Psychology 5 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
olfactory
smell
dependent variable
measured
Case Studies
clinical observations
Insecure - resistant
?
tolerance, withdrawal, experienced from maladaptive pattern of substance use:
dependance
Ovaries
Releases estrogen and progesterone
subliminal
employing stimuli insufficiently intense to produce a discrete sensation but often designed to influence the behavior of an individual
Ions
electrically charged atoms and molecules located inside and outside neuron
- have either positive or negative charge
- movements of ions across cell wall cause electrochemical changes in cell that generate an electrical signal to travel down axon in neural impulse
limbic system parts?
hippocampus, amygdala, hypothalmus 
sir francis galton
poineer of psychometrics
neurotransmitters
chemical messengers- transmit impulse across synaptic gap
systematic relaxation
the beneftis mediation provides
Expectancy
An anticipation concerning future events or relationships.
gifted
Having above-average intelligecne( iq 130 or higher) and or superior talent for something
Achievement Motivation
a desire for significant accomplishment; mastery of things, people, or ideas; and attaining a high standard.
Prognosis
Predicted development of a disorder over time
Psychoanalysts
are psychotherapists who use mental health treatment strategies that are based on the theories and methods pioneered by Freud
reinforcement
a consequences that increases the likelihood of a behavior being repeated
How does operant conditioning influence rates of aggressive responding?
NO ANSWER..
insanity
legal (not clinical) designation for the state of an individual judged to be legally irresponsible or incompetent 
hypothesis
testable prediction, often implied by a theory
hormonal regulation
-insulin associated with increase hunger-leptin- when levels are high, hunger diminishes
what drug is used for schziophrenia?
haldol
Dispute
Rational belief to replace irrational belief; work hard to change tendency to cling to irrational beliefs and increase flexibility in thinking
Kinesthesis
The sensations generated by receptors in teh muscles, tendons, and joints that inform us of our skeletal movement
Agreeableness (OCEAN)
warm, compassionate, polite, caring, cooperative
Personality Assessment
- Observation, Interviews, Rating Scales- Personality Inventories- Projective Tests
What do behaviorists say psychologists should study?
behavior
obedience to authority
concern with social approval
philosophy
the rational investigation of the truths and principles of being, knowledge, or conduct.
stimulant
counteract fatigue and produce mood upswings, promote alertness – caffeine, nicotine, cocaine
Cohesiveness
solidarity, loyalty, and a sense of group membership
active deception
commission, is the presenting of misinformation about the study to participants. The most common form of active deception is misleading participants about the specific purpose of the study
Personality Psychology
The scientific study of the psychological forces that make people uniquely themselves
Appetitive processes
The promotion of positive relationship behaviors.
A college student is having difficulty staying awake during the day and sleeping through the night. Her difficulties are MOST likely due to problem in the ______.
PONS
extralinguistic information
elements of communication that aren't part of the content of language but are critical to interpreting its meaning
retrospective memory
involves remembering events from the past or previously learned information
Need for power
Desire for control over others
specific phobia
involve fear of specific physical objects, places, or activities
Encoding
Physiological change in the brain to get information stored.
12. Hallucinogens
drugs that can alter and distort perceptions of time and space.
Systematic observation
Carefully observing behavior as it occurs. A method of research in which behavior is systematically observed and recorded.
Individual Differences
changes that contribute to one's unique characteristics
Top-down
conceptually driven and moves from the whole to the parts
 
(you think using your knowledge before you build)
ADHD Characteristics


a person is inattentive, impulsive, and overactive and thus has great difficulty concentrating for more than a few moments. (Inattention, hyperactive, impulsive)
Substance dependence
Chronic substance abuse that is characterized by seven symptomes, the two most important being tolerance and withdrawl.
Glial cells
provide support and protection for neurons, the other main type of cell in the nervous system. They are thus known as the "glue" of the nervous system. The four main functions of glial cells are to surround neurons and hold them in place, to supply nutrients and oxygen to neurons, to insulate one neuron from another, and to destroy pathogens and remove dead neurons.
• Motor neurons
are neurons that convey nerve impulses from the central nervous system to muscles and glands
GABA
inhibitory NT(tells cells not to fire or slow down)
Which is usually easier, recall or recognition?
recognition
Polygraph
a device for recording heart rate, blood pressure, respiration, and galvanic skin response. lie detector
conditioned response
a response that becomes associated with a previously unrelated stimulus as a result of pairing it with another that normally yields the response
euphoria
a feeling of happiness, confidence, or well-being sometimes exaggerated in pathological states as mania
morpheme
in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix). (Myers Psychology 8e p. 411)
mirror-image perceptions
mutual views often held by conflicting people, as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive
long-term store
a memory store of unlimited capacity that can hold information indefinitley
Diffusion of responsibility
tendency for individuals to feel diminished responsibility for their actions when they are surrounded by others who are acting the same way
endocrine system
system of glands and hormones that controls secretion of blood-borne chemical messengers
Denial
ex: one who denies that they are alcoholic
Serotonin (5HT)
The majority of the brain's serotonin is produced and distributed throughout the entire forebrain by the cells of the dorsal raphe nucleus, which is also associated with the reticular activating system. Serotonin is among the most widely distributed transmitters and has roles in learning, memory, attention, mood, aggression, appetite, sleeping and waking, sensory processing, and arousal. Serotonin is often referred to as 5HT, for 5-hydroxytryptamine, serotonin's official chemical name.
mislabeling (of arousal)
A mistake in labeling physiological arousal. An explanation for passion
who was the founder/father of psychology and what did he focus on?
Wihelm Wundt/ structuralism
Sequential Research Design
What research design are age differences and cohort differences hopelessly tangled?
SKINNER BOX
CAGE FOR ANIMALS EQUIPPED WITH A RESPONSE LEVER AND A FOOD TRAY DISPENSER USED IN RESEARCH ON OPERANT CONDITIONING
defense mechanisms
All ....have the purpose of keeping certain mental contents out of conscious awareness.
positive reinforcement
occurs when a response is strengthened because it is followed by the presentation of a rewarding stimulus
Case Study
an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
Mass Action
Lashley's concept that the whole brain is activated together for a task/recalling info
Middle Ear
The chamber between the eardrum and cochlea containing three tiny bones that concentrate the vibrations of the eardrum on the cochleas oval window.
The theory that forgetting is caused by one memory competing with or replacing another.
interference theory
In which active stage of sleep does dreaming occur? R
REM
Types of schizophrenia
a. Paranoid type (delusions and hallucinations)b. Catatonic type (immobility and stupor or agitated, purposeless motor activity)c. Disorganized type (most severe, disorganized speech and behavior and flat or inappropriate emotion)
Causes of Predjudice-Authoritarianism
a personality type characterized by prejudice toward any group that is perceived to be different from oneself
attention
concentration of the mind on a single object or thought selected with a view to limiting or clarifying receptivity by narrowing the range of stimuli
Parietal lobe
Lobe of brain responcible for touch sensation, integrating sensory input into meaningful experiences
means-end behavior
performing an action to get to a goal
Guilty Knowledge Test
On a Polygraph, the experimenter askes specific questions only the perpetrator and the police would know
what type of energy waves in stage 1?
theta waves
dialectical reasoning
a process in which opposing facts or ideas are weighed and compared, with a view to determining the best solution or resolving differences
Latent Learning
A response is learned but is not manifested as a behavioral change until later
A Theory
What is a set of concepts and propositions intended to describe and exlain some aspect of experience?
genetic factor
closer a relative is to an individual with schizo, the greater the likelihood of concordance (identical twins highest concordance at close to 48 percent)
interval scale
no true 0- for ex 0 IQ, 0º
Which two reinforcers tend to come hand in hand with each other?
secondary reinforcer--token reinforcer
Somatic Nervous System(p 109)
The subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that connects to sensory receptors and to skeletal muscles; sometimes called the Skeletal Nervous System.
• Corpus callosum
the thick bundle of nerve fibers that connects the two cerebral hemispheres allowing them to share info
ACQUISITION OF LANGUAGE
initial babbling includes all of the world's languages' phonemes 3 mo.: distinctions in production: non-native phonemes drop out b/c they are not heard...babbles in language in which it is immersed 6-12 mo: distinctions in perception sensitivity language environment-not your genes-determines which language you acquireeach child hears different utterances but all kids in a language community wind up w/ the same linguistic knowledge (phonology, morphology, syntax)...but vocab will not be the same
What is Critical Thinking?
the process of objectively evaluating, comparing, analyzing, and synthesizing information.
mental age
the level of native mental ability or capacity of an individual, usually as determined by an intelligence test, in relation to chronological age
nativist view of language
the idea that we discover language rather than learn it, that language development is inborn
Findings on early maturation
does not CAUSE problem behavior but may increase EXISTING problem behavior
Marriage
 
5 Predictors of Marital Success
1. Family Background: people with divorced parents or family members are more likely to get divorced.
 
2. Age: People who marry very young and very late have higher divorce rates
 
3. Length of Courtship: the longer a couple is together before they are married, the more likely they will get divorced
 
4. Personality: People who are insecure and perfectionists are more likely to divorce.


People must turn to perspective taking, where the empathize with the other partner in order to adjust.
5. Premarital Interaction: the quality of premarital communication is crucial.

Negativity, insulting remarks, and unsupportiveness are associated with marital distress.
What are the modern kinds of therapy? 
Psychotherapy and Bio-medical therapy
Glove anesthesia
The term for a condition in which only the hand, but no other parts of the arm, loses sensation and is unable to function
The value of a goal above and beyond its ability to fill a need.
Incentive value
Conditioned food (or taste) aversion
Conditioned avoidance of certain foods even if there is only one pairing of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli.
Darley and Latane observed that most university students failed to help a person ahving an epileptic seizure when they thought there were four other witnesses to the emergency. The students' failure to help is best explained in terms of
D) a diffusion of responsibility
WHAT VERY IMPORTANT GENERAL PRINCIPLE DO SUCH STUDIES ILLUSTRATE?
EXPECTATIONS OF BOTH SUBJECTS AND EXPERIMENTERS MUST BE CONTROLLED FOR
Androgen insensitivity (Testicular feminization) syndrome is ...
a) caused by a genetic defect in testosterone receptors.b) a result of excess estrogen.c) characterized by an XX genotype.d something you might want to bring up during Christmas dinner.e. creepy; really really creepy.
What are the 3 Major parts of the mind?
Preconscious, Unconscious, Conscious
How effective are insight therapies
-hard to tell b/c some ppl experience spontaneous remission and they can't tell if treatment had anything to do with it -but they do tend to produce a positve effect
For healthy couples, the best predictor of whether or not they will enjoy sex in old age is _____.
their sexual activity when they were younger
Interactive Model of Gender Related Behavior
a model built on the proposition that an individual’s gender-related behaviors in a given social interaction are influenced by what others expect, what the individual believes about her- or himself, and situational cues
CATHOLIC CHURCH - believed the mary's mom also had immalculate conception as well.
Orginal Sin - FreudTabla Rasa - Blank Slate John Locke. BF Skinner - Behaviorialist.Original Goodness - Humanistic. Carl Rogers (Union Theology>Seminary (Columbia Uv.-Idealistic Self)>Abraham Maslow
I-O Psychology ψ  Chapter 9 Stress & Burnout  
Technostress
&Disposisional Stressors relate to?
Technology changing individual sources of work stress.
 
(Always ahead of people)
 
Dispositional Stressors relate to → Attitude
 
23
concept
Eros
procreation (sex)
44
false consensus bias
Type A
high stress
afferent nerves
carries to brain 
superego
our sense of morality
illusory correlation
percieved non-existent correlation caused by ignoring equally essential info
PERCEPTION
The organization, identification, and interpretation of a sensation in order to form a mental representation.
Adolescence
11-18 years, Puberty, abstract, egocentric, imaginary audience, Social Development, parent-child, want choicesMood changes, risky behavior
endorphins
internally produced chemicals that resemble opistes in structure and effects
psychosurgery
surgery to treat phsychological disorders(ECT) - severe depression (TMS) - depression
T=O+E
What are ethics boards called?
Depression
Pessimism; hopelessness; slowing of action and thought
Neural Networks
Interconnected neural cells. With experience, networks can learn, as feedback strengthens or inhibits connections that produce certain results. Computer simulations of neural networks show analogus learning.
Cross-sectional Design
Methodology to examine a characteristic by comparing individuals of different ages.
According to psychoanalytic theory, the part of the personality that strives for immediate gratification of basic drives is the
A) id
Thalamus
structure in the forebrain through which all sensory information (except smell) must pass to get to the cerebral cortex.
Awake and Alert (sleep)
Beta Brain Waves
Sensory adaptation
diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation; happens for every sensory modality; neurons don't fire as much or change as much
ELABORATION
THE PROCESS OF CREATING ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN A NEW MEMORY AND EXISTING MEMORIES
experimental group
given the experience of interest
Aggression
Any physical or verbal behaviour intended to hunt or destroy.
Malingering
A conscious, purposeful using of somatic complaints to achieve exemption from one's obligations
schizophrenia
is a psychiatric diagnosis that describes a mental illness characterized by impairments in the perception or expression of reality, most commonly manifesting as auditory hallucinations, paranoid or bizarre delusions or disorganized speech and thinking in the context of significant social or occupational dysfunction. Onset of symptoms typically occurs in young adulthood,[1] with approximately 0.4–0.6%[2][3] of the population affected. Diagnosis is based on the patient's self-reported experiences and observed behavior.
Implicit motivations
unconscious goals: achievement (girl is beating him in golf) Intimacy: not interested in her just wants sex Power: Hes the boss going to fire her let her down
"Hot flashes" are due, in part, to increasing levels of pituitary hormones. TF?
true
Unconditioned Stimulus (US)
unlearnednaturaly produces the unconditioned response
introvert
a person characterized by concern primarily with his or her own thoughts and feelings
multiple personality
presence of separate personalities inside one person
perceptual set
a mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another; determined by our schemas and experiences
universalistic research goals
aims at tetsing theoretically hypothesized associstions, with no population in mind
Declarative memory
The subsystem within long-term memory that consciously stores facts, information, and personal life experiences.
free association
technique in which patients express themselves without censorship of any sort
mutations
a random error in gene replication that leads to a change in the nucleotides; the source of all genetic diversity
Dialectical Humanism
Eric Fromm: approach to personality, which tries to reconcile the biological, driven side of human beings and the pressures of societal strcture by focusing on the belief that people can rise above or transend these forces and become spontaneous, creative, and loving
nonconscious processes
mental processes occurring outside of and not available to consciousness, answers pop into your head
aversive conditioning
a relatively ineffective type of behavior therapy that involves repeatedly pairing an aversive stimulus with the occurrence of undesirable behaviors of thought.
Narcolepsy
A neurological sleep disorder in which a person suffers from sleep attacks .pg 398
Behaviorism
Freud is to psychoanalytical theory as Watson is to _____________
place theory
diff. frequencies stimulate dif parts of the basilar membrane
performance, morale.
Alternative work schedules have been found to have little impact on ..., but to have a significant impact on improving ...
Maintenance Rehearsal
system for remembering that involves repeatedly rehearsing information without attempting to find meaning in it.
Three aspects of emotions:
Feelings - subjectiveSomatic Responses: Facial expressionsAutonomic Responses: Biological Responses caused by reaction to some type of stimulu
Terman's findings 
people who had above average intelligence had above average physical health and were taller and heavier than individuals of the general population 
 
child prodigies do not burn out
 
slightly lower rates of mental illness and suicide in his group of Termites
lateralization
cognitive function that relies more on 1 side of the brain than the other
A person whose body contains both ovarian and testicular tissue is a
hermaphrodite
Dreams-for-survival Theory
The thoery suggesting that dreams permit information that is critical for our daily survival to be reconsidered and reprocessed during sleep.
behavior modification
the application of principles of operant conditioning to behavior, with the goal of changing undesirable behavior to more acceptable alternatives
extinction
can also occur in reinforcement, not just in classical learning
which psychologist claimed that humans have a biological predispostion to dvelop language
Noam chomsky
coping mechanism
an adaptation to environmental stress that is based on conscious or unconscious choice and that enhances control or gives psychological comfort
Behavioral Approach
This approach analyzes how organisms learn new behaviors or modify existing ones.
accommodation
the process by which the eye's lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retina. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 205)
Sensory Interaction
The principle that one sense may influence another, as when the smell of food influences its taste.
laboratory observation
a descriptive research method in which behavior is studied in a laboatory setting, where researchers canexert more control and use more precise equipment to measure responses.
hallucinations
seeing or hearing things that are not physically present
metabolism
the speed at which the body operates or the speed at which it uses up energy
fixed-ratio schedule
pattern of reinforcement where # of correct responses is required for reinforcement
procedural memory system
houses memory for actions, skills, conditioned responses, and emotional memories, largely automatic, take little effort and attention, doesn't decline much over time, uses cerebellum and amygdala
short term memory
limited capacity storage unit where info can be retained for up to 30 seconds
5-9 pieces or chunks of info
Atypical antipsychotic drug
New neuroleptic drugs that have psychological properties different than traditional antipsychotics. Used to treat schizophrenia. Reduces hallucinations and slurred speech.
declarative VS. procedural memories
declarative- factual information like names, faces, dates,etc.procedural- how to do certain things like ride a bike
Unconditioned Stimulus
Stimulus that causes a response that is automatic, not learned
men's rights movement
members believe that feminism promotes discrimination against men
SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
influance of others on our behavior BEHAVIOR OF PEOPLE IN GROUPS, INTRAPERSONAL ATTRACTION AND INTIMATE RELATIONSHIPS ATTITUDES AND PREJUDICE
Freud's psychoanalysis theory was
1st comprehensive theory of personality
Who was the founder of Modern Psychology?
William Wudnt
Homeostasis
the tendency of the body (and the mind) to naturally gravitiate toward a state of equilibrium or balance
Positive and Negative Reinforcers
Positive-addition of a desired stimulusNegative- Subtraction of an aversive stimulus.
Cultural Psychologists
study the ways in which culture affects human behavior- spoken language, foods eaten, parents discipline, laws obeyed.
Identical Twins
twins who develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two
Primary somatosensory cortex
Where is the Primary somatosensory cortex?
use caregiver as secure base from which to explore environment; when caregiver leaves, mildly protest, and when returns, smiles/climbs into lap
- Insecure avoidant
dual personality
a disorder in which an individual possesses two dissociated personalities, each of a complexity comparable to that of a normal individual
Psychodyamic
Freud -- role of early experiences and our unconscious
Affectively based attitude
An attitude based more on people's feelings and values than on their beliefs about the nature of an attitude objcet.
health behavior approach
focuses on the behaviors in which people engage, such as diet, exercise, or substance abuse, that may make them more susceptible to illness or may enhance health
Maria has a mental age of 10. This means:A) She is ten years old.B) It means nothing, unless you know her biological ageC) It means she is mentally challengedD) It means she has an IQ of 100E) It means she answered the IQ test questions that an average te
E
FAMILY RESEMBLANCE THEORY
Members of a category have features that appear to be characteristic of category members but may not be possessed by every member.
parietal lobes
one of four anatomical regions of each hemisphere of the cerebral cortex, located roughly on the top middle portion of the brain; contain the somatosensory cortex which controls the sense of touch.
When was psychology as a science established? By whom?
Wundt in 1879
culture-fair iq test
a test that does not discriminate against the members of any minoirty group.
amygdala in memory
critical to the formation of memories for learned fears
Flynn effect
increase in IQ scores for the general population over time
Observational Learning(p 266)
A process in which an individual learns new responses by observing the behavior of another (a model) rather than through direct experience.
Define NATUARLISTIC OBSERVATION:
OBSERVATION of BEHAVIOR as it OCCURS in the NATURAL ENVIRONMENT.
Iris
a ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening. Adjusts light intake
variable interval schedule
a reinforcement schedule in which the correct response is reinforced after a varying length of time since the last reinforcement.
father substitute
a male who replaces an absent father and becomes an object of attachment
def: ordinal scale + eg
rankings, ordering is meaningful but metric is not-eg 1st 2nd 3rd in a race
Motion Parallax
when you are moving, you use the speed of passing objects to estimate the distance of the objects.
peripheral nervous system
the nerves that connect the brain and spinal cord to everything else in the body
What is psychological dependence?
When a person has an overwhelming desire for the drug and need it to regulate their mood. Their thoughts are fixated on the drug.
Practical Importance
how big of a difference do we have between groups
Memory for when, where, and how a particular piece of information was aqcuired.
source memoryorsource monitoring
Sources of the carry over effect...
Practise effects, learning, fatigue, habituation, sensitisation, adaption, contrast.
Erikson's Theory of Psychological Development
Erikson saw human development as a sequence of psychological stages, defined by common problems that emerge throughout life.
Generalized Others
People who do not have close ties to a child but who do influence the child's internalization of the values of society; coined by George Herbert Mead. (155)
What are False Awakenings?
While dreaming you wake up, you dream you do something, you dream going back to sleep
behavioral inhibition system (BIS)
the brain system that is sensitive to punishment and therefore inhibits behavior that might lead to danger or pain
level of hostility and conflicts about expressing anger
Of the various characteristics of individuals with Type A personality, it is ...that are most predictive of cardiovascular disease.
Why doesnt sensory adaption work well for sight?
b/c SACCADES: eye muscle movements movements that constantly refocus what your looking at.
What is unique about the fovea?
Cones have a 1:1 neuron connection for high resolution.
What is an example of a projective personality test?
They are paper and pencil tests consisting of questions that respondents answer in one of a few fixed ways
 
MMPI ( Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory)
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Term:
Definition:
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