Psychology Chapters and Flashcards

Terms Definitions
occipital lobe
vision.
Name 6 stimulants
-amphetamines-cocaine-ecstasy-hallucinogens-LSD-THC
What is myotonia?
Muscle contraction.
Standardization
Defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested standardization group.
wrote principles of psychology
william james
genital stage
psycosexual maturity is reached
involves computing correlations between large numbers of variables
factor analysis
temporal lobe
hearing. language processing. memory.
The dimension of auditory experience related to the intensity of a wave's pressure that is measured in decibels is called ___.
loudness
scientific method
1.describe what happens a.behavioral data b. objectivety 2.explain 3. predict what will happen 4. control what will happen-prevention an intervention
perceptual concept
perceiving objects as unchanging (having consistent shapes, size, lightness, and color) even as illumination and retinal images change.
Cognitive behaviorism
– learning experiences and environment influence our expectations and other thoughts and our thoughts influence how we behave
client-centered therapy
humanist approach to therapy, emphasizes the therapists emphathy with the client
Dissociative Fugue
-Sudden, impulsive new identity trips
genes
located on chromosomes - contain DNA
mating preferences
males- mate with multiple females.
The capacity of long term memory is:
infinite
Define: Secondary group
Relatively impersonal collecton of individuals that is established to perform a specific task.
william james
(brother: henry james)was at harvard studying medicine. got interested in free will after trying to control his depression 1875
psychophysiology
a sensory stimulus that prompts the stress response must be proceeded at the mental level before it can cascade down one or more physiological pathways
neutral stimulus
in classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning.
Deindividualization
A loss of personal sense of responsibility in a group.
Psychodynamic Theories:
Carl Jung:
Archetypes
Animus: the male archetype (assertiveness, aggressive nature)
 
Anima: the female archetype (caring, nurturing, creativity)
 
Shadow: archetype representing the destructive and aggressive tendencies we don't want to recognize in ourselves (destructive characteristics)
social support
reach out to others for support
obesity
results in biological factors such as inheritance, lifestyle,and psychological factors.
(15% or more of the ideal ones weight)
double blind technique
controls for demand characteristis action on experimentor and subject- neither e nor s knows whether s is in the experimental or control group- blind to hypothesis and treatment condition- so e & s dont behave in ways to fulfill expectations of research- helps prevent bias
Modeling
-process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
language
aphasia is an impairment of language, caused by left hemisphere damage to broca's (impaired speaking) or to wernicke's area (impaired understanding)
Occiptal lobe
contains the main visual centers of the brain. (sight)
Define: Humanistic Psychology
School of psychology that emphasized nonverbal experience and slterd states of consciousness as means of realizing  one's full potential.
Last month Walter became sick after eating two chili dogs, so he no longer likes chili dogs. Walter has experienced ____
classical conditioning
Developement Psychology
a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span.
A seemingly arbitrary flash "out of the blue," through which the solution to a problem suddenly becomes apparent to you, but you do not consciously know how you "figuredit out," is called____
in sight
Schema
A set of beliefs or expectations about something that is based on past experience
behavior is also influenced by incentives in the environment as when the smell of baking bread triggers a desire to eat to explain the effects of external incentives we must refer to
individual learning histories
motivation
an inferred process within a person or animal that causes movement either towards a goal
When children observe their same-sex parents behaving in certain ways and imitate that behavior, a psychologist uses which theory to explain the situation?
Social learning theory
Criterian Validity
Tested by correlations btw the test behavior
adoption studies
suggest the adoptees tend to be different from their adoptive parents and siblings.
What is Extinction ?
The gradual weakening or disappearance of a conditioned response tendency
What is neural communication?
when neurons talk to each other
operant conditioning
a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher. 
Basil Metabolic Rate
The amount of calories your body requires at rest
self efficiency
the belief in one's capacity to cause and intended event to occur or to perform a task
According to carl rogers a growth promoting environment is one that offers genuineness acceptance and empathy the total acceptance rogers advocated is called
unconditional positive regard
scientific method
gathering of data by use of research methods
STIMULUS GENERALIZTION
the tendency to respond to a stimulus that is only similar to the orginal conditioned stimulus with the conditioned response
LaPiere Chinese Couple study
travel w/ Chinese couple, 80 hotels let them in, six mths later write hotels to ask if they would let a Chinese couple in, they said no---no consistency!!
which theory of emotion proposes that stimuli cause physiological changes in our bodies emotions result from those physiological changes?
james-lange theory of emotion
downfalls of TAT test
one of the few projective test (unconscious motives are measured) that has empirical support.It has a poor test-retest reliability.
terminal branches (of axon)
branched endings of an axon that transmit messages to other neurons.
What is Lucid Dreams
Dreams in which the dreamer is aware of dreaming
Conditioned Response (2) and example
-CR, learned response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus. -The new behavior that is acquired through learning.-excitement of bell sound that leads to food
al must build 25 radios before before recieves $20 . what schedule of reinforement is being used?
fixed radio schedule of reinforcement
Errors of Common Sense
Try this! Fold a piece of paper 100 times. How thick will it be?800,000,000,000,000 times the distance between the sun and the earth.
age race and gender seem not to be predicably related to subjective feelings of happiness or well being however researchers have found that happy people tend to
have a meaningful religious faith
what are the roles of needs, beliefs, emotions, and expectations in our perception of the world around us
Need-if we need something, we are more likely to perceive it (hungry people can see words related to hunger quicker when flashed on a screen)Belief- our beliefs affect our interpretation of sensory signals (devil's face in 9/11 towers' smoke)Emotion- influences sesnory info (child seeing ghost instead of robe in dark)Expectation- previous experiences affect it (expecting words to be spelled right therefore reading them right
Self
self-concept (traits/memories), self-awareness (thinking about oneself
EEG
Electroencepholograph, electrodes on the skull that measure brain activity.
stressors
conflcits that annoy us
Medula
Bulge along brainstem, Controls automatic functions.
variable-ratio
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses.
emotion work
expression of an emotion
operant
increases likelihood or repeated reinforcment
Define Hypothesis
tentative statement about the relationship between 2 or more variables.
Prudent
cautious in one's conduct or methods
The researcher responsible for discovering classical conditioning was ____
Ivan Paviov
constancy
tendency to perceive certain objects in the same way regardless of changing angle, distance, or lighting
Compensation
According to Adler, the person's effort to overcome imagined or real personal weaknesses.
emotional inhibition
banishing bad thoughts or feeligns
anorexia 
extreme weight loss due to starvation
amygdala
brighter the better the memory; activates by emotion to say 'don't forget it' important
agonists
similar in structure to another neurotransmitter, and mimics its affects.
Nuerotransmitters
Chemical messages that fit into other nuerons like lock and key
Experimental bias
Expectations by the experimenter the might influence the results of an experiment or it's interpretation.
founded the APA in 1892
G. Stanley Hall
Classifying Drugs
Psychoactive drugs- drugs capable of influencing percepption, mood, cognition, or behavior
Thirst, sexual desire, and hunger are examples of ____ drives.
Primary
Extrovert
According to Jung, a person who usually focuses on social life and the external world instead of on his or her internal experience.
set point theory proposes that our bodies tend to maintain themselves at a partivular weight level when our weight falls below the set point we feel hungrier and lethargic this weight thermostat is an example of
homeostasis
integrative approach
drawings on methods from various schools of thought
According to Vygotsky, which of these is a key factor in a child's cognitive development?
Scaffolding
What is temperment?
A persons characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity
Alcohol's affects(2)
-affects motor skills, judgment, and memory-reduces self awareness
axon
long single extension of a neuron, covered with myelin sheath to insulate and speed up messages through neurons.
Thalamus
Pair of structures on top of brain stem, directs all incoming and outgoing messages.
Idiosyncratic credit
points earned off compliance allow for slight deviation
Suzy looks up from her lunch, realizing that Jacques has just said something to her. What was it? Oh, yes, he has just asked her is she wants to go to the movies. Suzy's ability to retrieve what Jacques said is due to her _____.
Echoic memory
cognitive map
a mental representation of the layout of one’s environment. For example, after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it.
Who is faulted more for being too sexually active?
Women
Izard's universal emotions
Working from Charles Darwin's theory that certain emotional and facial expressions have an evolutionary basis, believes there are 10 universal emotions that can be seen in infants.
intimate partner abuse
physical acts or other behavior intended to intimidate or harm an intimate partner
Psychonalytic Perspective
-Caused by childhood conflicts ith sex or agression-Little personal responsibility
belief that things will work out positively
dispositional optimism
Storage for Short-Term Memory
-limited in duration and capacity
The Amazing Randi
Magician. Debugs psychics, but you can't prove there aren't any.
Damage to Broca's area may result in difficulty with ___.
speech production
confounding variables
other factors that may have caused the difference between the experimental group and control groups
concrete operational stage
in Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events.
Conditional positive regard
In Rogers' theory, acceptance and love that are dependent on behaving in certain ways and on fulfilling certain conditions.
traditional post-secondary student
student who attends college full time immediately after high school
opportunity to achieve
some people need the opportunity to achieve, and are systematically put down.women were said to be less successful at the workplace because they had a "fear of success".possibility of promotion plays a HUGE roll in success.
3 types of variables
1. independent variable - manipulated (the cause)...if ____2. dependent variable - measure (the effect)...then ____3. control/extraneous variables
the brain and neural networks
interconnected neurons form networks in the brain. These networks are complex and modify with growth and experience.
generation effect
if you have to generate and answer you will remember it better rather than passivly listening to lecture
Theories of Motivation:
Maslow's Humanistic Theory
Hierarchy of needs: the notion that needs occur in priority order, with the biological needs as the most basic
 
Biological => Safety => Attachment => Esteem => Self-Actualization
The final phase of the sexual response is ______.
Phase 4: Resolution
What is the difference in anatomical and functional encoding of sensory info
Anatomical ecoding- different sensory modalities exist because signals recieved by the sense organs stimulate different nerve pathways leading to different areas of the brain. Functional encoding- rely on sensory receptors and neurons to fire only in the presence of specific forms of stimuli
The biological mechanisms at work behind our emotions:
-Limbic system (fight or flight response)
-Reticular formation (constantly scanning environment, always alert for threats, built-in alarm system)
-Cerebral Cortex (conscious processing, associates with postive and negative emotions)
-Autonomic Nervous System (gets body ready to take care of self in face of the threat)
-Hormones (endorphins)
The Need For Psychological Science
Intuition & Common Sense. Many people believe that intuition and common sense are enough to bring forth answers regarding human nature. Intuition and common sense may aid queries, but they are not free of error.
Which of these is the correct sequence of Abraham Maslow heiracrchy of needs from the lowest to highest?
psychologica, safety, love, esteem, cognative, desthetic, self
Physically, how do male and female brains differ?
frontal lobes and limbic systems are larger in women, parietal cortex and amygdala are larger in men, women have more cortical folds in frontal and parietal lobes
Is it ethical to experiment on animals?
Yes. To gain insights to devastating and fatal diseases. All researchers who deal with animal research are required to follow ethical guidelines in caring for these animals.
Obese people find it very difficult to lose weight pemanently this is due to several factors including the fact that
there is a genetic influence on body weight
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