Psychology Exam 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
genotype
dna/blueprint
imagery
mental pictures
precognition
foreknowledge of future
kubler
death && dying
Recognition
Selecting previously remembered information from an array of options
Hypothesis
testable predictionforms a question
special traits
unique to individuals
medical model
which describes psychological disorders as medical diseases with a biological origin
Algorithm

Specific, step-by-step procedure for solving certain types of problems (recipe, math equation)
What amnesia?
The loss of memory.
trait
relatively permanent and enduring qualities—example, a consistent and long-lasting tendency to behave in a certain way (outgoing, shy, rude)
Biopsychologist
relationship between brain and behavior (what body signals indicate hunger and satiety?)
Describe a theta wave
low amplitude
Behaviorist
behavior is based on environment
Social distance
perceived distance or similarity between oneself and another person
personality of rapists
promiscuity, hostile masculinity, emotionally detached, predatory
Maturation**
Developmental changes that are linked closely to biological events
Which of the following coordinates involuntary rapid fine-motor movement?
Cerebellum
Cell Body
contains nucleus, determines whether to fire, keeps cell alive.
Stress
the tension, discomfort, or physical symptoms that arise when a situation strains our ability to cope effectively
description
the citing of the observable characteristics of an event, object, or individual
vision
anatomy and functio of the eye
neurotransmitter
a chemical that transfers messages across synapses
Sensation
Begins with specialized receptor cells located in our sense organs (ears, eyes, nose, tongue)
 
Process of detecting, converting, and transmitting raw sensory information from the external and internal environments to the brain.
Neuron
Cells that compose the CNS. Specialized for processing information. Made of up dendrites, soma(cell body), and axon
Wernicke's aphasia
problems with comprehending language following brain damageleft temporal lobe
endocrine system
the body's "slow" chemical communication sytem; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodsream.
Humanistic Perspective (1950s)
Emphasizes free will, self-actualization, and human nature as growth seeking experiences and motivations for behavior. - Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow said all individuals strive towards self-actualization state.
self-actualization
the achievement of one's full potential through creativity, independence, spontaneity, and a grasp of the real world
kleptomania
an irresistible impulse to steal, stemming from emotional disturbance rather than economic need
Role
A set of expectations (norms) about social position, defining, how those in the position should behave.
population element
a single member of a population
Self-Concept
A person's answers to the question "Who am I?".
Oedipus complex
situation occurring in the phallic stage in which a child develops a sexual attraction to the opposite-sex parent and jealousy of the same-sex parent.
Signal-Detection Theory
the idea that distinguishing sensory stimuli takes into account not only the strength of the stimuli but also such elements as setting and one's physical state, mood, and attitudes
latent learning
alteration of behavioral tendency not demonstrated by immediate or observial change in behavior
Retrieval
The process of getting information out of memory storage.
permissive indulgent parents
warm, but undemanding. to much
rods
respond in lower intensity of light. more sensitive but less acute.
descriptive study
a research method that onvolves observing and noting the behavior of people or other animals in order to provide a systematic and objective analysis of behavior
clinical psychology
branch of psychology concerned with the study, assessment, and treatment of people with psychological disorders
Uses specific strategies to correct habitual thinking errors that underlie various types of disorders
Cognitive Therapy
Swimming
infant reflex stimulated by being put face down in water. Baby makes well coordinated swimming movements (6 months)
Token Economy
An operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behaviour and can later exchange the tokens for various privileges or treats.
Relationship with Grandchild
Factors influencing the relationship include: personality, ethnicity, national background, past fmily interactions, age of the child
Exhibitionism
A paraphilia in which persons have repeated sexually arousing urges or fantasies about exposing their genitals to another person, and may act upon those urges.
Language Acquisition
birth: cooing, crying, gurgling4-6 mo: babbling1yr: 1st words, brief words2yr: telegraphic speech, mini sentences
Elizabeth received a painful shock while typing at her computer and now she reacts with fear whenever she sees a computer. What is the computer in this example?
conditioned stimulus
Beta waves
Small, fast brain waves associated with being awake and alert.
Cognitive Psychology
the scientific study of mental processes, including perception, thought, memory, and reasoning
short-term memory
temporarily holds limited amount of info for a max of 20 seconds; limited in capacity
linguistic equivalence
refers to weather the reasearch protocols used in a cross cultural study are semantically equivalent
coping mechanism
an adaptation to environmental stress that is based on conscious or unconscious choice and that enhances control or gives psychological comfort
reinforcement
a procedure, as a reward or punishment, that alters a response to a stimulus
audition
the sense or act of hearing. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 215)
accommodation
the process by which the eye's lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retina. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 205)
G. Stanley Hall
First American psychology lab, John Hopkins University 1883
O.C.D.
(Anxiety Disorder)
when a person is troubled by repetitive thoughts and/or actions.
The thick band of neurons that connects the right and left cerebral hemispheres is called the ______.
Corpus Caliosum
Unconditioned stimulus (US)
The classical-conditioning term for an event or thing that elicits a response automatically or reflexively.
phonemic encoding
emphasizes what a word sounds like; naming or saying (perhaps silently) the word
Benevolent Sexism
Prejudice about males and females that is more socially acceptable but still leads to unequal treatment of sexes
Free-floating anxiety
General anxiety, anxiety that is not bound to anything. Pg 379
6 modern approaches to psychology
biological, cognitive, humanistic, behavorial, cross-cultural, pyschoanalytic
Bell Curve
distribution of scores in which the bulk of the scores fall toward the middle, with progressively fewer scores toward the "tails" or extremes
systematic desensitization
method to gradually reduce fear and anxieties, esp. phobias
nondeclarative memory system
houses meory for actions, skills, conditioned responses, and emotional responsescontains procedural memories
Retinal disparity
a binocular cue for perceiving depth: by comparing images from the two eyeballs, the brain computes distance--the greater the disparity (difference) between the two images, the closer the object.
Life Experiences and Circumstances
Social explanations emphasize the stressful circumstances in people's livesLoss of or problems with important relationshipsPsychologists investigating sex differences have ruled out hormones and genetics and are now investigating life circumstances.
Classical Conditioning
the behavioral technique of pairing a naturally occuring stimulus and response chain with a different stimulus in order to produce a response which is not naturally occuring
ASCH'S EXPERIMENT
SHOWED SUBJECTS A LINE EIGHT INCHES WITH THREE LINES, AND ONE WAS SHORTER. THE OUTSPOKEN ONE SAYS RIGHT ANSWER, BUT ONCE HE GAVE THE WRONG ANSWER OTHERS FOLLOWED.
a neural impulse; brief electrical charge that travels down an axon
action potential ions
Control Group
In an experiment, the group that receives no treatment or provides some other baseline against which to compare the performance or response of the experimental group.
Correlation Coefficient
What two numbers does the Correlation Coefficient fall between?
Negative Correlation is...
an unpleasant stimulus between two variable increases as the other variable decreases
personality test
an instrument, as a questionnaire or series of standardized tasks, used to measure personality characteristics or to discover personality disorders
Evolutionary Psychology
Suggests that many human traits arise from hereditary characteristics established in our remote ancestral past.
which theory of forgetting argues that the forgotten information was in long-term memory but is no longer available?
storage decay theory
Researchers have suggested that the role-playing fantasy-prone patients in response to the leading questions of therapists has often contributed to
B) dissociative identity disorder
What are the key terms in observational learning?
Lecture: N/A
Book:
Key Processes:
 

Attention: To learn through observation, you must pay attention to another person's behavior and its consequences.

Retention: You may not have occasion to use an observed response for weeks, months, or even years. Hence, you must store a mental respresentation of what you have witnesses in your memory.

Reproduction: Enacting a modeled response depends on your ability to reproduce the response by converting you stored mental images into overt behavior.

Motivation: Finally, you are unlikely to reproduce an observed response unless you are motivated to do so. Your motivation depends on whether you encounter a situation in which you believe that the response is likely to pay off for you.
 
Proximity Effect
The more we see and interact with people the more likely thay are to become our friends or significant others.
cold fibres
neurons that respond to a cooling of the skin by increasing the production of neural impulses.
iconic memory
type of sensory memory -- holds visual info for about a quarter of a second
color constancy
the ability to perceive an object as the same color regardless of the environment
they sometimes misinterpret the importance of their symptoms.
DiMatteo’s research on patient behavior found that people delay seeking medical attention because ________________________
Basic Concepts(p 322)
Concepts that have a moderate number of instances and that are easier to acquire than those having few or many instances.
The ability to excel in a number of tasks, especially those related to success in schoolwork, is a common American definition of
intelligence
What are interneurons?
Neurons within the brain and spinal cord that communicate internally and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs
Partial (intermittent) reinforcement
Reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquistion of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement.
stream of consciousness
thought regarded as a succession of ideas and images constantly moving forward in time
Define Neuroscience
Most studied right now. It ties all types of areas of psych together
additive mixing
of light A and light B are both reflective from a surface to the eye, the light will be white
What is the primary function of nurons?
To pass information
Neuro transmitters>Axon synapsis>Recieving end>Axon Terminal>Synapsis>Receptor sites and dendrites
tend and befriend response:
tendency to protect and care for offspring and form social alliances in response to stress
Sympathetic Nervous system
part of the ANS that responds to emergencies.
What is the social learning theory?
Processes through which observed behaviors become incorporated into the behavioral repertoire of the spousally violent men.
operant response
A response that can be modified by its consequences. Operant responses offer a way of dividing ongoing behavior into meaningful and measurable units.
Cross sectional study
- a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another.
limbic system
an area in the brain that plays a role in emotional experience. may explain risky behavior.
What is the Skinner Box?
A small enclosure in which responces of which an animal can be recorded and consequences of the responses controlled
mike has had no interest in sex for the last three years, but he is untroubled by this. mikes diagnosis is
none of these
an understanding of object permanence
Tamara's father hides a bottle under a blanket. Tamara quickly retrieves it. According to Piaget, this suggests Tamara has developed ____________.
What was the purpose of Hunt's Playboy Foundation Survey?
to update the Kinsey findings
Freud's List of Defense Mechanisms
1. Denial Repression
2.Repression
3.Reaction Formation
4. Projection
5. Rationalization
6. Intellectualization
7. Displacement
8. Sublimination
1. do not acknowledge the source of anxiety or precieve it in the first place
2. you are banishing something from awareness by managing not to think about it
3. idea of keeping forbidden thoughts or feelings out of awareness by behaving or instigating the opposite
4. attributing to someone else a thought or an impulse that is feared in yourself
5. most widely used. do something that causes you anxiety and to defend against anxiety you come up with a rational cause or case of why you did something.
6. taking a situation that causes anxiety and turning it into an emotional intellectual excercise so you don't feel the emotion to the same extent7.. taking the energy out of one object and moving it into a safer object.
8. to take a base of forbidden impulse and do something constructive with it.
Define Psychology and why it is a science
Psychology is the study of behavior and mental processes. It is a science because it follows the scientific method and is not grounded in folk wisdom or is not speculation
Self-Worth
3
V5
MOTION,MT(MEDIAL TEMPORAL)
Spermarche
Boys' first ejaculation
Emotions
patterns of responses-physiological changes-behavioral displays
-subjective feelings
authoritative
most successful parenting style
Selective Attention
causes car crashes
GRIT
Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction- a strategy designed to decrease international tensions
statistics
application of mathematics to describing and analyzing data
telegraphic speech
simple, two worded sentences/commands
positive
correlation between job satisfaction and education
Criterion
plotted on the Y-axis (ordinal)
Unconditions stimulus
stimulus that unconditionaly/natirally triggers a response (unlearned)
hearing, language, comprehension, memory, and some emotional control
Parietal lobe
FAE
Fundemental Attribution Error, the tendency to blame the personality and ignore the situation
fixate
a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, where conflicts were unresolved
Macrosystems LOA
Sets of communites and/or organizations
forming broad and diverse bodies of influence.
important level of analysis: population- shared characteristic, such as gender, race, ethnicity, nationality, icnome, religion, sexual orintation, having a physical or mental disability.
Example: nations, governmental and economic institions, socioeconomic status SES, religion, "isms" 
amygdala
two lima-bean sized neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion.
Mesomorph
W.H. sheldon: a somotype describing muscular, large-boned, athletic types of ppl
Puberty
The period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing.
descriptive statistics
mathematical techniques that help researchers describe and summarize their data
operant
Skinner's term for an actively emitted (or voluntary) behaviour that operates on the environment to produce consequences
Observed Learning 
- learning by observed others
Extrovert/Introvert differences in response to external stimuli
Extraverts- sociable, impulsive.Introverts- quiet, introspective.
Hypothalmus
Brain region responsible for body’s maintenance.
LEARNING (basic perspective)
experiences!!! (perspective)... learn by intentional observation.
histrionics
very shallow and dramatic attention seeker that is allows under crisis.
Hypnotic susceptibility
One's capacity for becoming hypnotized.
axon
long fiber where message is sent.
psychology
the systematic, scientific study of behaviors and mental processes
introvert
a person characterized by concern primarily with his or her own thoughts and feelings
Intimacy
In Erikson's theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood.
Convolutions
folding-in and out of the cerebral cortex that increases surface area of the brain
when childhood memories begin
not before age 2
Antigen
Any foreign substance that triggers an immune response.
dendrite
the busy, branching extensions of a neruon that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body
Marcia's Identity Statuses
Identity Achievement, moratorium (high exploration, low commitment), identity foreclosure, identity diffusion
intrafusal muscle fibers
functions as a stretch receptor
frontal temporal
personality change STM, causes. genes , education.
8 Stages 5-6
11-18- adolescence, puberty, identity v role confusion, separate from others, experimentation, role confusion18-40- Intimacy v isolation, close relationships, career, has problems if other stages are not evolved
What are the stimulants of ADHD?
amphetamines(Ritalin, adderall)
What are the benefits and problems associated with the behavior modification startagies of "spanking" and "timeout"?
Opiates
Opium and its derivatives, such as morphine and heroin; they depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety.
Examples: morphine, heroin,codeine, ocycodone, hydrocodone
theory
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events
Monism
we are 1 thing
mind not separable from (brain) body
 
mentalism
materialism/reductionism
identity
epihphenomenon
emergent property
 
hypnosis
an altered state of sonsciousness in whihc the individual is highly relaxed and susceptibly to suggestings.
This state has the dollowing characteristics
relaxation
hypnotic hallucinations
hypnotic analgesia
hypnotic age regression
hypnotic control
reliability
degree to which a test produces similar scores each time it is used
Interval Schedule
Can be variable or fixed-reinforcement given after an amount of time, either a fixed amount of time or a variable amount of time.
humanistic approach
Humanists believe that people control themselves, and that each person is essentially good, with an innate tendency to grow toward her/his highest potential.
zoophilia
an abnormal fondness or preference for animals
fissures
a narrow opening produced by cleavage or separation of parts.
exposure to aggressive pornography
may increase males' aggressive behavior toward women, may perpetuate the myth that women enjoy being raped
continuous reinforcement
the reinforcement of each and every correct reponse
illusory correlation
the preception of a relationship where none exsists
Primary somatosensory cortex
receives sensory messages from the entire body
Implicit Memory
The influence of past experiences on later behavior and performance, even though people are not trying to recollect them and are not aware that they are remembering them.
sensation vs. percption
stimulation of sensroy nerves- stimuli is analyzed
Mitral cell
neuron in the olfactory bulb that receives olfactory info
Primary Determinants for learning (According to British Empiricists)
Contiguity, Similarity & Contrast
case study
examines one individual in depth in hopes of revealing universal principles
Display rules
How and when it is culturally appropriate to display certain features. Leads to cultural stereotypes and learned through socialization.
Stage 1 sleep
The state of transition between wakefulness and sleep characterized by relatively rapid, low-amplitude brain waves.
collective unconcious
Jung's conciousness of a resevoir of inherited, universal experiencecs that all humans share
(1950s-present) in Psychological Disorders included...
Biology and Environment (behavioral and biological specialists must be consulted)Treatments include: Medical and or psychological diagnosis, psychiatric facility stay, drug treatment, therapy to specifically retrain your thoughts, emotions, and behavior.
Cocaine
Most powerful stimulant, used to be an ingredient in Coca-Cola
gender identity
one's sense of being male or female.
Monozygotic twins
, frequently referred to as identical twins, occur when a single egg is fertilized to form one zygote (monozygotic) which then divides into two separate embryos. Their traits and physical appearances are not exactly the same; although they have nearly identical DNA[1], environmental conditions both inside the womb and throughout their lives influence the switching on and off of various genes. Division of the zygote into two embryos is not considered to be a hereditary trait, but rather an anomaly that occurs in birthing at a rate of about three in every 1000 deliveries worldwide,[8] regardless of ethnic background. The two embryos develop into fetuses sharing the same womb. When one egg is fertilized by one sperm cell, and then divides and separates, two identical cells will result. If the zygote splits very early (in the first two days after fertilization), each cell may develop separately its own placenta (chorion) and its own sac (amnion).
• Motor cortex
a region of the frontal lobes involved in regulating body movement
Higher order conditioning
Classical conditioning in which a condioned stimulus is used to reinforce further learning; that is, a CS is used as if it were a US.
Informational Influence
A person's behavior in influenced by another person's behavior because the latter provides information about what is good or true
problems w/ drive theories
can't explain all motivation; sometimes act w/o drives
fundamental attribution error
-the tendency, in explaining other people's behavior, to overestimate personality factors and underestimate the influence of the situation
Rorschach test
a test for revealing the underlying personality structure of an individual, using a series of inkblot designs which the subject describes in his own words
Gender role
a set of expected behaviors for males and for females
When is the 11 cis retinal stable?
In the dark
cultural realitivism
culture must be understood on its own terms
visual pathway to the brain
optic chiasm-LGN of the thalamus-visual cortex in the occipital lobe
random sample
a sample in which the elements were selected randomly from a sampling frame
McGoldrick's Model
 
Last 3 Stages
Stage 4: Family With Adolescent Children


Hardest stage of parenting
Lowest point of marital satisfaction
Conflict is most likely between the adolescent and the mother
In addition, parents are also caring for their own parents at the same time- "the sandwich generation"
Stage 5: Launching Children Into the Adult World

The "empty nest phase"
Child-parent conflicts usually subside
Relations grow stronger
Womens role extend beyond motherhood
Increased marital satisfaction
Problems usually occur when children return home after leaving
Stage 6: The Family in Later Life

Marital satisfaction tends to increase
Parents have more time to devote to each other and things they love
Continues until a spouse's health begins to deteriorate or one dies.
POSTIVE CORRELATION
WHEN ONE THING CHANGES THE OTHER SEEMS TO CHANGE IN THE SAME DIRECTION
Defining Abnormal Behavior
According to the DSM-IV: a mental disorder is one that fulfills the following critera: 
 
Distress and impairment of functioning.
Involuntary.
Internal Source. 
Bipolar Disorder
A mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and overexcited state of mania.
temporal lobes
the brain lobe under the temples, in front of the ears, where side burns begin to grow down; among the many functions include memory and hearing. eentering information into memory, storing visual memories, processing sound, and comprehending language.
generalized anxiety disorder
-person has feeling of dread and impending doom
mean, median, mode
the average, the middle score, the most occuring score
Secondary Reinforcer
A stimulus such as money that becomes rewarding through its link with a primary reinforcer
Self Perception Therapy
Theory that people come to understand themselves by making inferences from their behavior and the events surrondning their behavior
Optimistic Style of Thinking
Pattern of thinking that interprets stressors as external in origin, temporary, and specific in their effect.
Motor area
The part of the cortex that is largely responsible for the body's voluntary movements.
OCD (obsessive compulsive disorder)
an anxiety disorder in which the symptoms of anxiety are triggered by intrusive, repetitive thoughts and urges to perform certain tasks
Endocrine system
the body system consisting of a set of glands that regulate the activities of certain organs by releasing their chemical products into the blood stream
Tools and Methods of Behaviour Therapy (Behaviour Modification)
Systematic desensitization, aversive conditioning.
What is subliminal stimulation and does it exist? How big is its effect?
Subliminal stimulation is the perception of something below one's absolute threshold for conscious awareness. It does exist, as a subliminal message can prim responses to later questions
peak experience
a high point in the life of a self-actualizer, during which the person feels ecstatic and more alive and whole than is usual
Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality Development
All psychological events have a cause, no action is meaningless, and most of our motivation comes from our unconscious
Self-management strategies
Person engages in a bx of set of bxs to influence the occurrence of another bx
6 things that make group therapy effective-
1. information- recieve new info
2. universality- individuals observe that others feel anguish and suffering too
3. altruism- group members support one another with advice and sympathy and learn they have something to offer others too
4.corrective recapitulation of the family group- old wounds may be healed and new more positive family ties are made
5.development of social skills
6.interpersonal learning-the group can serve as a training ground for practicing new behaviors and relationships
what are the cues of depth perception
oculomotor cues, and monocular cues, and binocular cues
When can therapy be harmful?
When it creates a prejudice, when it uses unsupported techniques, when there is inappropriate behavior and when there is a relationship between the two.
The two most basic divisions of the nervous system are the:
Central Nervous System & the Peripheral Nervous System
What happens during Autonomy vs. Shame and Self-Doubt?
They exercise will and do things independently or they doubt their abilities
the client, or to anyone designated by the client on an appropriate release
According to the 2002 APA Ethics Code, test data should be released to  _____. The psychologist may refuse to release the data only if he or she believes that doing so would cause "substantial harm, or the misuse or misinterpretation of test data."
2
naturalistic observation
Bibliophobia
Fear of Books
hypertension
high blood pressure
Anencephaly
Birth with hindbrain only
Parental Styles
 
Permissive, Authoritative, Authoritarian, Uninvolved
subliminal
employing stimuli insufficiently intense to produce a discrete sensation but often designed to influence the behavior of an individual
Sex
Biological maleness and femaleness, including chromosomal sex. Also, activities related to sexual behaviors, such as masturbation and intercourse.
phrenology
determining character and personality based on bumps on the head
What are psychology's major specialties 
Biopsychology/neuroscience
Experimental
Cognitive
Develpmental
clinical
counseling
industrial/organizational
education
Stimulants
psychoactive drugs including caffeine, nicotine, amphetamine, and cocaine, that stimulate the CNS by increasing the transmission of neural impulses.
Maturation
the developmental process that produces genetically programmed changes with increasing age
Neurons
individual nerve cells in brain
Survivor personality traits; the ability to use both right-brain and left-brain thinking processes to successfully deal with a problem or stressor
Biphasic
LSD
a powerful hallucinogenic drug; also known as acid (lysergic acid diethylamide). (Myers Psychology 8e p. 302)
Aphasia
language disorder in which producing language is difficult. Often caused by brain damage during a stroke
dementia
abnormal condition marked by multiple cognitive deficits that include memory impairment
Treatments for depression
-Monoamine Oxidase (MAO) Inhibitors
-Trycyclic Antidepressants
-Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)
-Electroconvulsant Shock Therapy (ECT)
-Lithium
blocking
inaccessability of stored info(it may be on the tip of the tounge but we cant pull it from memory)
Advantages to Expermentation?
Equalizing differences
-Cause and effect more easily established
Functionalism
The school of psychology that emphasizes the uses or functions of the mind rather than the elements of experience
Withdrawal
The discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug.
Human Relations Approach
Emphasizes the psychological characteristics of workers and managers, stressing the importance of such factors as morale, attitudes, values, and humane treatment
long-term memory
relatively permanent and limitless storage of memory
Stressors
The particular demands that cause people stress
pituitary gland
the endocrine system's most infuential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands.
Conservation
the principle (part of Piaget's concrete operational stage) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects
class of disorders involving delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and other maladaptive behavior
schizophrenic disorder
structuralism
psychology centering on the analysis of the structure or content of conscious mental states by introspective methods.
learning
the modification of behavior through practice, training, or experience
psychoanalysis
An approach to psychology based on Sigmund Freud's assertions, which emphasize unconscious processes. The term is used to refer broadly both to Freud's psychoanalytic theory and to his psychoanalytic treatment method
triarchic theory
proposes that intelligence can be divided into three ways of processing information
teachers of psych
Overlap with experimental psychs because most experimental psychs work at universities teaching
enviromental causesof behaivor
influence of parents, siblings, family, friends, schooling, nutrition, and all the other experiences to which a child is exposed.
Bottom-up processing
Perception that consists of the progression of recognizing the processing information from individual components of a stimuli and moving to the perception of the whole.
recall task
method of measuring memory retention that requires the reproduction of info held in memory
primary reinforcers
are events that are inherently reinforcing b/c they satisfy biological needs
aerobic exercise
Prolonged exercise, such as running for at least 20 minutes, that increases heart rate
the most common content of dreams
negative emotions
what makes a study important?
challenges existing theories
integrates existing theories
challenges people's intuition and expectation
results in a large effect from a small manipulation
speaks to issues of societal importance
Negative correlation
A relationship between variables in which one variable increases as the other decreases
negative affectivity
components such as anger, difficulty, amount of stress, sadnessno difference until fearfulness: d = -.12
Genetic Counseling
medical specialty that helps parents and prospective parents evaluate and cope with their risk of passing hereditary disorders to their children.
Intelligence tests
Used by psychologists to evaluate person's mental potential and compare with others
Central Nervous System
spinal cord, receiving, processing, interpreting and storing incoming sensory info.
Structured personality tests
paper-and-pencil tests consisting of questions that respondents answer in one of a few fixed ways
health psychology
is concerned with understanding how biology, behavior, and social context influence health and illness.[1] Health psychologists generally work alongside other medical professionals in clinical settings, although many also teach and conduct research. Although its early beginnings can be traced to the kindred field of clinical psychology, four different approaches to health psychology have been defined: clinical, public health, community and critical health psychology[2]
• MRI (
(magnetic resonance imaging) is a technique that uses a magnetic field to create a computerized image of internal bodily structures
spontaneous recovery
the reappearance of an extinguished response after the passage of time, without further training
agents, such as chemicals and viruses that can cause harm to prenatal organisms
Teratogens
Gross motor skills
– skills that involve large-muscle activites- Walking, grabbing for objects- Need postural control
consciousness-raising
a group-therapy technique in which the aim is to enhance the participants' awareness of their particular needs and goals as individuals or as a group
euphoria
a feeling of happiness, confidence, or well-being sometimes exaggerated in pathological states as mania
refractory period
a resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 482)
vestibular system
located in inner ear, over stimulation can cause dizziness, motion sickness
auditory cortex
part of temporal lobes that receives and processes info from both ears
problem coping
involves strategies that aim to change the problem creating the stress
Transference
The patients transfer to the analst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent)
Internal locus of Control
JULIAN ROTTER: generalized expectancy that an individual's own actions lead to desired outcomes
Brain
The brain is the organ responsible for guiding and controlling behavior. The brain is the organ responsible for guiding and controlling behavior.
narrative records
a running record of behavior occurring in a given situation. narrative records can be created by audiotaping or videotaping a situation, or by means of handwritten notes
applied research
scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
sexual partners
The Ethics Code clearly states that psychologists never accept former ... as therapy patients.
monocular cues
clues about distance based on the image in either eye alone
Serotonin
Involved in the regulation of mood and sleep.
low levels: depression, insomnia
drugs that affect: zoloft, prozac, ecstasy
Rods(p 198)
Visual receptors that respond to dim light.
eidetic imagery
the ability to retain a projected mental image long enough to use it as a source of information
Social facilitation
Improved performance of tasks in the presence of others occurs with simple or well-learned tasks but not with tasks that are difficult or not yet mastered
ex: sports stars are inspired by crowds applause but less talented sports players are nerveous by it
What is Standardization?
The development of uniform procedures for administering and scoring a test and the creation of norms (performance standards) for the test.
Method of Loci
A mnemonic technique associating items to be remembered with physical locations
Z score
Convert a normal distribution to a standard normal distribution. z=(x-mean)/SD
attention
concentration of the mind on a single object or thought selected with a view to limiting or clarifying receptivity by narrowing the range of stimuli
dual personality
a disorder in which an individual possesses two dissociated personalities, each of a complexity comparable to that of a normal individual
coronary heart disease
the clogging of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle; the leading cause of death in North America
Five-factor model (Big Five)
model of personality traits that describes five basic trait dimensions.
OCEAN
Interpretation of Dreams
Freud believed dreams to be wish fulfillment or strong unconscious desires disguised in dream formWork backwards from manifest to latent content
REM sleep
rapid eye movements, a "deep" stage of sleep, irregular breathing and pulse rate, muscle tone is extremely relaxed, high frequency beta waves, associated w/ dreaming, dreaming is most frequent and memorable during this stage 20% (periods get progressively longer peaking at 40-60mins)
"Filing cabinet analogy"
"information is organized and then you retrieve it as it"
magnetic resonance imaging(MRI)
a method of brain imaging that produces high-quality images of the brain
organ of Corti
a structure in the cochlea containing hair cells that serve as receptors for hearing
 
contains important receptors and cilia
Coefficient of Correlation
statistics used to describe the degree of relationship between two or more variables in which positive correlations indicate that variables vary together in the same direction and negative correlations indicate the opposite.
Definition of Cerebellum
Right above brainstem. Main job is physical coordination and balance.
Action Potential(p 116)
A brief change in electrical voltage that occurs between the inside and the outside of an axon when a neuron is stimulated; it serves to produce an electrical impulse.
• Refractory period
temporary state in which a neuron is unable to fire in response to continues stimulation
What is the extent to which a test yields a consistent, reproducible measure of performance? R
Reliability
Stereotype vs. prejudice vs. discrimination
stereotype: beliefs about someone because of their groupprejudice:negative attitude towards membersdiscrimination:behaving differently toward members
Poverty of the stimulus argument
an argument that claims natural language grammar is unlearnable given the relatively limited data available to children learning a language, and therefore that this knowledge is supplemented with some sort of innate linguistic capacity (language acquisition device)
absolute refractory period
the minimum length of time after an action potential during which another action potential cannot begin (1 or 2 milliseconds)
What is Physiology?
 
 
How parts of the body work and function
intrinsic motivation
desire to perform an act because it is satisfying or pleasurable in and of itself
Neural correlates of consciousness
Specific brain states that seem to correspond to the content of someone's conscious experience
What is a REPRESNTATIVE SAMPLE?
GROUPS of SUBJECTS that ACCURATELY REPRESENT the LARGER POPULATION.
What are axon terminals?
Branches at the end of the axon.
dictatorial (AUTHORITARIAN) parenting style
Style in which parents rigidly set the rules and demand obedience.
Developmental Psych- Experience
When it happens affects how we deal in the futuresocial deprivation- need to respond and touchLearning- easier to learn language youngeasier to learn history/psych later in lifeDeath- harder when young
Intermittent (Partial) Scedule of Reinforcement(p 252)
A reinforcement schedule in which a particular response is sometimes but not always reinforced.
Which drugs are typically tried first to treat those with depression?
Serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs; drugs like Prozac) are usually tried first.
 
 
Four major classes of motivational theory
1. Drive Theory- Set of theories that explain behavior by emphasizing internal conditions of an org. which energizes the seeking or maintaing of goals
2. Expectancy Theory- Emphasizes a persons expectations to succeed.
3. Cognitive Theory- Emphasize choice regarding life goals and means of attaining them.
4. Humanistic Theory- Tendency of humans to strive to reach perfection and self actualization.
What is the function of axons?
messages pass through fibers to other neurons or to muscle glands. \"Axons speak.\"
After an initial rapid weight loss, a person on a diet loses weight much more slowly. This slow-down occurs because __________.a)people always cheat on their dietsb)all of the initial weight loss is simply waterc)insulin levels tend to increase with reduc
when a person diets, metabolism decreases
What is the crime stat about alcohol?
Up to 1/3 of all convicted offenders who commit violent crimes consumed alcohol at time of the offense.
I-O Psychology ψ  Chapter 5 Individual Methods   Severity Error
The tendnecy to give all workers very negative performance appraisals.
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