RRD #5 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Peripheral Vascular
term used to describe vessels outside of the heart, especially when used to describe disease processes.
Central
Term used to refer to the heart, lungs, brain, kidneys, and most crucial areas of the body.
Peripheral
A term usually used to refer to anything outside of the heart, lungs, brain, and kidneys.
Right side of the heart
Known as the venous side--deoxygenated flow is coming from all veins and tissue in the body.
Left side of the heart
Atrial side--oxygenated flow leaves the heart via the aorta to all arteries and tissue.
Veins (venous return)
Thin-walled vessels that take deoxygenated blood from tissue beds all over the body back to the right side of the heart.
Proper functioning valves and good myo tone. The myo helps to direct flow towards the heart during systole and prevents backflow during diastole. Valves open during systole and clothes during diastole to prevent backflow.
Two structures that prevent backflow. How do they prevent backflow?
Venous Congestion (peripheral tissues)
Failure to keep blood flowing in its proper direction; venous blood begins to pool and settle in the veins of legs and foot tissue.
Chronic Venous Insufficiency (CVI)
Term caused by venous valves. This allows backflow into distal veins of legs & feet.
a.) venous stasis
b.) increased hydrostatic pressure
c.) increased pressure causes edema, dry tight skin, and brown discoloration.
d.)venous stasis ulcers
e.) varicose veins
S and S of Chronic Venous Insufficiency
a) Gravity Winning- being on one's feet too long, within normal experience unless sever.
b) Valve incompetence- considered a pathological process and is referred to as venous insufficiency.
2 Factors that contribute to venous congestion
Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)
The term used to describe a clot that develops on the wall of a vein of the thighs and calves.
a.) aging, inherited predisposition, obesity, sometimes pregnancy, and years of standing at job.

b.) lack of assistance from musculature, such as when there is poor myo tone due to immobility or inactivity.
2 Contributing factors to Chronic Venous Insufficiency
inflammation and swelling (thrombophlebitis)
a.) local redness, pain, warmth, edema
b.) unilaterally
c.) can be mild or severe
d.) could have none at all
S and S of DVT
Virchow's Triad
A term that describes the three broad categories of factors that are thought to contribute to thrombosis.
Virchow's Triad: pt has one or more element of
a.) injury to endothelium of vein
b.) stasis of blood flow
c.) hypercoagulability states caused by dehydration or clotting issues
Risk Factors for DVT
a.) people who sit for long periods of time
b.)immobilizing devices or casts
c.) bed-ridden or wheelchair-bound
d.)pregnant
e.)obese
f.)on diuretics or certain hormone therapies (estrogen)
g.) pre-existing conditions of CVI, recent surgery, clotting problems
High risk situations for Virchow's Triad
Coagulopathy
A term that describes a pt's. tendency to clot easily caused by disease.
The thrombus can potentially break off and become a venous embolus. Travels to the lung and becomes a pulmonary embolus.
Sequela of DVT
SOB
Hemoptysis (blood in sputum)
Shock
S and S of Pulmonary Embolus
Enters pulmonary artery>gets stuck in smaller arterioles>deoxygenated blood blocked from becoming oxygenated>SOB>Inflammation>leakage of blood into lung tissue>blood in sputum>massive release of inflammatory mediators>systemic vasodilation>shock
Concept Map of Pulmonary Embolism
encourage mobility
encourage hydration
elevate legs to promote normal flow
extra care to skin with edema
blood thinners
Treatment for DVT
Arteries
A term to describe thick-walled vessels that accept oxygenated blood from the heart and circulate it to the tissue beds all over the body.
Arterial Vasomotor
Describes myo tone of the arterial wall. Good blood pressure is often dependent upon good _______________________ tone.
Lumen
Healthy ________________ lining is smmoth & patent (open) free of blockage, so forward moving blood flow is smooth.
Systolic
_________________________ pressure is the pressure in the arteries that is exerted when the heart is contracting and ejecting blood out to the arteries
Diastolic
____________________________ pressure is pressure existing in the arteries when the heart is between systoles, or "resting"
Vasomotor tone and patent lumen
What two components contribute to good perfusion of distal tissues?
Perfusion
_______________________ is process of delivery of oxygen and nutrients via arterial system to tissue beds all over the body
Normal B/P
Normal Pulses (carotid, radial, and pedal)
Normal capillary refill
Normal organ fx
S&S of good vasomotor tone and patent lumen are:
2
< or equal to ________ seconds means arterial system efficiently refills the capillaries.
Arterial Insufficiency
__________________ ________________ is almost always due to the atherosclerosis, a process in which arteries become stiffer and collect fat and other unwanted substances.
a.) Compromised perfusion
b.)Ischema from hypoxia
Leads to ischemic pain that increases with activity and decreases at rest.
c.) diminished pulses
d.) delayed capillary refill
e.) dusky skin color
f.) decreased cardiac output
g.) stroke
h.) diminished urine output
S&S of atherosclerosis
Periphreal Arterial Disease
arterial thrombi and emboli
aneurysm
hypertension
coronary artery disease
Five specific arterial diseases related to atherosclerosis
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