Psychology Chapters and Exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Scornfully
to express contempt
Mean
Average, distorted by outliars.
compassionate love
affection and trust
Range
Lowest Number to Highest Number.
priming
the activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one’s perception, memory, or response.
psychoanalysis
depth psychotherapy developed by sigmund freud, exploration of unconscious motives
Define Habituation
Decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner.
Cognition
The mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
Prestige
`a reputation or influence arising from success.
General knowledge, language, and concepts are seen as part of ______.
Declaritive memory
circadian rhythym
regular sequence of biological processes such as temperature and sleep that occurs every 24 hours
Cognitive theory
States that emotional experience depends on one's perception or judgment of the situation one is in.
catatonic stupor
withdrawl from activitity, sitting hours without moving
heredity
statistical estimate of the variation of a trait, to the variation of a gene. basically, how linked a given trait is to genetics.
Define Maturation
biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior relatively uninfluenced by experience.
Random Assignment
Assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by random assignment minimizes pre-existing differences between the two groups.
Soma
Part of the Neuron that determines whether the message is excitatory or inhibitory.
Define: Psychodynamic theory
Personality theories contending that behavior results from psycholofical factors that interact within the individual, often outside conscious awareness.
Behavior is explained in terms of inherited instincts, biological drive, and attempts to resolve conflicts
psychodynamic
Synesthesia
A Condition in which stimulation of one sense also evokes another
psychedelic drugs
chemicals that affect the nervous system and result in altered consciousness or awareness, influence sensations and perceptions, and modify moods and cognitive process
Defensive attribution
The tendency to attribute our successes to our own efforts or qualities and our failures to external factors.
the psycologist walter cannon described the role of the sypathetic nervous system in preparing the body for fight or flight hans selye extended cannons findings by descibing the bodys adaptive response to stress in general selyes general adaptation syndro
resistence then exhaustion
counterconditioning
a stimulus with an unwanted response is paired with another stimulus that a response incompatible with the previous response
COLLECTIVISM
A cultural value that prizes the concepts of sharing, cooperation, interdependence, and duty to group.
Define Roles
expectation about social position and behavior in those positions
Tolerance
-diminishing effect of the high with regular use
cell body
life support center of the neuron
Morality
corelates with IQ = true
 
(sorry my notes are bad lol just remember that)
Low balling
agree to specific deal, then raise price--contingent on justification of decision (still see deal as good), consistency
what kind of reinforcement is used if Sally's parent give her $10 everytime she accumlates six A's on her test?
positive
mirror neurons
frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. The brain’s mirroring of another’s action may enable imitation and empathy
What is dysmenorrhea?
A medical condition characterized by severe uterine pain during menstruation.
Cannon-Bard theory
States that the experience of emotion occurs simultaneously with biological changes
secondary aging
age-related changes that are due to environmental influences, poor-health habits or disease
Cog.-Behav. Approach
-change the way people think in addition to the thinking itself
tactics that protect itself from the ID and threatening material from surfacing
defense mechanism
Memory Construction(2)w/7*s
-We filter information and fill in missing pieces-Most people can agree on the following: *Injustice happens *Incest and sexual abuse happens *Forgetting happens *Recovered memories are commonplace *Memories recovered under hypnosis or drugs are especially unreliable *Memories of things happening before age 3 are unreliable *Memories, whether false or real, are upsetting
The Scientific Attitude
Composed of curiosity (passion for exploration), skepticism(doubting and questioning), and humility (ability to accept responsibility when wrong).
during which part of sleep are you most likely to dream
REM sleep
"the function of mind and behavior in an organisms interactions with the environment "
william james
intensity
the amount of energy in a light or sound wave, which we perceive as brightness or loudness, as determined by the wave’s amplitude.
Social Psychology
The scientific study of the ways in which the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of one individual are influenced by the real, imagined, or inferred behavior or characteristics of other people.
moral realism stage
1st of Piaget's stage of development in which children believe rules are inflexible
extrinsic motivation
the desire to pursue a goal for external rewards
somatic nervous system
- voluntary- infrom from sense organs to CNS- voluntary muscle control
Wording Effect
Wording can change the results of a survey. People in the United States prefer "not allowed" rather to "prohibit" or "outlaw" because it is less harsh. Valid surveys are hard to make.
What holds the brain together?
the corpus callosum (carries messages between the hemispheres)
Anxiety Disorders:
Panic Disorder
marked by panic attacks that have no connection to events in a person's present experience
When men and women view erotic pictures, the ______ are more strongly activated in men than women.
The amygdata and hypothalmus
what are common consequences of sleeplessness
weakened immune system, grogginess the next day
Schizophrenic Disorders:
Major Types of Schizophrenia:
Positive
any form in which the person displays active symptoms (e.g. delusions, hallucinations)
 
easier to treat, comes on more quickly, behaviors that can actually be observed
infants are born with reflexes that aid in survival. offspring cries are important signals for parents to provide nourishment.
cognitive development in the newborn
Facial feedback hypothesis is defined as ____
theory of emotion that assumes facial expressions provide feedback to brain
what is the main function of the corpus callosum
to connect the two cerebral hemispheres
When do night terrors usually occur?
-within 2 or 3 hours of falling asleep, in stage 4
What were some limitations on Masters & Johnson's research?
- They only selected people who could have an orgasm.-The may have coached people.They had a narrow focus on physiological aspects.
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