Psychology 4 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Response
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Stimulus
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Punishment
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Privation
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Affectional
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Reinforcement
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Adaptive
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Time sampling*
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Strange Situation
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Deprivation dwarfism
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Individualistic culture
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Separation anxiety
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Naturalistic observation*
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Structured observations*
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Secure attachment
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Sampling Procedures
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Behavioural Categories
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Behavioural categories*
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Overt observation*
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Cross-cultural study
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Covert observation*
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Event sampling*
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Insecure – disorganised
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Insecure - avoidant
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Reactive attachment disorder
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Disinhibited attachment disorder
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Monotropy
Bowlby's theory that one special bond enables later emotional development
Innate
Characteristics that are inborn due to genetic factors
Attachment
A reciprocal emotional bond between a child and primary caregiver.
Operant conditioning
Learning whether your own actions are likely to be reinforced by rewards or inhibited by punishments.
Classical conditioning
Where somebody learns to associate two things by experiencing them together - e.g. Pavlov's dog associated the bell with food.
Internal working model
A schema of relationships developed from the first attachment relationship - helps to predict and control
Cultural Variations
The ways that different groups of people vary in terms of their social practices and the effects these practices have on development and behaviour.
Imprinting
An innate desire for e.g. geese to form a bond with the first object they see - usual the mother.
Social releasers
Behaviours - e.g crying and cooing - which help the 'mother' and child to form a bond by eliciting appropriate behaviour from the 'mother'
7 Key Terms in Bowlby's Theory
Innate; continuity hypothesis; imprinting; internal working model; monotropy; sensitive period; social releasers
Sensitive period
The period in which a baby is biologically most successful in forming an attachment - Bowlby said 2nd 3 months
Continuity hypothesis
The theory that there is a link between the early attachment relationship and later relationships.
Insecure - Resistant
Children who seek and reject intimacy and social interaction.
Stranger anxiety
The distress shown by an infant when approached or held by someone unfamiliar.
Unstructured observations*
an observaiton when there are no set aims.
Secure base
A sense of security provided by the attachment figure which enables the baby to explore its surroundings.
Controlled observation*
When you observe a a subject in an environment controlled by you
Covert Observation
When research is being done on a group without their knowledge.
Learning theory of attachment
The idea that you learn to become attached after birth through the processes of classical and operant conditioning.
Primary attachment figure
The person that a baby first forms a bond with.
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need
ID
pleasure principle
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informational social influence
outer ear
tympanic mambrane
efferent nerves
carries brain output
Traits
relatively enduring predispositions that influence our behaviour across many situations
panic disorder
recurrent anxiety attacks
Sublimation
(defense mechanisms)
channeling socially unacceptable impulses and urges into socially acceptable behavior
LTM
relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system, includes knowledge, skills, and experiences
james-lange theory
physiological arousal, expressive behaviors, and conscious experience
independent variable
treatment, thing that changes
Methods-Based Treats to Ex. Validity
Neurotransmitters
Chemical messangers that transverse the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by the sending neuron rotratransmitters travel across the synaptic gap and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse
Accommodation
adapting one's current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information
Pituitary Gland
The endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, this gland regulates growth & controls other endocrine glands.
Clinical Assessment
Systematic evaluation and measurement of psychological, biological, and social factors in a person presenting with a possible psychological disorder.
Enculturalation**
Learning about culture by observing and absorbing rather than being taught
Reuptake
process in which neurotransmitters are sponged up from the synaptic cleft by the presynaptic membrane.
Dissociative disorders
Disordersin which the normal integration of consciousness, memory, or identity is suddenly and temporarily altered; include dissociative amnesia, dissociative fugue, dissociateive identity disorder (multiple personality), and depersonalization disorder.
Cannon-Bard theory
A stimulus simultaneously triggers activity in the autonomic nervous system and emotional experience in the brain.
E.B. Titchener
student of Wundt, structuralism, introspection, faults with Wundt were that his practices were inconsistent and unreliable
BANDURA FOUND THAT CHILREN WHO OBSERVED ADULTS PLAYING AGRESSIVELY WITH bobo DOLL PLAYED WITH THE DOLL MORE AGGRESILVELY THEMSELVES
narcolepsy
go from awake to REM sleep
Schizophrenia
A group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions.
Where is the red nucleus located?
midbrain
Axons
are in effect the primary transmission lines of the nervous system, and as bundles they help make up nerves.
cliques
groups of adolescents with similar interests and strong mutual attachment.
Mnemonics
Strategies for placing information in an organized context in order to remember it.
generalization
when stimulus similart to the conditioned stimulus produces similar responses
maturation
the act or process of maturating.
depersonalization
alternate perception of the self, sense of reality temporarily lost
clairvoyance
a type of ESP involving perceiving remote events, for example sensing that your friends house is burning down
discriminant validity coefficient
indicates the correlation between different traits measured by the same method
 
 
socialization
acquistion of the norms and behaviors expected of people in a particular society
dream analysis
dreams express unconscious themes that influence the patient's conscious life
The cerebrum talks to the _____
Limbic system
amnesia
The blocking of older memories and/or the loss of new ones.
g factor
a general intellectual ability assumed by many theorists to underlie specific mental abilities and talents
group therapy
one or more therapists working simultaneously with a small group of clients.
Conflict
Deals with having to decide between two or more incompatible options.
Genetic Basis
A high concordance rate between identical twins for schizophrenia would suggest that the disorder has a ___________ ___________
look at pic of structure of eye
norepinephrine and serotonin.
The neurotransmitters implicated in depression
Recall
in memory tests, a subject's ability to reproduce information that he or she was previously exposed to. Fill-in-the-blank and essay questions test recall.
Jerome Kagan found temperaments
Inhibited temperament - shynessUninhibited - less restraint
survey
a method of research that involves asking subjects questions about their feelings, opinions, or behavior patterns
Heroin
One of the most addictive substances derived from opium, illegal in the US under all circumstances.
action potential
electrical impulse that travels down the axon triggering the release of neurotransmitters
Which technique is widely used by therapists to help clients recover lost childhood memories?
hypnosis
_____ is defined as a method originally developed by Sigmand Frowed invasising of unconsious motives and conflicts through free association to dreams and memories
Psychoanalysis
Define Cognitive-behavioral treatments and how they can be gender biased.
o Mal-adaptive thought processes, modify behavior
o Gender bias: Possibility of sexist standards and reinforcement of traditional gender roles
Yvonne Pavlov
Pavlov's Dogs, interested in digestive reflexes, measured salivation responses, noticed that dogs made association between white lab coats and coming of food
ethnocentrism
using one's own culturea as the standard for all cultures
reaction time
the interval between stimulation and response
Humanistic Approach
This approach emphasizes that each individual has great freedom and a large capacity related to personal growth. It also stresses positive aspects of mental health.
bottom-up processing
analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the brain's integration of sensory information. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 197)
The Proximodistal Trend
The center-outword direction of motor development.
 
Which means they gain control over their torso before their extrimities. So the baby will turn their whole body to get an object instead of reach for it.
approach-avoidance conflict
one part of the situation is attractive, but the other part is not; the choice is whether to do or not to do something
dominance
either the right or left hemisphere is dominant in each individual; hence one of them is preferred and controls the majority of actions performed
Egocentrism
the inability to see the world through anyone else's eyes
bobo doll experiment (bandura)
concluded children learn aggression thru watching it on tv, even more so if the aggression is shown to be rewarded
Concordance rate
Identical twins who have the same identity do not necessarily concur in having schizophrenia. The concordance rate for identical twins is roughly 50%. Pg 368
platos biological theory on personality
spirit emotional drives, appetites
CAREER CONSOLIDATION
A life task that requires the development of a social identity and engagement in a career characterized by contentment, compensation, competence, and commitment.
essentialists
believe gender roles have a genetic or biological origin & cannot be changed
Developmental child issues theoretical framework for MR
Main characteristics-
     -use of normal development to inform us about pop. with mental retardation
     -similar-sequence and similar-structure hyptheses
     -two-group approach and revisions
Implications in MR-
     -sequences are used in curriculum
     -framework identifies important prerequisites and domains of development
     -pop. with MR tell s about nonretarded development
     -focus on development in persons with diff. types of MR
What lobe carries out most of the vision recognition?
Occipital
anal stage
timing: ages 2 and 3erogenous zone: anus;theme: control;conflict: toilet training;fixation: anal expulsive or anal retentive;
Law of Effect
theory proposed by Thorndike stating that those responses that are followed by a positive consequence will be repeated more frequently than those that are not.
Reasons why we need sleep
protectshelps us recuperatehelps memory and growth processes
Animal Models
used to discover principles that apply to humans, such as stress, learning, obesity, aging, sleep
Basic Emotions
feelings that are the same across cultures; love, joy, surprise, anger, sadness, fear and disgust
Limbic System
What system is involved with emotions and drives and to some degree, memory?
Brain
The complex mass of neural cells and related cells encased in the skull
dual personality
a disorder in which an individual possesses two dissociated personalities, each of a complexity comparable to that of a normal individual
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Unfocused and Free floating Symptoms: heart races, sweating, hyperventilation, muscle constriction
Kin selection
The idea that behaviors that help a genetic relative are favored by natural selection
projective
The TAT is an example of a _______ test.
Preconventioinal morality
Before age 9, they obey to avoid punishment or to be rewarded.
FIXED RATION SCHEDULE (FR)
An operant conditioning principle in which reinforcement is delivered after a specific number of responses have been made.
glial cells
cells in the nervous system that are not neurons and hence do not transmit or receive information but perform a variety of functions, such as removing waste, filling empty space, and helping neurons to communicate efficiently.
Heuristics vs Algorithms
Heuristics- The way most humans think, in terms of shortcutsAlgorithms- mathmatical process with unlimited processing speed
Stage 4 sleep
The deepest stage of sleep during which we are least responsive to outside stimulation
self referent encoding
involves deciding how or whether info is personally relevant
Recursive Thinking
"He thinks that she thinks" (the act or process of returning)
Fundamental Attribution Error(p 285)
The tendency, in explaining other people's behavior, to overstimate personality factors and underestimate the influence of the situation.
LONG-TERM MEMORY:
LTM - Memory system involved in the long-term storage of information.
What is an ion?
Ions are electrically charged atoms that can be either negative (more electrons than protons) or positive (more protons than electrons)
Observational or (vicarious) learning
learning by observing other people's behavior.
stream of consciousness
thought regarded as a succession of ideas and images constantly moving forward in time
alternative to ECT
repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) 
the application of repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain, used to stimulate or suppress brain activity
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
PTSD involves an extreme response to some sort of traumatic situation. Often, the response persists for months, years, following the event. Individual exhibiting the symptoms may report increased anxiety, heart rate, and blood pressure.The patient will tend to avoid stimuli that they have linked in their minds with the trauma provoking event.People in the midst of an episode may feel that they are back dealing with the event that caused it.An individual will have incredibly vivid, detailed, rich, dreams where they feel that they are back in the situation.
Stanford-binet intelligence quotient
4 cognitive areas give a score of MENTAL AGE
What is Sexual Sadism?
It involves acts in which the individual derives sexual excitement from the psychological or physical suffering (including humiliation) or the victim. Also chronic and could be w/ a non-consenting person and associated w/ an ASPD and can be dangerous.
Why are the answers that flow from the scientific approach more reliable than those based on intuition and common sense?
Hindsight biasOverconfidence
Cognitive Dissonance theory
we acto to reduce the discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistent
sociocognitive theory of hypnosis
The idea that the impressive effects of hypnosis are due to social influences and pressures as well as the subject's personal abilities. For another view, see altered state theory of hypnosis.
zone of proximal development
the gap between what a child can accomplish alone and what they can accomplsh with the help of others who are more competent
Unit of analysis issue
- When you are assigning subjects to conditions, make sure you know what your subject is (a person, team, animal, etc.), know your unit of analysis; do not say you are randomizing participants to assignment when you are randomizing at the wrong units (e.g., when assigning teams, make sure you are assigning participants at the team level not the individual level).
Dream Theories:
What is the Biological theory?
Dreams are the bi-product of neurological activity
Natural Killer Cell
A type of T Cell that detects and destroys damaged or altered cells such as precancerus cells.
consonants (and the 3 ways they vary)
sounds that restrict air flow
1) place/point of articulation: where airflow is resticted (pat,cat)
2) voicing: when your vocal cords start vibrating (pat, cat)
3) manner: how the air comes out (bat mat) phonemes PBM all change meaning
how powerful is subliminal perception?
is the idea that a stimulus can influence of behavior even when presented faintly that we do not percieve it consciencely.
What is the function of hypercomplex cells?
-special inhibitory zone acts as an edge detector-length of bar is critical-larger receptive field than complex cells
Chapter 1: (8)Who claimed that free will is an illusion?
B.F. Skinner claimed that free will is an illusion.
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classical conditioning
DES causes
genital cancer
REPRESENTATIONS
-copies of world
deviant
something not everyone does
Hypothalamus
Autonomicsystem, heart rate, hunger,thirst
theory x
rewards or punishment
 
 
 
Fetal alcohol syndrome
 
 
 
 
collection of congenital (inborn) problems associated with excessive alcohol use during pregnancy
Gastalt psychology
thinking as a "whole"
Cerebellum
"motor control" center coordinates voluntary movement.
Motivation
Internal processes thatarouse, direct, and sustaingoal-directed behavior
cones
cone-shaped retinal centers that respond most strongly to one of three wavelengths of light; the combined outputs from cones that are most sensitive to different wavelengths play a key role in producing color vision
experimental group
experiences the independent variable
intimacy v. isolation
young adulthood (20-40)
ego
largely conscious, "executive" part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. Operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 598)
empathy-altruismpersonal distressempathic concern
alleviation of own stressalleviation of others stress
theory
an explanations using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations.
Genital Stage
Freud. Stage of psychosexual development starting at adolescence. Attention turned toward heterosexual relations.
Experiment
A carefully controlled comparison of some measure of the phenomenon of interest under two or more different conditions in which only one factor at a time differs from one condition to another.
Karen Horney
Suggested?
Basic anxiety and neurotic personalities. Power envy, not penis envy.
Alfred Binet
20th century structural psychologist that created first intelligence test.
Hypnosis
an induced state of consciousness characterized by deep relaxation and heightened suggestibility
list of Personality disorders
Antisocial personality disorderborderline personality disorderDissociative identity disorder
Extinction
the weakening of the conditioned response in the absence of the unconditioned stimulus
Priming
One concept activates another in memory
expirimental psych.
applys scientific methods to psych
elizabeth loftus
showed how eyewitnesses reconstruct their memories when questioned - misinformation effect.
AMBIGUITY
uncertainty or inexactness of meaning in language different surface structures can refer to the same thing (deep structure) - have the same meaning: \"The girl hit the ball\" = \"The ball was hit by the girl\"same surface structure can refer to different things (deep structures) - have same word sequence but different meaning: \"Visiting relatives can be boring\" - going to visit (traveling) is boring or the relatives who visit are boring - allows novelty/productivity
stress
any circumstance that threatens your well-being or taxes your resources
imagery
the formation of mental images, figures, or likenesses of things, or of such images collectively:
Continuity
Signifies developments over time that appear to persist, unchanging, from one age to the next.
Crystallized Intelligence
One's accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age.
sensorimotor stage
0-2 years
infants learn about the world through their 5 senses and their motor skills
Erikson's Stage Theory
Stage 7
 
Generativity versus self absorbtion
 
will i produce something of real value?
Latent content
symbolic or hidden meaning of dreams
Psychosurgery
Surgery that removes or destroy brain issue in an effort to change behavior.
Sterotype
A schema or belief about the personality traits that tend to be characteristic of members of some group
memory modulation
in stressful simulation or events memory is stored to remind us of that incident for future reference
 
ex---picture of that monster in class 
low-balling approach
A strategy for increasing compliance in which an individual first gets a person to agree to a small request and then follows that request with a larger one
scientific method 6 things
question, hypothesis, experiment, results, conclusions, theory
medical model
The concept that diseases have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and, in most cases, cured. When applied to psychological disorders, this assumes that mental illnesses can be diagnosed on the basis of their symptoms and cured through therapy, which may include treatment in a psychiatric hospital.
replication
repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in defferent situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances
Freudian Slip
When your unconcious accidently enters your concious
The scientific study of mind and behavior
Psychology
Self-efficacy
Belief in ability to exercise control over behavior and environment.
Phonemes
the basic building blocks of language, unique sounds that can be joined to create words.
Symbolic meaning
everything is symbolic of something else, all are attributable to preceding mental causes 
discrimination
is the discernment of qualities and recognition of the differences between things. This article focuses on discrimination amongst people—that is, the prejudicial treatment of different groups of people based on certain characteristics. Discrimination on grounds such as race or religion, is generally illegal in most Western democracies, while discriminating between people on the grounds of merit is usually lawful. The latter is more commonly referred to as "differentiating." When unlawful discrimination takes place, it is often described as discrimination against a person or group of people.
• Activation-synthesis hypothesis
the proposition that dreams represent the brain’s attempt to make sense of the random discharges of electrical activity that occur during REM sleep
Extinction
CS w/o US causes CS to disappear
REACTION FORMATION
SUBSTITUTING THE OPPOSITE ATTITUDE FOR ONE THAT IS PSYCHOLOGICALLY PAINFULL
Panic response during sleep for unknown reason
Night terrors
Neurogenesis
The hypothesized growth of new neurons in adult mammals
racial memory
feelings, patterns of thought, and experience that have been transmitted from generation to generation and that deeply influence the mind and behavior
illusory correlation
the perception of a relationship where none exists.
dependent value
the factor being measured by the investigator
Echoic memory (echo)
Sensory memory of hearing (auditory) mode. Last about 2-3 seconds (Brief but longer than iconic)
The billionaire aviator Howard Hughes insisted that his assistants carry out elaborate hand-washing rituals and wear white gloves when handling any document he would later touch. His behavior best illustrated the symptoms of
B) obsessive-compulsive disorder
proximaldistal pattern
the pattern that proceeds from the middle of the periphery
fixed-interval
type of schedule in which a fixed amount of time elapses between reinforcements
Light wavelength
The distance between peaks in light waves
iconic memory
the system that produces and stores visual sensory memories
neurons
cell that sends messages to and from brain
Primary Sex Characteristics
body structures that make reproduction possible.
dissociative fugue
ppl loose their memory for their entire lives along with their sense of personal identity
caffiene intoxication
An individual presents to a hospital emergency room with a flushed face, rambling speech, tachycardia, restlessness, and diuresis. The most likely diagnosis is:
left hemisphere in emotion
when experience emotion, mediates negative emotions
difference threshold
minimal difference needed to notice a stimulus change also called the "just noticeable difference" (JND)
Arousal Theory
human motivation ams to seek optimum levels of arousal, not to eliminate it
Social-Cognitive Theories(p 266)
Theoriesthat emphasize how behavior is learned and maintained through observation and imitation of others, positive consequences, and cognitive processes such as plans, expectations, and beliefs.
nightmares
Dreams that occur during REM sleep and whose content is exceptionally frightening, sad, angry, or in some other way uncomfortable
glial cells
cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons.
negative reinforcement
taking something bad away to make behavior more likely
authoritative parent style
both demanding and responsive and explain why rules are put into place
endorphins
any of a group of peptides occurring in the brain and other tissues of vertebrates, and resembling opiates, that react with the brain's opiate receptors to raise the pain threshold.
placebo effect
a response to a placebo, cause by subjects' belief that they are taking a real drug - pg. 134
What are the 5 types of advertising?
Consumer awarenessProduct ImageInstitutional advertisinginformal advertisingadvertising placement
contextual effect
the use of the present context of sensory information to determine its meaning
spreading activation
when ppl think about a word, their thoughts naturally go to related words
Kohlers work with chimps
"Like cat puzzle, No tripping mechanisms of retrieving bananas when positioned out of reachChimps showed intelligent behavior, used tools"
In order to discover the extent to which education can be used to predict political preferences, researchers are most likely to engage in:A) correlational research. C) the case study approach.B) naturalistic observation. D) experimental research.
correlation research
Emotional intelligence
The set of skills that underlie the accurate assessment, evaluation, expression, and regulation of emotions.
Figure
in perception, the part of an image on which we focus our attention.
Ramachandran’s experiment ...
phantom limb pain was relieved when patientswatched their fist unclench in a mirror. This demonstrates that the sensation of pain involves interpretation by the brain ofsignals both from nociceptors and from mechanoreceptors and the eyes.
Modern racism
A form of prejudice that surfaces in subtle ways when it is safe, socially acceptable, and easy to rationalize
Basal Ganglia:Parts and function and Location
Motor control/posture, dopaminergic pathways. Includes:Caudate NucleusPutamenGlobus Pallidussubstantia nigra (sometimes. Damage here = parkinson's)Subthalamic nucleiLocated around the thalamus, in different areas. Different parts different locations..
neurotic and normal guilt
normal guilt- sensitizes us to unethical aspects of our behaviorneurotic guilt- fantasized transgressions, things that havent happened
What happens in client centered therapy?
therapist provides unconditional positive regard, empathy, and honesty to direct client to greater understanding of themselves
Punishment Procedures - Reponse Cost
loss of specific amount of reinforcement occurs upon occurence of innappro behavior
Central Nervous System (CNS)
Composed of the brain and spinal cordReceives, processes, interprets, and stores incoming sensory informationSpinal cord = information superhighway
infant  directed talk (IDT)
the distinctive mode of speech that adults adopt when talking to babies and very young children
incompetency to stand trial.
The inability to defend oneself in court proceedings  is referred to as
Gestalt Therapy
get in touch with yourself in the here and now.
What is the absolute threshold?
smallest amount of stimulus energy that is detectable
Culture bound disorders
abnormal syndromes found only in a few cultural groups
age of viability
age at which a baby can survive the event of premature birth
What is explicit (or declarative) memory?
Explicit Memory is the conscious recollection of information, such as specific facts or events and, at least humans, information that can be verbally communicated.
rational emotive behavioral therapy
Attempts to show clients that they are irrational and/or misguided in their thought processes. - tend to overgeneralize and catastrophize
Several neurotransmitters play a role in the way we...
Several neurotransmitters play a role in the way we behave, learn, the way we feel, and sleep. And, some play a role in mental illnesses.
source memory or source monitoring
Memory for when, where, and how a particular piece of information was acquired
The units of hereditary information, consisting of short segments of chromosomes composed of DNA.
What are the units of hereditary information, consisting of short segments of chromosomes composed of DNA? G
Limitations of the usefulness of the big 5 approach.
*fail to capture the underlying casual personality processes that researchers are really interested in.
medical model applied ot abnormal behavior
proposes that it is useful to think of abnormal behavior as a disease
What are the two views of hypnosis and what evidence does each use to back its view?
1. Hypnosis is a kind of role playing, where subjects act as they think hypnotize people would act2. Hypnosis is an altered state of consciousness in which some things hypnotized subjects do cannot be performed by non-hypnotized subjects
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