Psychology AP Flashcards

Terms Definitions
GABA
allergies
Agonists
mimics neurotransmitter (morphine)
acuity
the sharpness of vision
olfaction
The sense of smell.
Secure attachment
babies and moms
Culture
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
chunking
organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically
Which brain structure receives information from all the senses except smell?
thalamus
Nurture
upbringings/environment shape who you are
Self-Efficacy
According to Bandura, learned expectations about the probability of success in given situations.
Humanistic Psychology
historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people; used personalized methods to study personality in hopes of fostering personal growth.
perceptual understanding comes from inborn ways of organizing sensory experience was an idea expressed by..
Kant
frontal lobes
control emotional behaviors, make decisions, carry out plans; speech (Broca's area); controls movement of muscles
assimilation
refers to interpreting a new experience in terms of an existing schema.In Piaget's theory.
John B. Watson
BEHAVIORIST; Little albert experiment
self-actualization
according to Maslow, the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic psychical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved
Adrenal Glands
Secrete adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine), which arouses us in times of stress
rods
responsible for black and white vision
Adolescence
The transition period from childhood to adulthood, extended from puberty to independence.
grouping
the perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups
Psychoneuroimmunology
An interdisciplinary area of study that includes behavioral, neurological, and immune factors and their relationship to the development of disease
achievement motivation
a desire for significant accomplishment: for mastery of things, people, or ideas; for attaining a high standard
reinforcer
a consequence that increases the probability that a behavioral response will occur again
example of acetylcholine
with alzheimer's disease, ACh-producing neurons deteriorate
preoperational
language- cannot reason or understand principles of conservation.
Heritability
The proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. The heritability of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied.
Neo-freudians
theories based on Freudian principles but less emphasis on sexuality as primary motivating force in personality
Personality Tests
Measure various aspects of personality, including motives, interests, values, and attitudes.
leptin
chemical substance secreted by bloated fat cells.
mode
the most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution
excitatory neurotransmitter
chemical secreted at terminal button that causes the neuron on the other side of the synapse to fire
Operational definitions
precise statements of the procedures (operations) used to define independent and dependent variables.
egocentrism
in Piaget's theory refers to the difficulty that preoperational children have in considing another's viewpoint. "Ego" means "self" erring and "centrism" indicates "in the center"; the preoperational child is "self-centered."
Memory
the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information
thalamus
top of the brainstem; the brain's sensory switchboard, receiving information from all senses except smell and routing it to the regions dealing with those senses
antagonists
drugs that block the actions of neurotransmitters by occupying the receptor sites in which the neurotransmitters dock
Deindividualization
Do "bad" things because you feel anonymous
unconditioned response (UR)
in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus, such as salivation when food is in the mouth
lesion
any destruction or damage to brain tissue
replication
repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances
difference threshold
also called the jnd; smallest distinction between two stimuli that can consistently be detected
Fixed-Ratio Schedule
a partial reinforcement schedule that provides reinforcement following a fixed number of responses
Opponent-process theory
Visual theory, proposed by Herring, that color is coded by stimulation of three types of paired receptors; each pair of receptors is assumed to operate in an antagonist way so that stimulation by a given wavelength produces excitation (increased firing) in one receptor of the pair and also inhibits the other receptor.
range
the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution
intrinsic motivation
term that describes motivations that derive from one's interest in the object of the motivation, rather than from rewards that one might gain
hindsight bias
-tendency to overestimate ones ability to have predicted an event once outcome is known
fraternal twins
develop from two separate eggs fertilized by different sperrn and therefore are no more genetically similar than ordinary siblings.
Ellis, Albert
A cognitive Psychologist who developed the concept of Rational-Emotive Therapy.
Hallucination
subjective perception of an object or voice when no such stimulus exists
Outer Ear
Depends upon vibration of air molecules. Consists mainly of the pinna, which funnels sounds along the auditory canal toward the eardrum.
Shadowing
repeating aloud what subject hears in one ear (the one being attended to)
naturalistic observation
observing and recording behavior in naturally occuring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
amygdala
place in limbic system; neural center of fear
psychology
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
Albert Ellis
Came up with Rational Emotive Therapy
Alpha Brain Waves
Brain-wave pattern associated with relaxed wakefulness and drowsiness
Gender Schema Theory
The theory that children and adolescents use gender as an organizing theme to classify and interpret their perceptions about the world and themselves
Critical Period
an optimal period shorty after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiances produces proper development
Social comparison
the process of determining one's own standards or standing on the basis of the behavior of others or using the behavior of others for purposes of evaluating one's behavior
Optic Nerve
the nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain
taste cells
nerve cells that are sensitive to tastes
Computer-Assisted Instruction
A form of programmed instruction in which a computer is used to guide a student through a series of increasingly difficult questions.
Emotional Intelligence
Ability to regulate your own emotions and to understand and deal with the emotions of other people
Heritability Coefficient
estimates the extent to which the differences, or variation, in a specific characteristic within a group of people can be attributed to genetic factors
Cognitive Map
a mental representation of the layout of one's environment
one-word stage
the stage in speech development, from about age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words
generalization
The tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses.
Approach-avoidance conflict
Conflict that results from having to choose an alternative that has both attractive and unappealing aspects
Binocular Cues
depth cues, such as retinal disparity and convergence, that depend on the use of two eyes
primary sex characteristics
the physical structures necessary for reproduction
the method of loci
strategy for remembering information; associates well-known locations with information to be remembered
Expectancy Bias
the researcher allowing his or her expectations to affect the outcome of a study; or in memory, a tendency to distort recalled events to make them fit one's expectations
structured interviews
interview process that asks the same job-relevant questions of all applicants, each of whom is rated on established scales
otolith
in the ear and are sensitive to movement, acceleration, and gravity
Signal Detection Theory
-assumes there is an absolute threshold: emphasizes the role of expectations, motivation and energy level
corpus callosum
the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them
action potential
a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon. the action potential is generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channels in the axon's membrane
fluid intelligence
one's ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood.
adaption-level phenomenon
our tendency to form judgments (of sounds, of lights, of income) relative to a "neutral" level defined by our prior experience
sexual response cycle
the four stages of sexual responding described by Masters an Johnson - excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution
gate-control theory
theory that the spinal cord contains a neurological gate that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass on to the brain
pineal gland
a small endocrine gland in the brain that produces the hormone melatonin, which is involved in regulating sleep-wake cycles
two factor theory
Theory of emotion proposed by Stanley Schachter and Jerome Singer, that to experience emotion we must 1) be physically aroused and 2) cognitively label the arousal (Schacter)
Complementary and alternative medicine
Unproven health care treatments not taught widely in medicals schools, not used in hospitals, and not usually reimbursed by insurance companies
Extrinsic Motivation
A desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment.
sympathetic nervous system
The _____________ is the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations. (P-42)
just noticeable difference
the threshold at which one can distinguish two stimuli that are of different intensities, but otherwise identical
Operant Conditioning
A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher.
relative size
when looking at 2 objects of known similar size, the smallest as seen as further away
electroencephalogram (EEG)
an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface; these waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp.
aptitude test
A test designed to predict a person's future performance; aptitude is the capacity to learn.
(1) norepinephrine, (2) seratonin, and (3) endorphines
the three mood-boosting neurotransmitters that exercise helps produce:
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
a method of classifying human needs and motivations into five categories in ascending order of importance: physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization
minority influence
the power of one or two individuals to sway majorities
operant chamber
a chamber also known as a Skinner box, containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer, with attached devices to record the animal's rate of bar pressing or key pecking. Used in operant conditioning research.
Smell Absolute Threshold
1 drop of perfume diffused into a three room apartment
Schachter-Singer theory of emotion
we determine our emotion based on our physiological arousal, then label that emotion according to our explanation for that arousal
Karen Horney's (Hor - nay') views on development
"Neo-Freudism"
(new Freud theorists) studied neurosis; women don't have "penis envy", but they envy men's power
validity
accuracy
Gordon Allport
Trait theory
Reflex
Sensory neurons---> Internuerons---> Motor Neurons
flavor
taste+smell
papille are taste buds
hormone
chemical substance secreted by endocrine glands that affect body processes
negitively skewed
some extremely low scores
Accommodation
adapting one's current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information
hippocampus
associated with storing permanent memories; help us navigate through space
Hunger
a physiological need for food
Acetylcholine
a neurotransmitter that enables learning and memory and also triggers muscle contraction
Neurotransmitters
Chemical messengers that transverse the synaptic gas between neurons. They create or inhibit the receiving neuron from generating a neutral impulse.
dopamine
associated with movement, attention, and reward; dopamine imbalances may play a role in parkinsons disease and schizophrenia
self-fulfilling prophecy
when a researcher's expectations unknowingly create a situation that affects the results
catharsis
emotional release. In psychology, the catharsis hypothesis maintains that "releasing" aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges
pancreas
endocrine cells that secrete glucagon and insulin
down syndrome
mental syndrome, extra chromosome, rounded face, shorter fingers, slanted eyes set far apart
basic research
scientific investigations intended to expand the knowledge base
Depolarization
the process during the action potential when sodium is rushing into the cell causing the interior to become more positive
adaptation
a trait or inherited characteristic that has increased in a population because it solved a problem of survival or reproduction
sleep
periodic, natural, and reversible loss of consciousness--as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation
Gestalt Psychology
a psychological approach that emphasizes that we often perceive the whole rather than the sum of the parts
nerves
neural "cables" containing many axons. These bundled axons, which are part of the peripheral nervous system, connect the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs.
attribution theory
explaining others behaviors by attributing it to internal factors or external situations.
Interneurons
Central nervous system neurons that internally communicate and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs
gender typing
-refers to gender role development
cognitive neuroscience
an interdisciplinary field emphasizing brain activity as information processing; involves cognitive psychology, neurology, biology, computer science, linguistics, and specialists from other fields who are interested in the connection between mental processes and the brain
decibals
the unit that measures sound energy.
Dream
A story-like episode of unfolding mental imagery during sleep
GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)
neurotransmitter that inhibits firing of neurons; linked with Huntington's disease
Unconditioned stimulus
stimulus that causes a natural response (loud noise-scares us)
Retrieval
is the process of bringing to consciousness information from memory storage.
Medians
the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it.
norm
an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior; "proper" behavior
Plasticity
Brain's ability to modify and repair itself
hypothalamus
a neural structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus; it directs several maintenenace activities (eating, drinking, body temp), helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gand, and is linked to emotion.
equity
a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it.
Cornea
transparent outer layer in front of the eye
social norm
a group's determination of socially acceptable behavior
Narcolepsy
A disorder of REM sleep, involving sleep-onset REM periods and sudden daytime REM-sleep attacks usually accompanied by cataplexy.
working memory
Temporarily holds current or recent information for immediate or short-term use; Information is maintained for 20-30 seconds while active processing (e.g., rehearsal) takes place
menopause
the time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines
cognitive psychology
an approach to psychology that emphasizes internal mental processes
dependent variable
the variable that the experimenter measures at the end of the experiment
Schema
A concept or framework that organizes and interprets information.
Psychoticism
Solitary, are detached from others in their interpersonal relationships, lack feelings, and especially lack caring, empathy, and sensitivity.
Theory
A general idea about the relationship of two or more variables.
demand characteristics
Those aspects of an observational setting that cause people to behave as they think an observer wants or expects them to behave
Closure
People often group elements to create a sense of closure (complete pictures that actually have gaps in them,
Pitch
the perceived frequency of a sound, longer sound waves have lower frequency and produce a lower pitch, whereas shorter waves have higher frequency and a higher pitch
Unconscious Level
theorized by Sigmund Freud, holds repressed memories and desires
neural networks
interconnected neural cells - with experience, networks can learn
primary reinforcer
an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need.
dissociative disorders
disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (disassociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings
Axon
*Fibers that pass on information along to other neurons or to muscle glands
*Surrounded by Myelin sheath which helps insulate and speed up reactions
Psychosurgery
Brain surgery used in the past to alleviate symptoms of serious mental disorders.
Barbiturates
drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing enxiety but impairing memory and judgement
monocular cues
depth cues, such as interposition and linear perspective, available to either eye alone
intelligence quotient
defined originally as the ratio of mental age (ma) to chronological age (ca) multiplied by 100 (thus, IQ = ma/ca × 100). On contemporary intelligence tests, the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100.
projective test
a Freudian personality test based on the assumption that individuals project their unconscious feelings when responding to ambiguous stimuli
Undoing
attempt is made to atone for, or negate, an unacceptable act or thought by engaging in some form of ritualistic activity.
Counseling Psychology
Involves less training and deals with less severe problems than do clinical psychologist.
lymphocytes
the two types of white blood cells that are part of the body's immune system: B lymphocytes form in the bone marrow and release antibodies that fight bacterial infections; t lymphocytes form in the thymus and other lymphatic tissue and attack cancer cells, viruses, and foreign substances
Statistical significance
a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result will occur by chance
homeostasis
a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level.
Social Facilitation
Change in behavior that occurs when people believe they are in the presence of other people.
fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking. In severe cases, symptoms include noticeable facial misproportions
Insecure Attachment
The infant becomes very disturbed when left alone with a stranger but is ambivalent to mother's return and may resist her attempts at physical contact. Mothers of these children are often moody and inconsistent in their caretaking.
What makes a good test?
Standardization, Reliability, and Validity.
availability heuristic
judging a situation based on examples of similar situations that come to mind initially
subliminal perception
perception of a stimulus below the threshold for conscious recognition
Applied research
scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
confirmation bias
a tendency to search for information that confirms one's preconceptions
illusionary correlation
the perception of a relationship where none exists
Semantic network model
A representation of the organizational structure of long-term memory in terms of a network of associated concepts.
Lithium
a common mineral salt that is often prescribed for the treatment of bi-polar disorders. But it's a trick chemical, and one has to take the right dose, at the right time and under the right conditions
Social Psychology
the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
Fovea
Area of the retina that is the center of the visual field
natural selection
the principle that among the range of inherited trait variations - those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.
The Base-Rate Rule
the probability of something being a member of a class is greater the more class members there are; experiment with 30 engineers and 70 lawyers and people say 50//5
Spinal cord
The thick cable of neurons that mostly connect PNS neurons to the brain
night terrors
a sleep disorder with high arousal and an appearance of being terrified, during stage 4, seldom remembered
The normal curve
__________ is a bell-shaped curve that rep­resents the distribution (frequency of occurrence) of many physical and psychological attributes. The curve is symmetrical, with most scores near the average and fewer near the extremes, (p. 317)
theory of mind
people's ideas about their own and others' mental states - about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behavior these might predict
autonomic nervous system
The part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs
rooting reflex
when an infant's cheek is touched, it will search for a nipple
Feel-good, do-good phenomenon
People's tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood.
Professor Smith told one class that alcohol consumption has been found to increase sexual desire. He informed another class that alcohol consumption has been found to reduce sexual appetite. The fact that neither class was surprised by the information the
the hindsight bias
frequency theory
in hearing, the theory that the roate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone, thus enabling us to sense pitch.
Synapse
*A gap less than a millionth of an inch wide of which the axon terminal is sperated from the recieving neuron
*Also called "cleft" or "synaptic gap"
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images of soft tissue. MRI scans show brain anatomy.
Diffusion of responsibility
The larger a group is, the less responsible one will feel to act on something.
Random Sample
a sample in which every element in the population has an equal chance of being selected
When the release of ACh is blocked the result is,
muscular paralysis
Benjamin Lee Whorf & Edward Sapir
proposed a theory of linguistic relativity
measures of central tendency:
mean, median, mode
mean- the average
median - the number in the middle
mode- the most frequently occurring number
Hypothesis
a testable prediction
Alfred Adler
neo-Freudian, psychodynamic; Contributions: inferiority complex, organ inferiority; Studies: birth order influences personality
shaping
reinforcing successive approximations of the desired behavior
Crystallized Intelligence
Concrete knowledge, experience
Hallucinogens
psychedelic drugs, that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images
Hypnosis
Produces increased susceptibility to hypnotist's influence or creates a mental "hidden observer" (Hilgard)
Group Therapy
The simultaneous psychological treatment of several clients in a group. The therapist often sits back and lets the clients lead discussions, and they have numerous advantages to them.
eardrum
also called the tympanic membrane
loudness
sound intensity determined by amplitude or height of wave and is measured in decibels
gender
biologically and socially influenced characteristics by which people define male and female
Correlations
Existence of consistent, systematic relationship between 2 events, measures varaiables
Working through
In psychoanalysis, the repetitive cycle of interpretation, resistance to interpretation, and transference.
Phobia
an anxiety disorder marked by persistant, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation
aerobic exercise
sustained exercise that increases heart and lung fitness; may also alleviate depression and anxiety.
dendrite
bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body
Puberty
When humans become able to reproduce
two almond-shaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion.
amygdala
Introspection
Part of Wundt's research methodology; involves "looking within"
Tolman
cognition; studied rats and discovered the "cognitive map" in rats and humans
subliminal
below one's absolute threshold for conscious awareness
higher-order
term describes conditioning in which the CS for one experiment becomes the UCS in another experiment so that another neutral stimulus can be made to elicit the original UCR
Psychoactive Drugs
Chemical substances that modify mental, emotional, or behavioral functioning.
Jean Piaget
studied cognitive development in children
nature-nuture
the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors
gender stereotypes
general beliefs about characteristics that are presumed to be typical of each sex
Depressants
Drugs (such as alcohol barbiturates, and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow body functions
crystallized
term describes a type of intelligence which applies cultural knowledge to solving problems
Elaborative Rehearsal
A memorization method that involves thinking about how new information relates to information already stored in long-term memory.
Belief Perserverance
clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited
Social Cultural
behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures.
negative reinforcement
increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock. A negative reinforcer is any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response. (Note: negative reinforcement is not punishment.)
mental age
a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet; the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance. Thus, a child who does as well as the average 8 year-old- is said to have a mental age of 8.
Non-declarative Memory
the subsystem within long-term memory that stores motor skills, habits, and simple classically conditioned response; also called implicit memory
median
the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it.
obesity
condition of having excess body fat resulting in being greatly overweight
Dendrites
The primary receiving part of a neuron
scapegoat
this theory says that having suffered negative experience, an individual might blame an innocent person or group for the experience and subsequently mistreat the person or group
Anxiety
a generalized feeling of fear and apprehension that may be related to a particular situation or object and is often accompanied by increased physiological arousal.
The Stanford-Binet
__________ is Lewis Terman's widely used revision of Binet's original intelligence test, (p. 315)
critical thinking
involves using knowledge and thinking skills to evaluate evidence and explanations
embryo
early stage of human development, when cells have begun to differentiate
Childhood
The stage of development that begins at about 18 to 24 months and lasts until adolescence
psychophysics
A specialty area of psychology that studies sensory limits, sensory adaptation, and related topics.
Cannon-Bard theory
the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (1) physiological responses and (2) the subjective experience of emotion.
Circadian rhythm
the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms (for example, of temperature and wakefulness) that occur on a 24-hour cycle.
Dentrite
the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body (soma)
stereotype
widely held beliefs that people have certain characteristics because of their membership in a particular group
correlation coefficient
the mathematical expression of the relationship, ranging from -1 to +1
social exchange
a theory that suggests that our behavior is based on maximizing benefits and minimizing costs
physical dependence
a physiological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued.
acousitc encoding
is the processing of information into memory according to its sound
Subtractive Color Mixture
The remaining wavelengths of light that are reflected from an object after other wavelengths of light have been absorbed by that object.
posthypnotic suggestion
a suggestion, made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized; used by some clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and behaviors.
Iconic Memory
a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second
sound waves
Vibratory changes in the air that carry sound.frequency of cycles*The rate of vibration of sound waves; determines pitch.
Stanley Schachter
emotion; stated that in order to experience emotions, a person must be physically aroused and know the emotion before you experience it
Overconfidence
The tendency to be more confident than correct.
experimental condition
the condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.
Schizoid personality disorder
a mental illness characterized by pervasive detachment from social relationships, emotionally cold and flat, and indifferent to criticism or praise from others.
visual capture
the tendency for vision to dominate the other senses. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 242)
light intensity
a physical dimension of light waves that refers to how much energy the light contains; it determines the brightness of light
Behaviorism
the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2).
transduction
conversion of one form of energy into another. In sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies, such as sights, sounds, and smells, into neural impulses our brains can interpret.
Olfactory nerve
The nerve that carries impulses from olfactory receptors in the nose to the brain.
gender identity
how you see yourself socially as female or male
standard deviation
Standard Deviation is a measure of variation (or variability) that indicates the typical distance between the scores of a distribution and the mean. Looking at an example will help us make sense of this.
neural plasticity
Ability of the brain to change their experience, both structurally and chemically
representative selection
every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected
Fixed Ratio schedule
The schedule in which the reinforcer is given after a fixed number of nonreinforced responses
Myelin sheath
a fatty coating around a neuron that speeds up the rate at which electrical information travels down the axon; serves as insulation for electrical impulses
Intimacy
A state of being or feeling in which each person in a relationship is willing to self-disclose and to express important feelings and information to the other person.
basal metabolic rate
the body's resting rate of energy expenditure
CAT scan
a method of creating static images of the brain through computerized axial tomography
--structure only, 2D
behavior genetics
the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior
Somatic Nervous System
the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles. Also called the skeletal nervous system
Association areas
Areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather, ther are involved in higer mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking.
Descartes; Locke
In regards to the origin of knowledge; nature is to nurture as ______ is to ______.
Feature detectors
Nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of the stimulus, such as shape, angle, or movement.
Stratified Sample
: a sample that is drawn so that identified subgroups in the opulation are representer proportionately in the sample.
social loafing
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable.
brain structures used in memory
hippocampus and the thalamus are important in the formation of new memories; memories are stored in many different areas around the cortex
peripheral route to persuasion
occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness.
operationalizing a definition
A statement of the procedures or ways in which a researcher is going to measure behaviors or qualities. For example, let's say you wanted measure and define "life change". You could do this by giving people the Social Readjustment Rating Scale and then operationally define "life change" as the score on the social readjustment rating scale
Last Evolutionary Development of the Brain
Localization of functions on different sides of your brain
Karl von Frisch won the Nobel Prize for discovering that
bumblbees attract each other by performing an intricate dance.
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