Psychology Exam 4 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
d
concepts
mental grouping
touch
most comforting sense
kohlberg
stages of development
introspecting
observing and analyzing yourself
Heritability of personality, temperament, beliefs, physical characteristics, etc
discontinuous
controversial explanation of development
Catatonia
immobility and unresponsiveness that lasts for long periods of time
rehearsal
The conscious repetition of Information.
 
 
Ivan Pavlov
 
 
 
First discovered classical conditioning.
areas of adaptive functioning
-communication
-self-care
-home living
-social/interpersonal skills
-use of community resources
-self-direction
-functional academic skills,work, leisure, health, and safety
Evolutionary Psychologist
evolutionary history of behavior
severe disorder involving isolation and self-stimulation
autism
myelin
fatty substance, action potentials will be faster.
Environment
interplay between humans and their surroundings
women dont experience
phases of sexual response
Survey**
Questionnaire administered to a large group
Small metal disks pasted onto Miranda's scalp are connected by wire to a machine that translates the electrical energy from her brain into wavy lines on a moving piece of paper. From this description, it is evident that Miranda's brain is being studied th
Electroencephalograph
Correlational study
It involves systematically measuring the relationship between two or more variables
Conscious
Contact with the outside world—only contains a little bit of the ego and superego
Wertheimer
believed that we often experience things that are not a part of our simple sensations, was interested in the study of perception
cochleaand explain transduction
curly thingbasilar membrane-fluid filled coil (like jelly) sets fluid into waving motion which bends little hairs to bend and nerv connected to it firesto auditoynerve and crosses to opp. temporal lobe
quantitative psychology
uses statistics to analyze data
receptors
detect and process senosry information from the environment
Temporal Lobe
Involved in hearing, language processing, and memory.
stress
the general term describing the psychological and bodily response to a stimulus that alters the body's state of equilibrium
cereral cortex
the intricate favric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center.
Blindsight


ability of a person who cannot
perceive objects in a part of his or her visual field to reach for them
accurately while remaining unaware of seeing them





planning, paying attention, and organizing
Broca's area
hypnopompic
pertaining to the semiconscious state prior to complete wakefulness
interpersonal theory
the theory that personality development and behavior disorders are related to and determined by relationships between persons
circadian
biologic clock in humans; the rhythmic repetition of certain phenomena, such as hunger, fatigue, and changes in blood pressure, that tend to fluctuate within a 24-hour period
psychophysiology
the study of the interplay of physiological systems and people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors
Deception
In research, an effect by which participants are misinformed or misled about the study's methods and purposes.
Axon
tube like structure that carries the neural message to other cells.
Difference Threshold
the minimum difference that an individual can detect between two stimuli
unconditioned stimulus
event that elicits a certain predictable response typically wihout previous training
A newer understanding of short-term memory that involves conscious active processing of information, has a limited amount of capacity for 20 sec. 7+-2
does the mother-infant emotional bond result primarily from mothers providing nourishment or contact comfort
contact comfort
LOBES of Brain (4)
Frontal, Parietal, Temporal, Occipital
sensus communis
the home of thought and judgement
case study
a descriptive research strategy in which one person is studied in great depth, often with the intention of revealing universal principles
Involves the application of the principles of learning and conditioning to direct efforts to change clients' maladaptive behaviors
Behavioral Therapy
Sensorimotor Stage
Piaget- period of development between brith and about age two during which infants learn about their worlds primarily through their senses and actions.
Informational Social Influence
Influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality.
Overweight



Having more body fat than psycis optimally healthy.
Orgasmic Reorientation
A procedure for treting certain paraphilias by teaching client to respond to new, more appropriate sources of sexual stimulation.
Reinforcer
provides a stimulus for a consequence that increases behavior-positive: provides a positive stimulus (hug, paycheck)-negative: removes aversive stimulus (fasten seatbelt to turn off beeping)
What is the largest single preventable cause of premature death in the United States?
cigarette smoking
Pictorial depth cues
Features found in paintings, drawings, and photographs that impart infomation about space, depth, and distance.
Georgia Miller
limits on the short term memory
Magical number 7 +/- 1
Georgia Miller
person
memory
process that allows us to record, store, & retrieve experiences and info
cultural leeway
freedom to explore the environment= iparental support for the time and the freedom for children's play
halo effect
a potential inaccuracy in observation due to overgeneralization from a limited amount of evidence or the influence of preconceived beliefs
racial memory
feelings, patterns of thought, and experience that have been transmitted from generation to generation and that deeply influence the mind and behavior
gate-control theory
the theory that the spinal cord contains a neurological "gate" that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass on to the brain. The "gate" is opened by the activity of pain signals traveling up small nerve fibers and is closed by activity in larger fibers or by information coming from the brain. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 227)
monocular cues
depth cues, such as interposition and linear perspective, available to either eye alone. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 246)
Define long term memory, and state how FLASHBULB MEMORIES illustrate it.
Mania
(Mood Disorder)
When a person is hyperactive, wildly optimistic state.
The branch of the autonomic nervous system that restores the body to normal functioning after arousal ad is responsible for day-to-day functioning of the organs and glands is called the _____.
Parasympathetic Division
Classical conditioning
The process by which a previously neutral stimulus acquires the capacity to elicit a response through association with a stimulus that already elicits a similar or related response.
dual-coding theory
hold that memory is enhanced by forming both semantic and visual codes, since either can lead to recall
Psych-Dynamic Perspective
Role of the unconscious mind in development of personality
Dissociative Identity Disorder
A psychological disorder in which people alternate between different identities. It can also be called split personality. Pg 386
Basic goals of psychology (4)
describe, explain, predict, control
Divergent thinking
capacity to generate may solutions to a problem
intern's syndrome
student's tendency to think you have the disorder you're studying
anterograde amnesia
involves the loss of memories for events that occur after the onset of amnesia
Wavelength
The distance from the peak of one light or sound wake to the peak of one light or sound wave to the peak of the next. Electromagnetic wavelengths vary from the short bilps of cosmic rays to the long pulses of radio transmissions.
Performance goals
Goals framed in terms of performing well in front of others, being judged favorably, and avoiding criticism.
Attribution
an idea or belief about the etiology of a certain behavior
Fundamental Attributions error:
TENDENCY FOR OBSERVERS WHO ARE ANALYZING OTHER PEOPLE'S BEHAVIORS TO OVERESTIMATE TEH EFFECT OF INTERNAL DISPOSTIONAL FACTORS (PERSONALITY) AND UNDERESTIMATE THE EFFECT OF SITUATIONAL FACTORS(ENVIROMENT)
acts both as a chemical messengr that transmits nerve signals between nerve cells & causes blood vessels to narrow
serotonin
Critical Thinking
The process of assessing claims and making judgments on the basis of well supported evidence.
Afferent
Which fibers carry info To the body from the CNS?
Placebo is...
used in controlled experiments to test the effectiveness of another substance
Rorschach test
a test for revealing the underlying personality structure of an individual, using a series of inkblot designs which the subject describes in his own words
Gestalt Psychology
the study of perception and behavior from the standpoint of an individual's response to configurational wholes with stress on the uniformity of psychological and physiological events and rejection of analysis into discrete events of stimulus, percept, and
an essay test measures ______, and a multiple choice test measures ______.
recall; recognition
In which disorder do people alternate between states of lethargic hopelessness and wild overexcitement?
B) bipolar disorder
What are the two theories of hypnosis?
Lecture:


Role Playing(eveidence: Placebo Symptoms & Fasle reports)

Genuine Divided Attention(evidence: Example of a subject hypnotized during his/her surgery being able to explain everything)
Book:


Role Playing: evidence: no brain wave activity difference compared to a 

Altered State of Consiousness: evidence: feelings of dissociation.
Reactance Theory
When people feel that their freedom is threatened, there in an increased interest in the prohibited behavior.
vestibular sacs
small organs in the inner ear that contain receptors responsible for the sense of balance.
recency effect
better recall of info presented at end of a task
auditory nerve
bundle of nerves carrying sound to the brain
basic processes in operant conditioning
1. acquisition and shaping2. extinction3. stimulus control
a strong competitive orientation, impatience and time urgency as well as anger and hostility.
The Type A personality includes:
Social Identity(p 299)
The part of a person's self-concept that is based on his or her identification with a nation, religious or polotical group, occupation, or other social affiliation.
Young Agnes was recently diagnosed as having a severe form of deafness. What is the most likely approach that will be used to teach Agnes?
American Sign Language
What is an ion?
Ions are electrically charged atoms that can be either negative (more electrons than protons) or positive (more protons than electrons)
escape mechanism
a means of avoiding an unpleasant life situation, such as daydreaming
Who set up the first psych laboratory and where?
Wundt. Leipzig, Germany
what are the three demensions of sound
intensity, pitch, and timbre
Descriptive Research Study:Problems?
Usually Only a efw special cases. It is a problem of representation
allostatic load theory of illness:
chronic exposure to stress causes physiological damage over time
terminal buttons
structure at end of branch of an axon that, when the neuron is triggered, releases chemicals into the sapce between neurons.
peripheral nervous system (PNS)
the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system (CNS) to the rest of the body.
fixed ratio schedule
In conditioning, a schedule in which a reinforcer occurs only after a fixed number of responses by the subject.
Non-REM sleep (NREM)
stages 1 through 4 of the sleep cycle, during which eye movements do not occur and dreaming is less frequent and vivid
Percentage of young adults 25-34 years of age living with their parents
8% in 1970
13% in 2010
What is Generalization?
Tendency to respond in the same way to stimulus similar to a conditioned stimulus
the word psychology comes from the roots psyche and logos which mean respectively
mind and knowledge or study
a. can differentiate "BA" from "DA"b. can perceive phonemes from different languagesc. are better phoneme perceivers than college students.
Studies of phoneme perception have demonstrated that babies: _____, _______, ______
What did Kinsey's results indicate?
1. That women enjoyed sex
2. That a substantial percentage of men had participated in male-male sexual behavior.
3. That children experienced sexual excitement and activity
4. That masturbation, premarital sex, and extramarital sex were common for both women and men.
5. Around 90% of the women in the study had experienced orgasm by age 35
6. Of the 10% who had not, another 8% reported experiencing sexual arousal, leaving only 2% of women who had failed to enjoy sexual activity, much lower than what people imagined.
1. Humanistic Models of Personality
2. Self-Actualization - Rogers and Maslow
3. Criticisms of Humanistic Model
1. Humans have a choice on how their personality turns out. free will
2. desire to develop our inner potential. Rogers believed humans are born good they develop a sense of self worth and this is how the gain selfactualization. Maslow process that very few people go through less than 1%
3. found their could be inherently aggressive. No way to scientifically test if self actualization is a motivating factor. Difficult to define.
What two are the two ares of cortical projection in the visual system?
Area 17-primary visual cortex, v1 striate cortex(striped)
TENDENCY
EĞİLİM
 
 
 
 
Meichenbaum
 
 
 
 
Self talk
 
 
 
 
Arthur Jensen
 
(Person) 
 
 
Racial differences in average IQ are largely the result of heredity
Define


 
Kinesthesia System sense
Definition


 
“MOVEMENT”
The sense of the position and movement of body parts


R Sigmund Freud


§  Austrian physician
§  Brought psychology to main stream
§  Focused on treatment of psychology disorders
§  Study of unconscious
                              1.   Conflicts at this level(unconscious) result in psychology disorders
                              2.   Control of our minds are at mercy of unconscious forces
                              3.   Coping with sexual urges also influence behavior
§  Psychoanalysis
§  Not all psychologist were accepting of this view 
 
 
 
 
Normal distribution
 
 
 
 
Synmetric, bell-shaped curve that represents the pattern in which many characteristics are dispersed in the population
 
 
 
 
Conditioning



The association between environmental stimuli and responses to the organism's responses
Define


 
NEURON
Definition
Cells specialized for communicating information; the basic building blocks of the nervous systems
 
I.                   Current Diagnosis: DSM-IV-TR
 
 
A.    Detailed criteria and Prevalence- which ones you want to rule out or consider instead. DSM provides prevalence- percentage of people in a population with a disorder
B.     Written by Team-
C.     Revised over Time-
D.    Five Axes of Functioning- when someone makes a diagnosis they need to include things like medical conditions, life stressors and daily functioning. Biological, Social, and Psychological approaches to this.
 
 
 
 
 
Correlation coefficient
 
 
 
 
 
Numerical index of the degree of relationship between two variables
 
 
 
 
Antipsychotics


1st generation: haldol, prolixin (side effect-tardive dyskinesia) thorazine and mellaril (less side effects)
2nd generation: zyprexa and clozaril (reduces negative symptoms of psychosis)
3rd generation: risperdal, seroquel, geodon and abilify (few side effects)
Define


 
Endocrine System
Definition


 
A system for communication within our bodies
 
Spinal Cord
 
responsible for transmitting information between brain and the rest of the body; handles simple reflexes.
 
Axis IV 
 
contains information about problems in a person's life that might affect adjustment. 
 
 
 
 
Intelligence quotient
 
 
 
 
A child's mental age divided by chronological age, multiplied by 100
 
 
 
 
Antidepressants
Tricyclics (TCA's)-- older & cheaper, can also work for OCD, ADHD, enuresis and pain
Monoanine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI's)-- older & rarely used, have to avoid foods such as meet, cheese, beer and wine which can elevate blood pressure
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI's)-- Zoloft, paxil, prozac, celexa, lexapro. Minor side effects
Selective serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SSNRI's)-- trazodone, remeron, cymbalta. Zyban is the same as wellbutrin but marketed for cigarette cessation
 
 
 
 
what are two types of relationships? 
 
 
 
 
positive
negative
 
Foundations of Psychology


1.
2.
3.
4.
Foundations of Psychology


1. Chemistry
2. Electricity
3. Mechanics
4. Engineering
Central Nervous System
 
 
Forebrain
 
 
Function
It functions to control cognitive, sensory and motor function, and regulate temperature, reproductive functions, eating, sleeping and the display of emotions.
 


R Behaviorism and important behavioral psychologists


  Behaviorism
A  Proposed that psychology can be a true science only if it examines observable behavior, not ideas, thoughts, feelings, or motives
A  An extreme form of environmentalism(the view that all behavior comes from experience)
A  Only observable events (stimulus-response relations) can be studied scientifically
§  Important behavioral psychologists
A  John B. Watson
B Focus should be observable behavior
ü  Objective
ü  Verifiability
B Mental processes are private events
B Strong belief in environment/experience as cause of behavior (aka empiricism)
ü  Nature-nurture debate
A  Ivan Pavlov
B Discovered by accident how organisms learn relationships b/w events &stimuli
ü  Dogs can salivate to the sound of a bell
B Adaptive feature of behavior
B May things in our environment can signal the occurrence of another
A  B.F. Skinner
B Behavioral principals
ü  Reinforcements vs. punishment
ü  Applied to both animals and humans
B Radical behaviorist vs. methodological behaviorist
ü  Mental events exist but difficult to study
B Beyond freedom and dignity
ü  Environmental determinism
B Ideas were often misinterpreted 
 
 
 
 
Classical conditioning
 
 
 
The process by which a previously neutral stimulus elicits a response through association with a stimulus that already elicits a simular response
 
 
what are the types of antecedent stimuli that can influence operant behavior 
 
 
 
 
SD
SΔ 
SCAS
 
 
 
 
 
is there indirect measurement in behavior analysis? 
 
 
 
 
 
no, only direct measurement
 
 
Dopamine (DA)
 
Contributes to the control of voluntary muvements. Also, dopamine circuits in medial forebrain bundle characterized as "reward pathways"
dissorders associated with:
Parkinsonism, schizophrenic disorder, and addictive disorder


R Unconsciousness and psychoanalysis 


§  Study of unconscious
                              1.   Conflicts at this level (unconscious) result in psychology disorders
                              2.   Control of our minds are at mercy of unconscious forces
                              3.   Coping with sexual urges also influence behavior
§  Psychoanalysis 
1.Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
2. Psychoneuroimmunology
 
1.) 1.      Re-experience (flashbacks, nightmares, etc.)
2.      Avoidance (anything that associated with event)
3.      Isolation- feeling detached from others.
4.      Clip from Frontline Documentary 
2).immune system is impacted by our thoughts and beliefs
 
 
 
 
 
Medications that help with withdrawal
 

Agitation and anxiety-- benzos (xanax)
Sleep-- antidepressants (trazodone & remeron)
Sleep & hypomania-- antipsychotic (seroquel) & anti sezuire (clonidine)
 
 
 
 
 
What should you transduce? 
 
 
 
 
 
Only the features of the behavior and environment that are important to your study 
Identify 6 Sleep disorders


1.               2.
3.               4.
5.               6.
Identify 6 Sleep disorders


1. Insomnia                  2. Narcolepsy
3. Sleepwalking              4. Night Terrors
5. Apnea                     6. SIDS


R B.F. Skinner & his contribution to the behavioral perspective


B.F. Skinner
A  Influential behavior psychologist
§  Contribution to the behavioral perspective
A  Behavioral principals
B Reinforcements vs. punishment
B Applied to both animals and humans
A  Radical behaviorist vs. methodological behaviorist
B Mental events exist but difficult to study
A  Beyond freedom and dignity
B Environmental determinism
A  Ideas were often misinterpreted
 
 
Divergent thinking
 
One tries to expand the range of alternatives by generating many possible solutions
 
 
 
  
Are likert scales absolute units of measure? 
 
 
 
 
 
No because they are not precise 
Fill in the Blank


 
Parietal Lobe
______________
Fill in the Blank


 
Parietal Lobe
“Skin”
Fixation
Inability to see a problem from a new presepective            -impediment to problem solving
Stress as Transactions
2 different people can react to an event in to different ways. One thinks that it is stressful and the other doesn’t. 
Fill in the Blank


 
Brain uses ________% of Energy
Fill in the Blank


 
 
Brain uses 20% of Energy
1. Cornary Disease
2. Type A Personality and Hostility
1. most widely studied. Number one cause of death and disability in US.  
2. associated with a risk of this heart disease. Being hostile towards people can cause this disease.
Fill in the Blank


 
One neuron can connect with up to
____________ synapses
Fill in the Blank


 
One neuron can connect with up to
80,000 synapses
The        School argued for a "member" of the audience explanation.
The Nancy School argued for a "member" of the audience explanation.
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Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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