a HR fire In which you have broken windows on the upwind side and seat of fire is unattenable with hand lines what are some options? P. 347
Concrete core drill from underneath ( 8 inch diamond tip drill ) concrete cutting chain saw or the Lorenzo ladder. All these are last resorts. NO NAVY FOG APPLICATOR IN COMMERCIAL HR FIRES. ....area is too big to have any affect.
How to use a concrete core cutter? P. 347
There are two models. Both need a pump tank to cool tip. The smaller model only drills 4 inch holes so drill 3 holes in shamrock shape to pass a Bresnan distributor through.
Flow of Bresnan distributor? P. 347
About 485 GPM'S AT 100PSI with a 20-25 ft radius
A 6 inch reinforced concrete floor can be cut in about how many minutes? P. 347
5 mins
In a HR with core construction the fire might wrap around back onto itself and trap FF'S........solution?? P. 348
Fight your way out with 2 lines. One line for advancing and the other to remain at stairs to protect rear.
Explain the common problem with scissor stairs in HR's with core construction? P. 349
The scissors stairs exits the core on opposite sides. In this case when setting up on the floor below the fire connect to the standpipe opposite the fire side.
Access stairs? P. 349
Open unprotected stairway leading from floor to floor within a single occupancy.
What is the most crucial factor when preparing for a HR's fire? P. 349
Training all levels of FF's
Explain the systems unit in a HR fire! P. 350
This is basically like what our lobby control group does. A knowledgeable chief officer in charge here and assisted by a building engineer and a FF or officer to act as a coordinator
Explain Operations post in a HR? P. 350
Basically like our fire branch director. An ops chief is in charge of this and is sent to floor below fire to direct ops of fire floor and floor above. He should have blueprints of those floors. He must constantly push the fire attack teams so he might have to operate on fire floor sometimes. He should be assigned another chief and aide to handle communications.
Explain a forward staging area in a HR? P. 350
Another chief is usually the staging area officer in charge. Three floors below fire in close proximity of stairway with ample room for equipment and equipment. Another member assigned to chief for communication reasons. EMS sector with this area is a must. As a rule keep at least 2 attack teams and 2 support teams of threes members each equipped with forcible entry and overhaul stuff.
What will greatly improve the ability of the lines to advance in a HR? P. 351
Arrange for the orderly rotation for fresh personnel.
Explain stairwell support? P. 351
In charge of transporting equipment via stairwell if elevators dubbed unsafe. FF assigned every two floors. These FF can remove most of their PPE but keep it close just in case. If fire is on 24th floor then 12 FF's should be assigned here. It's ok to use non suppression personnel here like cops as long not in danger.
Describe search and evacuation post (SAE)? P. 352
Staffed by two members In a reasonably safe area above the fire (possible a sky lobby or floor not served by an elevator that serves the fire floor) Duties are to direct all fire forces operating OVER the fire floor and floor above. Of course in search of search operations. Take extra bottle cause they would work in smoky conditions.
Most fires at construction sites occur why? P. 353
Accidents or carelessness.
Construction sites might leave a fire watch after work...... How long do they stay after the site is shut down for the day? P. 353
Appr 30 mins after to make sure no hidden fire is there.
Stream of choice in a building under construction with a large floor on fire? P. 354
Elevating platform. A 2inch solid tip discharges more than 1100 GPM over a 100 ft deep floor.
First thing to do when using an elevating platform on a building under construction? P. 354
Clear all peeps from the streets below on the opposite side of the nozzle. Debris will be sent that way up 100 lb machinery.
How to use an elevating platform on a building under construction? P. 354
Usually in a normal building with more than one floor always start at lowest floor and progress upward....steam going up helps stop fire in these finished buildings. Buildings under construction you do opposite. Steam is nonexistent in these buildings.
Buildings higher than aerial ladders are usually supplied with a hoist....explain a hoist? P. 355
Similar to elevators. There are Two concerns with these hoist. One concern is they are usually shut down at night/weekends making for a long walk. The other concern is there are two types of hoist and it is IMPORTANT you know the difference to pick the right one to use.
How to tell difference of the two types of hoist used in buildings under construction? P. 355
One for people and one for material. The people one will always have controls inside and usually an operator inside....THIS ONE IS MEANT TO BE USED! The material one won't have controls in it and is not equipped with safety devices... DON'T USE THIS!!
Large quantities of flammable liquids and gases are kept in building under construction normally during what season? P. 356
Coder seasons. Fires in areas where LP cylinders are stored should be fought with large streams from a shielded area.
What should you be aware of buildings that are wrapped with tarpaulins? P. 356
They are wrapped to cure the buildings cement in cold weather. LPG is often used in here to fire the heater. A leak in these buildings will be treated as an indoor leak.
Ensure that fire protection systems are in place in buildings under construction are important but at a minimum should be what? P. 357
At minimum the standpipe riser and outlet should be within 2 floors of the highest level.
Are standpipe outlets usually left open in buildings under construction and why? P. 357
Cause plumbers like to use them to drain shit through. Close them or when you charge FDC the water will just pour out of these outlets. Outlets in the cellar are especially left open.
First arriving unit on a fire with a building under construction should make a habit and do what? P. 357
Test first floor outlet. If no water this means its dry and outlets are probably open so send someone up to close each floor outlet.
Two standpipe conditions found in buildings under construction? P. 357
Top of the riser is left open so the system is useless. Other condition involves a sectional valve that is installed to divide the system into more than one zone. These valves are closed to facilitate testing and sometimes left in the closed position. These valves are indicating valves , usually OS & Y
If you have a problem obtaining water from a system that you know is charged what should you do? P. 357
Check OS & Y valves. Usually found in mechanical room or in the staircase on the riser between the outlet that had water and the first one that doesn't. Only way to be sure is trace it.
If the spray on coating is missing from a steel I- beam or column what temperature will the steel fail at? P. 357
1500 DEGREES F. Steel cables under tension fail at 800F.
What should be done in an area in which fire is threatening steel racing cables? P. 358
Either cool cables immediately or prompt evacuation of area around.
Perhaps the most serious collapse threat in buildings under construction occur in what structures. ? P. 358
Structures that are "poured in place reinforced concrete" structures. Its in the first 48 hrs while drying that these buildings are most vulnerable. Ironically when these structures dry they are the most resistant to collapse too.
Things to know about " in poured concrete" buildings? P. 359
These floors are held up by plywood and 4x4's So the entire ceiling below the floor is plywood and if exposed to fire the floors will collapse like a domino. Fire streams can hit the plywood and temporary bracing and collapse too!!
If concrete in a "in pour concrete" building has already harden after 48 hrs why is it still dangerous? P. 359
Cause concrete takes appr 28 dys to reach its load potential but after the first 48 hrs the framework is stripped off to use somewhere else. The next 16- 20 days there will be 4 x 4's spaced every 8 ft...... Collapse potential.
What is spalling caused by? P. 359
The expansion of water trapped in concrete that occurs only upon direct flame impingement. Can cause explosive forces and concrete can spall at any age.
In partially occupied structures which floors tend to be rented out first? P. 360
The higher floors due to desirability of view. Lower floors remain unoccupied and used for temporary storage. Most construction codes allow these floors to remain unsprinklered even though the finished floors are sprinklered.
If builders object to installing temporary sprinklers in partial occupied structures what can you do? P 360
Forbid the use of any floors above the level where all fire protection systems are not working.
What is the most dangerous type of building in the US to fight a fire? P. 361
Vacant. FF deaths are more than 5 x in a vacant building than an occupied residential.
Do C- joist lightweight steel floor supports fail readily under fire? P. 361
Yes
How to mark vacant buildings indicating their hazard potential? P. 362
A box is marked at any entrance into building. 1. Empty box means normal stability and normal operations. 2. A box with one line diagonally means a building with some serious hazards and all operations should be done from exterior IF POSSIBLE. 3. A box makes with an X means severe hazards and all FF ops done from exterior.
Natural gas is formed as a result of what? P. 363
Natures action on organic matter over a million years. California, Oklahoma, louisiana, Texas, and West Virginia are the largest domestic producers of natural gas. Think COLT WV
What is natural gas composed of? P. 363
90% methane, 5% ethane, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen. Odorless and colorless. As little as 1/4 lb of mercaptan is added to 1 mil cu ft of natural gas for detection purposes. This makes it that as little as 1% of gas can be detected.
Vapor density of natural gas? P. 364
Vapor density is .60 which is lighter than air. Natural gas should rise rapidly.
Natural gas leaks can be divided into three categories. Name them in order of threat potential? P. 364
Inside leak- explosion potential. Outside leak- remember they can settle In Places to cause an explosion. Leaks resulting from fires.
High pressure transmission pipelines operate at what pressures? P. 364
350-850 PSI. These lines are used to ship gas from wells across the US
How should you deal with high pressure transmission pipelines? P. 364
Evacuate area, protect exposures, and check adjacent buildings for seeping. Do not attempt to close without gas reps on hand. Even if valves shut off and line is packed it will still leak for an extended period of time
City gate stations? P. 364
These stations receive the gas, reduce the pressure so that the utility company transmission system delivers at 60-150 PSI.
District regulator system? P. 364
Usually in underground vaults where the pressure is further reduced, depending on age and type, for the distribution center. Older system= low pressure= 1/4 PSI. Newer systems= high pressure = 2. 5-60 PSI
Gas flows through distribution mains, shutoffs, meters, and appliances at what PSI? P. 365
1/4 PSI
Order of delivery of natural gas? P. 365
High pressure transmission pipelines ( 350-850 PSI ) = CITY GATE STATIONS reduces to utility company's system pressure of = 60-150 PSI = district regulator system reduces to distribution system pressure of = 1/4 PSI
If a newer gas system is used what is needed at each house? P. 366
Since the newer systems operates at up to high 60 PSI pressures, a pressure regulator is needed at each house to reduce to 1/4 PSI cause appliances cannot use high pressures.
2 types of gas regulators? P. 366
Newer ones are spring loaded diaphragms And the older ones are called dead weight regulators ( mercury)
When a gas regulator fails the regulator should still keep the PSI at what number? P. 366
Regulator should still be able to keep it at 2-4 PSI. REMEBER it should normally be 1/4 PSI so this is still alot and could make high flames or even a sudden surge might blow out the flame totally with the result of gas buildup in house.
Peck vent or fisher vent? P. 367
Regulators located inside a building will have the vent line piped out through a wall to these type of vents to make sure that gas from a regulator failure doesn't build indoors.
District regulator failure? P. 367
When a district regulator fails and could bring mass disaster and casualties. When it fails in the open position the pressure downstream is increased resulting in over pressure to every gas service in the area.
What to do in a district regulator failure? P. 367
Alarm will be first to notice the sudden pattern. FD cannot do anything to directly solve other than notify utility company. Get a large number of resources in a staging area outside area. Use PA sytstem to notify residents to turn off all appliances May have to enter every building to shut off gas service. And search for victims.
Tactics for an indoor leak? P. 368
1. Notify utilities and their ETA. 2. Determine intensity an when first noticed. 3. Determine extent of evacuation. 4. Eliminate ignition sources. 5. Locate source and stop. 6. Search and ventilate. Note the first 2 steps can be done by alarm possibly
How does the FIT 8800 gas detector work? P. 369
Audible alarm rises as concentration increases so it allows you to follow leak.
Service entrance cock? P. 369
Where service enters the apartment building this master valve can stop the flow to all tenants.
For faint gas odors where do you check first? P. 369
Condition of pilot lights. Use soapy water to confirm leak. Close quarter turn appliance valve first then meter quarter turn valve next.
Flammable ( explosive ) range of natural gas? P. 370
4-14% in air.
When dealing with gas leaks are pagers safe to use? P. 370
Yes
When dealing with inside gas leaks how to disconnect electrical power from building? P. 370
Trip main breaker or cut the service entrance wires outside the building. DON'T THROW ANY SWITCHES IF NEAR THE GAS LEAK INCLUDING BREAKER!!
Which gas systems don't have curb valves? P. 370
Low pressure services ( old ) and services with outside meters often dont have curb valves. High pressure and inside services do. Think LOW and OUTSIDE!!!
Can you use smoke ejectors to suck gas out of the area? P. 370
No even if they are labeled explosion proof. If additional venting is needed then use the fans outside to blow fresh in
Gas emergencies usually only one engine that needs to stretch a line....how long should the line be? P. 371
Long enough to cover entire building. Water supply should be consistent with expected involvement.
Gas leaks outside usually take the path of least resistance which is where? P. 371
Often along the gas service pipe or other underground lines into buildings or manholes.
How to handle outdoor gas leaks? P 372
1. Notify utilities. 2. Approach upwind. 3. Stop all ignition sources. 4. Wait for utility company.
Last resort in outdoor gas leaks? P. 372
First, Do not touch any valves located in the streets . In smaller low pressure STEEL LINES go ahead and plug it. Under no circumstances though should you ever plug a plastic line or pipe as it might have static charge up to 3000 volts. A person grabbing the plastic line can ignite the gas.
How can a small gas fire be extinguished to get to a valve or save a life? P. 372
With dry chem, halon, or CO2 if necessary. For larger fires fog streams used to approach a valve.
Explain peak shaving time and why it happens in extremely cold weather? P. 373
Gas usually lighter than air. In cold weather demand goes up and when reserves are insufficient utility company just mixes in LPG . now the gas may not be so light and at times might approach 1.0 which is the same density of air. Now the gas may require mechanical ventilation to clear.
LPG? P. 374
A mixture of several hrdrocarbons but mostly propane. There's also butane and ethane
Propane? P. 374
Colorless, odorless and heavier than air so it sinks. Explosive range is 2.1% ( LEL ) and 9.5% ( UEL ). Turns into gas at -44 DEGREES F.
Vapor air explosion? P. 374
When a gas mixes with air. It maybe too lean at the floor to ignite and too rich at ceiling to ignite but in the middle just right. They are far more devastating than a leak that ignites immediately or even a BLEVE cause they have the opportunity to spread covering more space to ignite.
When propane gas is compressed enough what happens? P. 375
It shrinks to 1/270th its size. When it's is released by opening a valve it expands back to its gaseous state at a rate of 270 for each part of liquid that evaporates.
Pressure inside a propane cylinder is directly related to what? 375
The temperature of the liquid inside. @ 70 degrees the pressure is about 100 PSI. @ 100 degrees F the pressure is now about 190 PSI
BLEVE's can occur with which liquids? P. 376
ANY liquid in a closed container. Even water!! Remember BLEVE is a result of too much heat being applied to the cylinder in the wrong location In as little as 10 mins. Clear area at least 150ft in all directions.
The PRV on a propane cylinder is set to hold pressure at what amount? P. 376
250 PSI
To prevent a BLEVE large propane tanks require how much GPM'S? P. 376
500
At a propane emegency an engine shold locate a hydrant strong enough to supply how many lines? P. 376
3-4 lines( 1 1/2or 1 3/4 ). One line for the exposed building. One line outside to protect structure. One line to control cylinder fire.
At LPG incidents you should take cover when approaching cylinder until when ? P. 377
Until you have been cooling it for at least 2 mins. The spring loaded relief valve will shut off after being cooled.
What type of stream pattern on a LPG incident to use? P. 377
Use a straight stream on a narrow fog initially to place distance.between you and the cylinder. As you get closer the fog pattern must be widened.
Heating systems account for what percentage of fires? P. 377
21% of all fires.
Fuel oils come in how many different grades? P. 378
No. 1 ( lightest ) - No. 6 ( Heaviest ). Fuel oils have relatively safe flashpoints.
No. 1 oil? P. 378
Lightest of the grades. Similar to kerosene and minimum flashpoint of 100 degrees F
No. 2 oil? P. 378
Most common for 1 and 2 family dwellings. Minimum flashpoint of 100 degrees F.
No. 3 oil? P. 378
A former imtermidiate grade which is no longer standard.
No. 4 oil? P. 378
Used in apartments and factories with a flashpoint of 130 degrees F. Requires no preheating.
No. 5 oil? P. 378
Has more impurities than No. 4 and also has the same flashpoint at 130 degrees F. needs to be preheated to flow easily.
No. 6 oil? P. 378
The heaviest of the oils with a flashpoint of 150 degrees F. Requires heating to get it to burn and flow easily.
Which oil grades are primarily industrial oils? P. 378
No. 5 and No. 6. Used in apartment complexes and large plants!!
For oil to burn what must be present? P. 378
Heat, fuel, and oxygen in sufficient quantities.
Components of an oil burner are divided into two systems? P. 378
The oil handling system and the oil controls.
Describe oil handling system? P. 378
Oil is drawn from tank through a pipe to the oil pump in the gun. Pump supplies oil to nozzle at high pressures so that it atomizes the oil. At end of the gun is a source ignition. Fire takes place in the firebox which has water coils inside too. The heat air flows around coils and the heated water is distributed through premises.
Most common burner is what type? P. 378
The high pressure gun type. The source ignition at end of the gun is usually a gas pilot light or two high voltage electrodes that are 5000 volts or more.
An oil burner safety circuit will shut down the pump and fan if it fails to ignite in how many seconds? P. 379
After 90 seconds.
The main or primary control feature of an oil burner consists of what? P. 379
A starting and running circuit that controls the fan, fuel pump, igniter, and safety circuit.
Name 3 limit control switches on an oil burner? P. 379
Pressuretrol, aquastat, and thermostat ( most commo of the three)
For a pressuretrol limit switch which setting is mostly used in residentials? P. 379
The max setting to limit dangerously high pressures. In large commercial occupancies the low setting maybe used too.
Aquastats are mostly found on what?p. 379
Steam and hot water systems.
What is the preferred means of interrupting the operation of the burner in an oil burner by the FD? P. 379
The remote control or emergency switch. It cuts off all power to the pump, fan, and igniter from a safe are like at the top of the stairs.
What is a stack switch on an oil burner? P. 379
Designed to sense the presence of heat in the smoke pipe. Keeps the oil and air mixture from building up if no fire available by shutting down the fan and pump. On newer burners this switch might be infrared.
2 potential oil burner problems? P. 379
1. Smoking burner ( easiest to handle ) 2. Delayed ignition or kickback 3. White ghost ( least common but most dangerous )
Describe a smoking burner? P. 379
For oil to burn cleanly without any clogging soot it must have the right air to oil mixture. When it doesn't alot of soot is created and smoke backs out of the firebox. Observe chimney upon arrival for thick black smoke ( remember burners should burn clean ). Turn off emergency switch and oil tank valve and advise to call a qualified repairman.
Describe delayed ignition or kickback? P. 380
When ignition doesn't occur immediately so oil vapors fill the chamber and smoke pipe. The primary control is still trying to light and if successful all the vapors will ignite all at one. The loud thud may knock the smoke pipe loose from the chimney or blow open the burner door. Burning oil may have pooled in the bottom of the firebox or out on the floor.
How to recognize and deal with a delayed ignition or kickback? P. 380
Frequently reported as an explosion in the cellar and upon arrival met with thick black smoke. If run out on floor and extended to nearby combustibles treat like a cellar fire. Shutdown power ( remote control )and fuel. Use extinguisher ( AFFF, dry chem, CO2 ) ONLY IF OIL IS BURNING OUTSIDE THE BURNER
What should you do in a delayed ignition or kickback when the fire is in the firebox? P. 380
Remember the firebox IS SUPPOSED to have fire in it. Allow it to burn itself out. Using water will cause firebox to crack.
The white ghost? P. 380
A cloud of vaporized oil and air heated above its flashpoint and out of its container looking for an ignition source.
When does the white ghost usually happen? P. 380
Commonly during severe cold spells cause it happens to oil burners that have been running for a long time, is shut down, and then shortly after is restarted. If there is an ignition delay the air/ oil mixture is vaporized by the hot firebox and a highly flammable fog like most that smells like fuel oil. Can blow out doors and floors.
How to handle white ghost? P. 380
Evacuate building immediately. Don't enter cloud Shut down remote using SCBA and wide fog for protection. Use fog to saturate and cool the heated mist. Vent. Secure. Shut off fuel.
What does black smoke mean? P. 381
1. Presence of a petroleum based product. 2 If a large amount is coming from the roof = roofing material. 3. If light smoke coming from the same place, the roof, it might be a defective oil burner. 4. Light to moderate coming from basement= oil burner malfunction = bring class B extinguisher.
Class A smoke? P. 381
Class A makes gray to light brown smoke when oxygen is present. But when less than sufficient oxygen is available then large amounts of dark grey or yellow gray smoke = backdraft.
Compounds containing oxides of nitrogen will give off what color of smoke? P. 381
A reddish brown hue. These are unlikely to be found in residentials or routine commercials.
The movement of smoke tells intensity of the fire...explain? P. 382
1. Heavy rolling violently twisting to the sky = extremely hot fire deep seated fire. 2. Wispy smoke light in color = incipient stage. 3. Heavy smoke throughout with no visible fire= cellar fire.
What is cold smoke? P. 382
Smoke settling in low spots. Found in sprinklered areas or where fire has been fully or partially extinguished.
Since smoke usually rises, the lowest floor with smoke usually has some fire. Where is it a good point to check? P. 382
Floor below this one.
Overheated fluorescent light ballasts usually give off visible smoke later in their emergencies...what type of smoke? P. 382
Gives off an oily smell. Use a TIC to help find which ballast at that height or check each one manually. Look for intact bulbs glowing faintly. Normal ballast warm to touch. Defective ballast hot to touch.
How to handle defected ballast once located? P. 383
First make sure it hasn't ignited any combustibles and then DC it. DC it by shutting off power. Remove bulbs , open cover and DC wires. Cover exposed ends of black/ white wires and then again look for exposures.
Give some reasons why you would smoke on several floors? P. 383
Elevator shafts, HVAC system through ductwork, incinerator shafts, compactor shafts. Always send someone down to the machinery room ASAP with a radio. Good idea to bring a halon or CO2 extinguisher just in case machinery on fire.
Why is it important to differentiate between a incinerator fire and a trash compactor fire?? P. 383
Incinerators have burners so they make shit burn anyways. Incinerator problems occur when shit gets stuck in the shafts blocking the escape of smoke. Smoke coming from a trash compactor needs immediate attention cause they don't hold fire so if you see this it means it can start extending.
How to handle incinerator trash fire? P. 383
Remove blockage. Examine each incinerator floor door. If smoke comes out you are below it. Keep going up until you find a door with no smoke. Now you are above it. Try to unclog with a hook or sash weights tied on a chain to push down and unclog.
What should you do if you can't unclog incinerator with a hook? P. 384
Go above clog and burn it out by dropping a newspaper on fire into incinerator. It this fails put out fire and refer to maintenance to unclog.
What to do on a trash compactor fire? P. 384
STOP THE SPREAD!!! Pull a line to the FLOOR ABOVE THE FIRE and shoot into the shaft. At the same time send a member to basement to start extinguishment there. Remember Trash compactor rooms have high voltage.... USE CAUTION WHILE DOWN THERE!!
Why are battery powered CO detectors ( gel ) like human beings? P. 385
Cause the absorb and hold onto CO for a long time, releasely it slowly. It takes 24-48 hrs for the gel to release all the CO before it will reset. If level too high it might need to be replaced.
When should venting an area of CO begin? P. 385
After you have found the defective appliance or flute, shut it down and then AFTER YOU TAKE YOUR READINGS!!
Acceptable level of CO readings where you can safely turn over structure back to owner? P. 385
9 PPM for residence and 35 PPM for non sleeping commercial occupancies!!
Always start your CO meter readings at the front door what should you have with you? P. 385
Radio, 2 CO detectors and a minimum of 2 mask equipped FF 's.
How to handle wood burning stove fires? P. 385
Shutoff air intake into the stove and check for extension??
In a wood burning fire if you can't shutoff air intake or a sever fire what to do? P. 385
1. ABC extinguisher used through firebox directed up chimney but will cause mess. 2. Chimney fire extinguisher placed inside ,activates and smothers fire. 3. If top of chimney accessible drop plastic bags of ABC dry chem powder down. NO WATER STREAMS DOWN CHIMNEY!! 4. Ok to use a Fire mist producing chimney nozzle
Categorize type of structures according to most resistance to collapse? P. 387-389
1. Class 1 most resistance. 2. Class 4 3. Class 3. 4. Class 5. 5. Class 2
The most sever collapse potential in class 1 takes place in what type of concrete buildings? P. 388
Poured in place concrete under construction where bottom framework catches fire.
Class 1 construction has a fire rating of what? P. 388
4 hrs. 14352
Describe class 4 resistance to collapse? P. 389
First they have 12 x 12 columns and walls so when they do collapse it's on a large scale with both walls and floors collapsing. Apparatus removed from collapse zone, the entire full length of the frontage and at least the height of the wall out. 14352
What is a distinct danger in class 3 construction regarding collapse? P. 389
The imposition of unusually high fire loads and concentrated loads. They can fail without any warning. 14352
Why is class 2 construction the least resistance to collapse? P. 390
Principally the large quantity of unprotected steel. 14352
A 100ft I - beam heated to 1000 degrees F will expand how far? P. 390
9.5 inches lengthwise. If heated to 1500 degrees F then it loses it's strength and will twist/ sagg and drop its load. If cooled it will go back to its original 100 ft length but still distorted.
Frame structures? P. 390
Buildings where most of its weight is carried on the frame so collapses that occur will be localized- only the area between the two supporting members.
Unframed structures? P. 391
Most of the weight of the building rest on bearing walls so a collapse tends to be very extensive.
Can you name the structural elements in order in which their collapse will effect the rest of the building? P 391
1. Bearing walls ( most important ). 2. Columns. 3. Girders ( which supports beams ). 4. Beams and joist. 5. Floor or roof decking ( least important ). Hierarchy of Structural Components. Because California Girls Blow Decking
How long does it take for lightweight steel bar joist take to lose its strength under fire? P. 392
5- 10 mins. Luckily steel sags so it will warn FF 's.
Describe cast iron? P. 392
Great compressive strength but no shear strength. Used for columns but not for beams. If heated and then suddenly cooled it will fail.
How much PSI does it take to bring down a wall? P. 392
As little as 1 PSI exerted laterally on a wall.
Two effects from absorbent material that can cause a collapse? P. 392
The weight of material increases and the swelling
How much weight can a 1000 GPM master stream place on a building? P. 393
8500 lbs per minute.
Water 1 ft deep over an area 20 ft by 20 ft equals how much? P. 393
Nearly 25000lbs.
If heavy fire and still going when should you withdraw forces? P. 395
If you haven't put out in 20 mins or when the first FF comes out with his alarm sounding. If lightweight a 5 minute limit might be appropriate, which means no entry at all if your response time alone is 3-4 minutes. 20 min time frame starts at open flame or flashover.
How can you tell a roof is pulling away from the wall? P. 395
By the clean wood on the end of the beams that were set into the wall at the wall joist.
What is one of the last warnings signs of collapse? P. 396
Sagging floor or roof. Remember though that some roofs, particularly inverted roofs, have spongy roofs. Investigate more!!
Creaking or groaning are heard in what type of buildings. P. 396
Wood buildings. Deep rumbling often accompanies partial collapses.
If you see plaster dust evident in place that has gone untouched, what does this mean? P. 396
The structure is shifting. Other signs are windows cracking or doors swinging by themselves. This is really true for class 5
One method to instruct everyone to evacuate? P. 396
Turn on all audible warning devices for one minute or until IC says
How does the Target Exit Device ( TED ) work? P. 396
When entering into building leave it in proximity to their exit point. When armed Flashes a strobe light and 95 decibel chirp 4 times for 2 sec, then remains silent for 8 sec. Then repeats. Crews can gauge their distance and follow out. IC switches to alarm mode for evacuation.
How do brick walls collapse? P. 397
Sometimes they crumble like curtains but most times they fall over full height. Masonry walls weight 80- 130 lbs per cu ft.
Which building has proven to be deadly beyond what was once thought of as a safe collapse zone? P. 398
Bowstring truss. The hip rafters span from the end trusses down and out to a bearing wall. Collapse zone is At least 2.5 times the height of the wall. Normal collapse zone for other structures are 1 times the wall.
If unable to set back 2.5 times the height back for a bowtruss collapse zone what to do? P. 399
Flanking positions off to the side of the wall or position above the wall as in a basket. If in a basket be aware that if a collapse does happen a sudden release of huge fireball up to 50-60 ft high might be possible especially downwind.
If a trapped FF what is one of the first actions to take? P. 400
Bring in as many streams to bear in that area to protect FF. The best stream would be a tower ladder ( 1000 GPM ) Set up directly in line with the down FF
If a trapped FF and you are using the tower ladder as anchor point how to increase working load? P. 400
Remove anything that is not bolted down to the boom as possible. Brace the boom with cropping or planking. This can be up to 1000 lbs or more. Only use an anchor point. DO NOT USE BOOM TO HOIST FF!!
If trapped FF can not be removed immediately what should you consider? P. 401
Use high expansion foam to protect FF especially in below grade areas. As soon as rescuers able to enter, break down foam by sweeping the ceiling and progressing down to floor with a narrow fog or straight stream. Tie a rope to FF so you can find him in the foam.
Five stages of rescue operations? P. 402
1. Recon. 2. Surface victims. 3. Voids. 4. Selected debris/tunneling. 5. General debris.
Victim tracking coordinator? P. 403
An officer designated to keep track of all victims. Name and location found of when collapsed happened is the minimum to gather.
4 common type of voids in collapses? P. 403
1. Lean - to - void. 2. V- shaped void. 3. Pancake void. 4. Individual void.
Lean to void? P. 403
Results from the failure of the support at one end of a floor or roof. Excellent chance of survival unless the person was near the failed wall when it collapsed.
V-shaped void? P. 403
Results when a floor fails in the middle. Floors below may collapse. Victims directly below fucked as to where the victims along the perimeters have the greatest chances.
Pancake collapse? P. 405
May appear to be unstable but not the case. Alot of peeps have been rescued in these voids. Survival depends on if any objects around victim at the time to keep collapse from landing on them.
Individual collapse? P. 404
May be found in any type of collapse. Their presence is more difficult to locate than the other type of collapses.
If collapse conditions are severe and if entanglement is severe what is the last resort? P. 405
Get a surgeon for possible amputation.
In collapses what is more dangerous than searching void spaces? P. 405
Selected Debris removal since you could possibly cause a secondary collapse. Rotate minimum personnel in and out. Use two or more approaches. No big equipment in selected debris removal.
Once you've gotten close to a victim in a collapse how should you proceed? P. 405
With hand tools only unless pt is visible and no injuries are likely. Use tools that have no exhaust fumes. Electrical is preferred. Sufficient lighting. Tools that make no sparks. Once all live victims have been rescued, select debris ops stops!
General debris removal? P. 407
Starts when you are certain no other survivors in a collapse. Peeps might still be missing though. Big machinery Under FD direction. Deposit shit in one area so that FF can further search.
Street management? P. 407
Art of putting essential units In right place and keeping unnecessary out of the way while making room for in coming units. Should be done by first arriving units.
Priority of line placement at collapse incidents? P. 408
1. Fire burning in rubble. 2. Exposure protection. 3. Burning vehicles in vicinity. If no active fire stretch a line enough to cover entire operation. Suspected bombing= hoselines position behind a shield like the engine itself.
Where should pumpers be placed at collapse incidents? P. 408
Outside of the fire block. They can use their hose length to get there. First and second pumper outside the block on separate mains. The third and fourth in a similar manner but in the rear.
Front of a collapse incident should be left open for which truck? P. 408
Heavy rescue trucks ( actually in close proximity to front ), heavy equipment, and AERIAL PLATFORMS and ELEVATING PLATFORMS, the TELESCOPING KIND. Aerial ladders kept with pumpers out of the way.
Positions of other trucks on collapse incident? P. 409
Tow trucks- several blocks away. Ambulance- in proximity visible from scene but out of the way of FF ops.
Frozen zone in a collapse incident? P. 409
On major incidents where no non-emergency trucks are permitted due to vibration to avoid another collapse.
How often should you rotate crews on collapse incidents? P. 410
Every half hour or less
If you need to get ahold of police detectives or FBI regarding terrorists shit how do you go about doing it? P. 414
Do not call 911. Try a hard wire telephone as opposed to a radio or cell phone to avoid being overheard by bad guys!!
Swarming technique? P. 416
One of the trademark attacks method used by al queada in which they would do multiple attacks and outstrip the capacity if responders.
3 things that would make a city a target for terrorist? P. 416
1. Large concentration of people. 2. Immediate, worldwide media coverage likely. 3. Big community so that they can blend in before and after attack.
Where are secondary devices often placed? P. 416
The perimeter of the blast site aimed at the CP.
What is the key with weapons of mass destruction......CBRNE? 416
The key is to initially recognize and avoid!!
Soft targets? P. 417
Apartments, houses, or other residential buildings. Also includes places of worships. Al queada's favorite targets are soft targets, energy facilities, and transportation. S.E.T
The only way to avoid becoming a fatality at a terrorists incident is what? P. 417
1. Be alert and trained. 2. React instinctively and correctly.
Biological weapons? P. 418
Living organisms that cause disease. Undetectable in the field and a symptomatic for several days. Paramedics may be first to notice from trend. Death rate to some are nearly 100%
Are WMD and CBRNE weapons fast acting? P. 418
Yes and they are likely to produce very visible effects.
Describe radioactive agents? P. 419
Is increasingly available and can be found in everyday equipment in American industrial sites. Dirty bomb is a radioactive weapon.
Dirty bomb? P. 419
A bomb that causes a normal explosion but with highly radioactive material wrapped around the explosive. No visible sign of contamination, contact with debris but inhalation is fuckin deadly!! Also know as RDD's. Main threat is physical damage done by explosion not radioactivity!!!
The terrorists main choice of weapon? P. 419
High order explosives.
Most important task at a bombing is what? P. 421
To disperse the crowd as well as avoid concentrations of FF's that might a target of a secondary device. Request law enforcement ASAP to secure perimeter.
When should you withdraw all fire personnel from a terrorist incident? P. 420
As soon as life saving efforts have concluded, secure scene and withdraw.
What are prime considerations at explosion incidents to cops and should also be ours at these incidents? P. 420
Preservation, gathering, and documentation of evidence.
What to do when you discover a bomb? P. 424
1. Don't touch. 2. Don't use radio or handle talkies ( blaster caps sensitive to handy talkies energy! ). 3. Evacuate 300 ft in all directions. 4. Notify law. Tell all not to use handie talkies!!!
Describe bus bomb attacks? P. 422
1. Extrication not normally indicated or difficult 2. Primarily a MCI 3. Engines, EMS , and ladders do first aid. 4. Request bomb squad or EOD to establish entry corridor for rescuers 5. Request law via radio.
Clues in bomb debris? P. 422
1. Debris in tress or Overhead wires that indicate something blew up. ( gas tank rupture does not do this damage ). 2. Total blown out windows. 3. Car or bus body deformation.
At a bombing incident and you find yourself suddenly being blocked in by civilians, what to do? P. 423
Seek shelter. Avoid getting into a bottle neck area. Position apparatus to be drive. Straight out. First unit to ID an explosion should notify department wide command structure to anticipate other attacks
Where to position apparatus on explosion incidents? P. 423
Engines- on a hydrant but not blocking an intersection or streets. Aerial ladders- positioned for rescue and if not out of way for other units. Elevating platforms- specially called as needed to cover collapse zone but out of secondary collapse zone.
How can you limi rescuer exposure at chemical, radiological, or nuclear events? P. 425
Use kick triage. As little time and personnel in contaminated area as possible. Always get off rig with meters in hand. If no meters available then rescue of peeps need to wait. DON'T BECOME A VICTIM.
Who establishes crowd control and traffic routes at bombings? P. 425
Law enforcement
First arriving IC at a bombing must notify alarm of what? P. 425
Their location and request all other agencies send their top ranking guy to their location.
Who request sufficient personnel and supplies to handle the number of casualties at a bombing or terrorists incident or MCI? P 426
Treatment unit leader
Who ensures the proper tracking of all patients at a major incident? P. 426
The patient transportation group supervisor.
How to use lines at a bombing or terrorists incident? P. 427
All lines at a distance. Protect exposures. If structure affected use 2-1/2 line and 1-3/4 for car fires ( foam if possible ). Minimize overhaul and avoid washing shit down the street.
At a bombing or terrorist incident when can you start attacking any strictly outside fires? P. 427
After being secured by law enforcement.
Only time you can move dead victims at bombings or terrorists incidents? P. 427
To help other survivors and remember what and where you moved the bodies.
If further explosions expected how should you treat fires that can occur? P. 427
Incipient stage fires- extinguish and withdraw until surveyed by bomb squad. Large area or room fires- heavy streams from distance behind shielding. Consider unmanned monitors.
If a bomb has caused no fire or very little damage what should you suspect? P. 428
Radioactive or chemical threats.
Things not seen in a usual gas explosion that might indicate a bomb or terrorists act happened? P. 428
Destruction of concrete slabs, columns, girders.
What is the minimum distance to evacuate if a possible bomb or secondary device? P. 428
The lethal air blast range. Check the yellow guides/sections in ERG.
One of the most important things to do to stop spread of contamination post a dirty bomb explosion? P. 430
Extinguish any fire producing contaminated smoke. Also use a master stream with a fog spray to dissipate any smoke plume. Contain runoff.
How log does radiation sickness take to become symptomatic? P. 430
It takes hours to days after exposure depending on dose. Only those directly exposed are in danger. They are not contagious!!!
Does the mere presence of radiation prevent units from doing their job? P. 431
No. Take proper precautions. Avoid breathing contaminated material, monitor your exposure with a dosimeter limiting exposure to safe levels.
Three things to protect yourself from radiation exposure? P. 431
1. TIME- leave area to decon when your dose reaches 25R ( max under emergency conditions ). 2. DISTANCE - stay as far away as possible to do your task. 3. SHIELD- use mask to shield lungs, bunkers for skin, and buildings for body.
The perimeter at the cold zone should be at what reading? P. 431
It should be at the 1.0m/R line. This is a low reading but also well above normal or background levels. It also the level where most dosimeters begin to sound an alarm.
When moving towards to hot zone to establish what pattern should you be walking in? P. 431
In a circular pattern slowly. If you walk straight it might be disastrous cause you might get low readings due to something shielding you. Turning a corner can than expose you too high levels. Wear dosimeters and check periodically
What type of radiation does your SCBA and bunkers protect you from? P. 431
Only gamma rays. Gamma rays only hazard is to inhaling or ingestion. Where as alpha and beta rays get trapped in your body. Most radioactive material available out there is low level material.
What are air-purifying respirators used for in radiation incidents? P. 431
To protect against inhaling and swallowing if they are P-100 rated cartridges. Persons remote from blast site can wears these and be protected. External contamination= showering and shampoo.
At fires what can be molten metal be? P. 432
Melted lead shielding so suspect radioactive material.
What is perhaps the most likely WMD attack that America might face? P. 432
A chemical attack.
What is the objective fore fire personnel at a chemical attack? P. 432
Rescuing, triaging, administering antidote, decon, treating, and transport.
How to approach a chemical agent incident? P. 433
Upwind and away from any potential sources of contamination such as ventilation or exhaust. Only first engine and ladders should approach the immediate location.
The first sign of a chemical agent attack on a large crowd is? P. 433
Biological indicators which are people or animals affected by the release. Mouth foaming or seizures etc.
What is the perfect means of spreading most chemical and biological agents? P. 433
By atomized mist as in a roach bomb.
Why should you be wary about going below grade in a chemical agent incident? P. 433
Most chemical weapons are heavier than air so they sink. This makes subways and cellars prime chemical weapon targets. WEAR ALL PPE CAUSE SOME CHEM AGENTS ONLY NEED ONE DROP TO GIVE YOU A HORRIBLE DEATH.
Positive indications on a military M-8 and M- 9 tape mean? P. 434
You use these papers to confirm CAM ( chemical agent monitor ) readings!!
CPC? P. 434
Chemical protective clothing
Rescuers wearing CPC have been trained to use what to determine the LOC in a chemical agent incident and determine survival potential? P. 434
Noxious stimuli or kick triage.
Explain noxious stimuli or kick triage? P. 434
1. DECEASED- left In place. 2. DOESN'T RESPOND TO PAIN- leave in place and proceed, likely to die 3. ONLY RESPONDS TO PAIN - needs immediate ALS, in MCI setting most likely will die. 4. RESPONDS TO VOICE OR GENTLE TOUCH - viable, removed immediately, likely to survive.
WALKING WELL in the kick triage for a chemical agent incident? P. 435
No signs or symptoms but they want to be checked out cause they feel like they MIGHT have been exposed. Refer to area with law or other healthcare personnel to get instructions on how to care for themselves. This group is most likely to be more than actual people affected.
2 modes on a chemical agent incident? P. 435
Rescue mode if victims can be seen or heard. Defensive mode if NO victims can be seen or heard. Order just the first and /or second unit to enter only. All other need to stage.
Where should you setup an emergency gross decon area in a chemical agent incident? P. 436
In a secure area away from affected building and exhaust fan discharges. Uphill and upwind. Order ladder crews to facilitate evacuation and make exits bigger by forcible entry.
Additional chiefs needed on a chemical agent incident? P. 437
1. Decon sector 2. Forward ops officer, this one should be trained and able to operate in CPC. Operates in the hot zone.
Is bunker gear satisfactory protection against the concentrations of agents around a still operating dispersal device? P. 437
NO
If accidently stumble into a chemical agent hot zone
If not already .........suit up!! Officers who observe PTs displaying symptoms should transmit "Mayday- Gas attack" via handie talkie.
Initial survey team on a chemical agent incident? P. 438
1. Two person recon. 2. Do not commit to an area where all you see unresponsive victims. 3. Don't remove any unconscious victims. 4. Bunker gear will only protect for 3 minutes in lethal concentrations
What should be in place before the initial recon team enters the hot zone at a chemical agent incident? P. 438
A backup team and decon team needs to be in place. Backup team should dress the recon team and decon team helps to. When they are done setting up their area.
What should be setup in the decon area at a chemical agent incident. P 439
1. Resuscitator. 2. Antidote like a Mark 1 kit for nerve agents. 3. Charged 1-3/4 line or booster line with fog nozzle. 4. If no line available then water and/or AFFF extinguisher.
Besides deconning, what else is the decon team responsible for monitoring at a chemical agent incident? P. 439
They act as air and communications monitors. Writing down what time someone goes on air and making sure that they return with enough time to decon BEFORE the vibralert goes off. Must be completely deconned before removing SCBA and bunkers.
How should the first due engine decon people at a chemical agent incident? P. 439
Provide for ambulatory PT's with large caliber fog stream from the engine master stream. You can also place a fog nozzle directly onto a engine discharge to save manpower. A handling with a fog tip for additional coverage.
Who should initiate the mass decon operation at a chemical agent incident? 440
The second, third, and even fourth engine crew may have to work alone if several different areas need to be deconned. Etc. MALL
After deconning where should you direct the person to go? P. 440
To casualty collection points for triage.
When the IC is deciding if it's a rescue or defense operation in a chemical agent incident he should review what guildlines? P. 440
Guildlines recommended by SBCCOM in their improved response program ( IRP ).
What does the SBCCOM report provide? P. 440
Estimations of residual vapor hazard potentially faced by first responders 30 mins after chemical release. It does not address aerosol or liquid hazards nor compound effects through multi simultaneous exposures.
If a chemical agent detector capable of accurate real time vapor qualification is. It available, what indications should the IC base his operations on? P. 440
1. Symptoms. 2. Escaping victims reports. 3. Knowledge of the occupancy size. 4. Airflow characteristics of the occupancy
Indications that a rescue operation may be practical in a chemical agent incident? P. 440
1. At least 10 mins have passed since last agent released. 2. You can see and hear victims with symptoms alive still 3. Self evac is going on. 4. Well ventilated area. 5. Decon set up. 6 Directly accessible area. 7. CPC team on scene
Force protection? P. 441
It means protecting troops in pretty fucked up situations and risk being wiped out so they can fight another fight and win. They are more valuable alive than dead. It's a military tactic.
What strategy requires the IC to acknowledge that non ambulatory victims in chemical attacks are not savable? P. 441
The force protection strategy
When should defensive ops be initated on chemical agent incidents? P. 442
1. Large loss of life. 2. First responders die on arrival. 3.Limited resources. 4. This is a second attack or a secondary device is likely
In a defensive mode at a chemical agent incident, what should all the units report in with? P. 442
Basically all their medical shit with stokes and backboard to deposit in a medical staging area. Also bring a spare SCBA to deposit there too.
In a chemical agent incident that is in defensive mode, how far should you advance into area to define the area as the exclusion zone? P. 442
Until the last able bodies person is encountered. Define this as the exclusion zone , evacuate the area and notify IC. GET DECON AND EVALUATED NOW.
Incapacitated agent, also known as tear gas? P. 443
Clears up in 15-20 mins. Burns eyes and skin with irregular respirations
Asphyxiants or known as pulmonary agents or cyanide? P. 443
SOB, cardiac arrest, seizures, and death in 1-3 minutes
Vesicants ( blister, mustard gas , lewisite ) symptoms? P. 443
Immediate pain blisters or onset delayed up to 4-48 hrs.
Military nerve agent ( sarin , soman , tabun , VX ) ? P. 443
Needs decon within minutes and treated or can be severely incapacitated of lethal. Vaporized or aerosol method = onset in seconds. Liquid method = onset in minutes and even a small drop is lethal
Nerve agent symptoms acronym? P. 443
SLUDGEM S- salivation. L- lacrimation ( watery eyes ). U - urination. D - defecation. G - GI cramps. E - emesis. M - muscle cramps.
What industrial material out there has the same chemical properties as nerve agents? P. 443
Organophosphates like pesticides or insecticides. Just in lower quantities so not as lethal but depends in concentration. Nerve agent victims also show sweating and dimmed vision.
Do elevators in MD's generally contribute to serious fire extension? P. 284
NO, cause they should be built with 2 hr fire rating but they will contribute to rapid smoke and heat spread.
If there is no fire escape or cockloft vents in a MD structure, what class is this??p. 294
Class 1.
When heated a steal beam will expand how much? P. 323
A 100ft beam will expand 9 1/2 in. at 1000 F.
How many FF's are needed for roof ops in store or strip mall fires? P. 324
6 FF's with four hooks and two saws,axes, and halligans immediately.
How to recognize a house regulator failure? P. 367
By the gas odor and hissing coming from the vent.
How long does it take to burn through a 1 inch wooden structural element?? P. 391
45 minutes
Most codes require what type of fire rating in type 1 MD's?
A 2 hr fire rating in the wAll between each apartment as well as the wall that separates the ball and apartments.
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