Psychology 7 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Standard Deviation
negative schizophrenia
absence of-affect-responsiveness-expression-posture (rigid body)
Correlation doesn't imply...
the sense of smell.
cell membrane
skin of cell
happy preponderance of blood
the first occurrence of mestruation
the gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency, the consistent presentation of the CS alone w/o the UCS leads to this
strict dictator, rigid and overcontrolling, harsh discipline, children are inhbited and fearful.
Noam Comsky, language acquisition device,
Set of innate mental mechanisms that allow a child to acquire language (nature)
School Psychology
studies learning problems/observation in classrooms
neurotransmitters that regulate pain perception
Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction---a strategy designed to decrease international tensions
negative attitude toward an individual based solely on his or her membership to a particular group
Clinical Description of Social Phobia
-extreme fear/shyness-social/performance situations-real bad impairment-avoidance/ distressed endurance
placebo effect
results caused by expectations only
Hawthorne effect
phenomenon in which participants' knowledge that they're being studied can affect their behaviour
the heart- it's warm and active
The Big Five Traits
Extraversion, Neuroticism, Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, Openness to experience
evaluate info as carefully as possibly, check and recheck your research
timpanic membrane (ear drum)
divides outside part/inside
sense receptor
specialized cell responsible for converting external stimuli into neural activity for a specific sensory system
ability to percieve 2 different colors
Confounding Variable
Extra, unwanted independent variable that was not intended to be studied.
ex.) soccer players running and taking vitamins...vitamins being the confound. coach doesn't know if improvement is from running or vitamins.
contributes to control of voluntary movement, pleasurable emotions, Decreased levels=Parkinson’s disease. Over activity = schizophrenia. Cocaine and amphetamines elevate activity
according to freud, the energy generated by the sexual instinct.
-located inside the cochlea-increases in thickness - decreases in stiffness-pressure changes in cochlear fluid lead to its vibrations-bulged by waves in fluid which are specific to certain frequencies-hair cell auditory receptors sit on membrane & bend according to place/rate of bulges -when membrane moves, receptors bend, send signal
electric shock used to produce cortical seizure accompanied by convulsions; mild electric current passed through brain & causes brief seizure; typically done over 6-20 sessions
the achievement of one's full potential through creativity, independence, spontaneity, and a grasp of the real world
the female reproductive cell, or egg
A random error in gene replication that leads to a change in the sequence of nucleotides; the source of all genetic diversity.
Pluralistic Ignorance
Bystanders' assuming that nothing is wrong in an emergency bnecause no one else looks concerned
Experimental Research
Studies that seek clues to cause-effect relationships by manipulating one or more factors (independent variables) while controlling others (holding them constant).
the loss of self-restraint occuring in group situations that fosters arousal and anonymity
cell body; contains the cell nucleus and much of the chemical machinery common to most cells.
cognitive learning
form of altering behavior that involves mental processes and may result from observation or imitation
The process by which our brain organizes and interprets sensory information, transforming it into meaningful objects and events.
memorizing info into higher order of units.
remembering oder of letters is easier when they are words instead of random letters.
Operant Conditioning
Edward Thorndike. Trial and error learning.
critical thinking
a systematic way of evaluating information in order to reach reasonable conclusions
gener symptoms of schizophrenia
irrational thought, delusions, deterioration of adaptive behavior, distorted perception, disturbed emotion
When clients start relating to their therapists in ways that mimic critical relationships in their lives
infant reflex stimulated by palm being stroked- baby makes strong fist. (2 months)
A somatoform disorder in which a person interrupts normal physical sensations as symptoms of a disease.
Social Cognition
The ability to understand social interactions, including the causes and consequences of human behavior. 
(Children with impaired social cognition are likely to be rejected)
Flat Affect
A marked lack of expressed emotions.
Stressors are a stimulus (the event that happens); stress is a response (how you respond to it)
Homostasis refers to
a balanced state of functioning
Depth perception
The ability to see three-dimensional space and to accurately judge distances.
a therapeutic approach that focuses on bringing the unconscious min material into conscious awareness
central executive system
controls deployment of attention, switching the focus of attention & dividing attention as needed
sociopolitical perspective
tries to understand, challenge, and document the process of oppression that a group has faced or faces
-involves historical analysis
an abnormal fondness or preference for animals
the theory that human psychology can only be accurately studied through the analysis of objectively observable and quantifiable behavioral events
latent learning
learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it. Latent learning is associated with research by EC Tolman (Myers Psychology 8e p. 334)
critical period
an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 156)
Educational psychologists
a psychologists who is concerned with helping
students learn
uninvolved parents
parents who show little interest in their childern and are emotionally detached.
_____ neurotransmitters make it more likely that a neuron will send its message to other neurons, whereas ________ neurotransmitters make it less likely that a neuron will send its message,
Excitory and Inhibitory
Descriminative stimulus
A stimulus that signals when a particular response is likely to be followed by a certain type of consequence.
a mix of dried leaves, flowers stems, and seeds
Fully Functioning Person
Exploring potentials and abilities and experiencing a match between real self and idea self
: Individual has left one culture, and tried to join another, trying to fit into a new culture, but the new culture will not accept you. Person has feelings of alienation, loss of identity.
episodic memory
type of declarative memory -- involves knowledge of specific events, personal experiences/activities.
conditioned stimulus (CS)
initially neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a response due to association with an unconditioned stimulus
Cecil is preoccupied with thoughts of jumping out the window of his tenth-floor apartment. In order to reduce his anxiety, he frequently counts his heartbeats aloud. Cecil would most likely be diagnosed as experiencing a(n):
obsessive-compulsive disorder
weak problem solving methods(domain general)
difference reduction, means-end analysis (end you want to achieve and the resources you have to achieve it), working backward, trial and error
Optic nerve
the nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain.
Mastery Goals
Goals framed in terms of increasing one's competence and skills.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
treatment involving the combination of behaviorism (based on the theories of learning) and cognitive therapy (based on the theory that our cognitions or thoughts control a large portion of our behaviors).
implicit memory
memories we are not consciously aware of but can still influence out behavior and mental processes.divided into priming and procedural (behavioral/muscle) memory
Define humanistic psychology
theories and clinical practices that centered on people's conscious understanding of themselves and capacity for self-control and presents an optimistic view of human nature
A measure of variability that is the difference between the highest and the lowest values in a data set.
sending a weak electric current into a brain structure to stimulate it
Approach-Approach conflict
Forced choice between two or more desirable alternatives
concentration of the mind on a single object or thought selected with a view to limiting or clarifying receptivity by narrowing the range of stimuli
The process by which the brain creates a model of internal and external experience.
what is classical conditioning?
consists of an unconditioned stimulus --> unconditioned response-->consitioned stimulus-->conditioned response
durability bias
belief that both our good and bad moods will last longer than they do
- a ring of muscle tissue that forms the colour portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening.
feature detectors
nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of the stimulus, such as shape, angle or movement
environment of evolutionary adaptedness (EEA)
the environment, or environments, in which a species' evolutionary adaptations were selected.
in nucleus of each cell made up of DNA
between-group heritability
extent to which differences in a trait between groups is genetically influenced
have scope --> can only be so bigEx. having to mentally zoom in to see a small object in a big scene
Sleep Apnea
Disorder caused by a blockage of the airway during sleep, resulting in daytime fatigue
Groupthink(p 294)
The tendency for all members of a group to think alike for the sake of harmony and to suppress disagreement.
Memories of the events of 9/11, the Oklahoma City bombing, or the disintegration of the Challenger are all likely to be examples of what type of memory?
flashbulb memory
When did Wilhelm Wundt found psychology?
end of the 1800's
Variable Intercal (VI)
VARIED amount of TIME for reinf.*high resistace to extinctionEX- fishing
a person who draws a source of control from the external world, depending on others as a source of values, ideas, and security
why lack of memory?
relative lack of verbal skills during 1st few years of life may limit what we are able to recall from then
what are the 3 layers of skin
epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis
Descriptive Research Study: Survey Research: Problems?
ADV: Prestty large sample size, convienent
DISADV: Pepople may be dishonest and often have trouble getting responses. When you do get a response, does this response represent a whole? Also, interviewers or questions can be leading
Name the personality disorders in Cluster C
Dependent- drawn to situations Avoidant- avoid situationsOCPD-obsessive compulsive personality disorder
What do Social Psychologists do?
* Social psychologists study how people influence one another.* Group versus individual behavior* Focus on issues of power, stereotypes, attitudes and coercion
What is Levinson's age criteria?
A. Classifies the periods of the adult life cycle into early adulthood (17-45 years), middle adulthood (40-65 years), and late adulthood (60+years). B. The 5-year span (ages 40-45) thus serves as a mid-life transition” during which the stage of the middle adulthood begins.
Temporal lobe of the left hemisphere
Where is most speech located?
Central Nervous System (CNS)
consists of the brain and the spinal cord.
trichromatic theory of color
by mixing red green and blue all colors can be created
REM sleep is important for what 3 things?
*sorting memories*stimulating the brain*restoring brain chemicals
what do sensory neurons do
carry info in from sensory organs (eyes, ears) through spinal cord and brain
Which of the most common STD’s are NOT treatable/curable
genital herpes, genital warts, AIDS
What is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)?
s published by the American Psychiatric Association and provides diagnostic criteria for mental disorders.
5. In what way do children and adults differ in sleep cycles?

Children have reversed sleep cycles as well.
2. What is the Premack Principle?
States that opportunity to engage in a preferred behavior will be a reinforcer for any less preferred behavior.
Hypothetical Thesis
Stage 4 sleep
a reply; answer.
dopaminergic projections, reticular activating system. it is involved in sensory functions such as locating where things are in space. It also contains structures which are important for voluntary movement (Parkinson’s disease is due to degeneration of the substantia nigra, a structure in the
What helps with drugs?
Functions on "reality principle" Serves to balance the demands of the Id and the superego Tries to satisfy both Id and superego
Freud's stages of psychosexual development
Amino acid neurotransmitter that excites neurons
Shores research
importance of reciprocal nurturing(baby/parent response)In children brain development specifically in future emotional regulation and coping -play critical role in attachment
innate characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and behaving
*Produced by posterior pituatiry gland
*Increases milk production (crying/sucking)
\"Morphine within\" - natural, opiate-like, neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure
a standard, model, or pattern.
periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness—as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation. (Adapted from Dement, 1999.) (Myers Psychology 8e p. 277)
expressions unique to a particular language; usually their meaning cannot be determined by decoding the individual meanings of the words
An accumulation of drive, incentive and urge.
The chemical factory is the _____
individual is subject to irresistible and unpredictable daytime attacks of sleepness or actual sleep, lasting from 5 to 30 mins.
do positive events (lottory winning) have prolonged effects on happiness.
The ________ rule accounts for classical conditioning and reduces learning to a mechanistic perspective.
An abstract representation of the sequence of actions needed to accomplish some goal.
Broca's Area
-production of language- Broca Aphasia
concept or framework that organizes and interprets info (abstract ideas)
Increase activity of GABADeveloped for treatment of mild anxietyOften Prescribed inappropriatelyXanax and Valium. Similar addiction and tolerance to alcohol.
Cannon-Bard Theory
conscious experience and physiological arousal occur simultaneously
T/F-A trait is a characteristic pattern of behavior?
the "input" center of a neuron
an irresistible impulse to steal, stemming from emotional disturbance rather than economic need
sex steroid hormones, linked to aggression
facial expressions
most reliable indicator of emotions across cultures
linguistic determinism
the language a person speaks determines thought (strong version), or at least exerts some influence (weak version)
Encoding failure
Our sensory memory receices the information and passes it to STM. But during the STM, we probably decide there was no need to remember the precise details, so we do not encode it and pass it on for stoage in LTM.
functional units of heredity; they are composed of DNA and specify the structure of proteins
The epithalamus is found in the ____brain.
Developmental Psychology
studies agerelated changes in behavior and mental processes from conception to death
perceptual set
a mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another
Women with anorexia experience this. The absence of a menstrual cycle. Pg 396
Miscarriages are more likely to happen in pregnant women over what age?
ego analysts
 these clinicians focus on ego defensive and conflict-free functioning
Second-Order Conditioning
a learned association between two conditioned stimuli (CS2-CS1) that can occur following conditioning to CS1 and an unconditioned stimulus.
Julian Rotter
external and internal locus of control; viewing events as either caused by luck or by self
As you stay awake longer, the concentration of adenosine in your brain increases. Adenosine is an example of a substance involved in the ____ control of sleep.
proactive interference
a forgetting process in which information that we learned earlier blocks or disrupts the retrieval of related new information
bulimia nervosa
an eating disorder characterized by binges of extreme overeating followed by self-induced vomiting, misuse of laxatives, or other inappropriate methods to purge the excessive food and prevent weight gain
A stimulus that has acquired punishing properties through associations with other punisher.
second phase of sexual response during which physical arousal is further heightened
plateau stage
Are specific phobias more common in men or women?
Delayed Reinforcement
always less reinforcing than immediate reinforcers
if..then logic; emotional maturity; && understand abstract reasoning (algebra)
formal operational
Reality principle
This concept involves the individual taking into account the acceptable social and cultural norms and values before taking action to satisfy a personal wish or desire.
positive psychology
the scientific study of optimal human functioning; aims to discover and promote strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 628)
parietal lobes
portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head towards the rear; receives sensory input for touch and body position
Industrial and organizational
specialize in the work place-develop interview/test processes for new employees or market research
Compared with males, females are more likely to cry and report distress when observing someone in distress. This best illustrates
D) empathy
Electroencephalograph (EEG)
a devise that monitors the electrical activity of the brain over time by means of recording electrodes attached to the surface of the scalp.
break set
To come up with unusual, unexpected ideas; to use something in a different way from how it is normally used.
Spacing Effect

We retain our information better over time. Distributed study or practice.
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
the biomedical therapy used primarily in the treatment of depression that involves electrically inducing a brief brain seizure; also called electroshock therapy.
situational influences; personal dispositions
the fundamental attribution error refers to our tendency to underestimate the impact of ________ and to overestimate the impact of _________ in explaining the behavior of others.
Peak Physical Health
-Strength increases during 20s peaks around 30s-Overall healthy state-See in 20s1.Growth in muslcle2.Increase in fat3.Weigth typically increases
Behavioral learning
forms of learning, such as classical conditioning and operant conditioning, that can be described in terms of stimuli and responses
Specific Phobias
(explain defining features)
Extreme and irrational fear of specific object/situation that is out of proportion to the danger posed by the object....
phobic object can cause a full-blown panic attack, it interferes with one's ability to function. 
Case Study
An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles.
split-brain patient
a person whose corpus callosum has been severed for medical reasons, so that neuronal impulses no longer pass from one hemisphere to another.
Case study designs
descriptive method in which an in-depth analysis is made of a single individual, a single rare event, or an even that clearly exemplifies some phenomenon
The occurrence of a stimulus or event following a response that increases the likelyhood of that response being repeated.
Extraneous variables
What is it called when all participants in the sample have an equal chance of being in different groups/ conditions?
what are neurons
individual cells in nervous system that recieves, intrigates and transmits info to other neurons
information overload
an excess of incoming information that forces one to be selective in the information received and retained
Transformational Leader
Concerned with not enforcing the rules but with changing them. Dynamic individual who brings charisma, passion, and vision to position. Motivate by inspiring others to do their very best, need employee input - Oneness
contrast error
tendency for raters to see each other as opposite to them on a trait
Norm of reciprocity
norm that people should benefit those who have benefited them
Lower brain
part of the brain common to animals and humans that regulates basic functions such as breathing
In-group homogeneity
Members are seen as more similar to each other than out-group members are. Common in minority group members.
variable-ratio schedule
a schedule in which a certain number of responses is required for reinforcement, but the number of required responses typically changes from trial to trial.
Nature of Body Growth
•Body Growth is controlled by increase in hormones secreted by adrenal glands•First outward sign of puberty = growth spurt- increases in size, strength, weight (25-40 lbs)•Girls start earlier, often age 9-10; lasts about 2.5 years.•Boys start 2 yrs later, around age 12.5 and grow for a longer period of time.•Reverse of cephalocaudal trend•Increase in appetite •Increase in size and activity of oil-producing glands•See changes in muscles-fat ratio. Girls add more fat than boys. Boys gain more muscle strength than girls.
Information- processing model
computer -like model used to describe the way humans encode,store and retrieve information.
Sigmund Freud's Theory
behavior and problems are the result of experiences early in life 
Direct Evidence for Organizing Effects
Differences in cells and functions
1.  Developmental differences b/t males and females in # of cells in hippocampus, cortex, amygdala, hypothalmus
2.  Females thicker LH, males thicker RH
3.  Females thicker corpus callosum?  
4.  Female: more interaction b/t LH and RH, 
5.  Females: different configuration in language areas?

mary whiton culkins
student of william james at harvard in the 1800's - james didn't give her her phd because she was a woman - later became distinguished memory researcher and first female president at the american psychological department.
-copies of images from world are next to each other in retina which are next to each other in cortex-adjacencies preserved
Dissociative identity Disorder
A rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more personalites. Also called multiple personality disorder.
mental age
the level of native mental ability or capacity of an individual, usually as determined by an intelligence test, in relation to chronological age
What part of the eye has an action potential in it?
ganglion cell
Functional/structural magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
-uses big magnets to detect oxygen in the head
(knows WHERE, not WHEN)
PTSD cause those who have it to act as if they are constantly threatened by trauma that caused their illness
lucid dreaming
sleeper is aware that they are in a dream while dreaming
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
A projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes.
This is an old type of drugs. A problem is the drug acts differently with different patients. It might cure on patient but make no difference in another.
Tricyclic Antidepressants
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is just what it sounds like—the part that involves nerves peripheral to (or outside of) the brain and spinal cord. The chief function of the peripheral nervous system is to carry information to and from the central nervous system. It links the brain and spinal cord to the body's sense receptors, muscles, and glands.
cognitive approach (to learning)
A way of learning based on abstract mental processes and previous knowledge.
Stage 2 sleep
A sleep deeper than that of stage 1, characterized by a slower, more regular wave pattern, along with momentary interruptions of "sleep spindles."
How do empirical findings differ from other ways of gathering evidence?
It uses; Careful observation, Experimentation, Measurement to obtain quality data
disadvantages of early puberty
girls are likely to smoke, drink, be depressed, having a eating disorder, request earlier independence,have older friends,lose virginity
Research on the causes of schizophrenia strongly suggests that
there is a genetic predisposition to schizophrenia
What kind of content do dreams usually have?
negative; familiar people and places;
Chapter 1: (3)When and where was Psychology officially founded?
Pyschology was founded in 1879 in Wilhelm Wundt's laboratory.(Leipzig, Germany)
what were the different stages the freudian believed in
Oral Stage (birth to 18 months) the child is focused on the mouth as a way of seeking pleasure because of its requirement for nursing.  If the child's weaning is traumatic, in later life any unresolved conflicts may manifest as a preoccupation with oral activities such as smoking, drinking, eating or bite his or her nails or chew pencils and pens.   The Anal Stage (18 months to three years) is a time in which pleasure is based on eliminating and retaining bowel movements and gaining control over them. In terms of conflicts during this stage, the end result can be an obsession with cleanliness, perfection, and control (anal retentive) or they may become messy and disorganized slobs (anal expulsive).   During the Phallic Stage (ages three to six) the attention witches to the genitals as boys and girls learn that they are differences between the genders and become aware of the similarities and differences between them and their parents.  Freud believed that during this stage boys develop unconscious sexual desires for their mothers and come to see their fathers as rivals for her attention and affection. He also believed that boys develop a fear that their father will punish them for these feelings, such as by castrating them. This group of feelings is known as Oedipus Complex.  Similarly girls were supposed to go through a similar attraction with their father and competition with their mother termed the Electra Complex.  Girls were also thought to develop penis envy over not having male genitalia.  In the end, the conflicts were suppose to resolve by the child identifying with the same-sex parent instead of competing with them and adopt their gender-appropriate sexual identities.  Unresolved conflicts would be expected to possible manifest as adult overindulging or avoidance of sexual activity or a weak or confused sexual identity. The next stage is the Latency Stage (age six to puberty). It’s during this time that sexual interest is repressed and children interact and play mostly with their same sex peers, until puberty. In the Genital Stage (puberty on) sexual urges are awakened.  Through the prior resolution of conflicts learned during the previous stages, Freud said that healthy adolescents are then to direct their sexual urges onto opposite sex peers, with the primary focus of pleasure being the genitals.
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