Psychology Exam Chapters and Flashcards

Terms Definitions
hooke
phosphorescent stone
PTSD
aftermath of crisis
Impression management
ingratiation (flattery), self-promotion, intimidation, exemplification, suplification---self-handicapping-making our goals tougher (gives excuse for failure, great success)
automatic, involuntary, unlearned behavior
instinct
Other Selves
Temporal (time): then/now, global/specific--Possible selves: pos. or neg.
HYPOTHALAMUS
Forebrain; Motivation and emotion, i.e. sexual behavior, temperature regulation, sleeping, eating, drinking and aggression; involved with experience of pleasure and displeasure.
deinstitutionalization
-transfer from hospital to community
OPERANT
Any behavior that is voluntary
Pons
Connects Brain stem to Cerebellum, regulates sleeping and dreaming.
had the first psychological experimental lab
wilhelm wundt
Right Hemisphere
controls left side of body,artsy,creative, emotional
Self-determination theory (SDT) best fits which type of motivation?
human motivation
Dissociative Disorders:
definition
group of pathologies involving "fragmentation" of the personality
Mood stabilizers
-used to treat mood disorders
harmful substances that cause birth defects
teratogens
Amphetamine's affects(2)
-stimulate neural activity, causing speeded up body functions and energy and mood changes-pleasurable feelings
Emotional Intelligence
The ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions.
phallic stage
sexual issues
Ex: boys love mother, jealous of father
girls love father, "penis envy"
Rationalization trap
justifying mistakes can lead to initiation of behavior consistent w/ mistake--cutting someone off--continue being aggressive
Short-term memory is another name for _____ memory.
Working
kinesthesis
the system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts.
Sociocultural perspective
examines how the social environment and cultural learning influence our behavior, thoughts, and feelings
Performance standard
In Bandura's theory, standards that people develop to rate the adequacy of their own behavior in a variety of situations.
pituitary gland
triggers other glands to release hormones
according to freud we block from consciousness unacceptable or unbearably painful thoughts wishes feelings and memories the blocked material surfaces in disguised forms for example in physical symptoms dreams or slips of the tongue this unconsious blockin
repression
cells from fathers sperm and mothers ovum that contain genetic info
zygote
Superego
(establised at 4/5yrs of age)the part of the personality representing the conscience, formed in early life by internalization of the standards of parents and other models of behavior.
separated twins
number of studies compared identical twins raised separately from birth and found numerous similarities in personality, intelligence, abilities, attitudes, interests, fears, brain waves, and heart rate.
Criterion
The behavior that a test is designed to predict; thus, the measure used in defining whether the test has predictive validity.
Saturation is related to the ___ of light.
Complexity
theory
a set of related statements that are supposed to explain and predict
Punishment
The process by which a stimulus or event weakens or reduces the probability of the response that it follows.
accomodation
the process by which the eye’s lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retina.
Signal dectection theory
concerned with the facctores atht influence sensory judgments.
Psychological Theories of Emotion:
Schachter-Singer Theory of Emotion
Two-factor theory: emotion results from the cognitive appraisal of both (1) physical arousal and (2) an explanation for the arousal due to environmentl stimulus
problem focused coping
concentration on solving the problem before dealing with emotions
projective test
response to ambiguous stimuli to show unconscious motives
Define imprinting
The process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life.
Positive reinforcement
-occurs when something is added to increase the response rates
Semantics
The set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language, also the study of meaning.
Define: Social Institution
Stable set of roles, statuses, groups, and organizations- such as the institution of education, family, politics, religion, health care, or the economy- that provieds a foundation for behavior in some mahor area of social life.
Life Change Units
All events that are assigned a numerical value based in their degree of disruption of one's life and readjustment following the event.
The trial and error method of solving problems is also known as ____
mechanical solution
Theories of Motivation:
Instinct Theory
view that certain behaviors are determined by innate factors
 
Fixed-action patterns: genetically based behaviors, seen across a species, that can be set off by a specific stimulus
general adaptation syndrome
a series of physiological reactions to stress occuring
Conflicts between adolescents and their parents tend to be over ______.
Trivial issues.Ex: Hair, Clothing, Music, Etc.
Alfred Bandura’s Experiments (example and definition)
-Bobo doll-we look and we learn
In Pavlovs classical conditioning with the dogs, there are 2 stimuli and 2 responses
 
what are they and what were they?
 
1. UCS (unconditioned stimulus) food
 
2. UCR (unconditioned response) the dog salivating
 
3. CS (conditioned stimulus) bell
 
4. CR (conditioned response)  bell
 What is Suprachiasmatic
An area of the brain containing a biological clock that governs circadian rhythms
self care children
at home by themselves after school an hour or more each day
Stage 5: Genital-Puberty and beyond
the final stage of psychosexual development, in which a person achieves an affectionate, mature relationship with a sexual partner. (anal and oral fixation)
What are the roles of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the brain?
sympathetic-deals with stress; flight-or-flightparasympathetic-regenerative, growth-promoting, energy conserving functions, etc.
MRI technology has demonstrated that men listen with ______ and women listen with ______ of their brain.
left hemisphere, women listen with both hemispheres
what is the difference between sensation and perception
sensation is the detection of sensory stimuli, whereas perception is the interpretation of sensory information
Albert bandura a social cognitive theorists believes that interacting with our environment involves reciprocal determinism or mutual influences among personal factors environmental factors and behavior an example of an environmental factor is
the presence of books in a home
Janie is taking an exam in her history class. On the exam there is a question that asks her to state and discuss the five major causes of the Trans-Caspian War. Janie remembers four of them. She knows there is a fifth and can almost remember it; she knows
Tip of the tounge phenomenon
Which of the following statements is true about Kanzi, the bonobo chimp?
he was able to learn 150 english words, follow compact instructs compared to a 2 year old
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