Psychology Exam Part 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Meme
Olfactory bulbs
Smell
catatonic schizo
moderate prognosis
menarche
the onset of menstruation.
Sample
Part of a population
Industrial
managing organizational efficiency. Older branch. *efficient job design, employee selection, employee training, performance appraisal.
Hypothalamus
Controls several metabolic functions: body temp, sexual arousal, hunger, thirst, and endocrine system.
agonist
excite by mimicking particular neurotransmitters or by blocking their reuptake
Generalization
producing the same Conditioned response from a similar stimuli close to the Conditioned stimulus
pinker
says chimps dont develop language
cochlea
three chambered snail-shaped structure in the inner ear containing the receptors for hearing
Humanistic perspective
-emphasizes human potential, self-awareness, & free will-sees ppl as being innately good and focuses on health personality-perception of oneself is critical
Exposure Therapy
Confronting an emotion-arousing stimulus directly and repeatedly, ultimately leading to a decrease in the emotional response
personalism
an approach stressing individual personality as the central concern of psychology
watson
introduced the study of conditioning to understand how fears are learned
autonomic nervous system
responsible for involuntary movement
psychosurgery
brain surgery to treat psychological problems
cognitive process
psychological processes through which children acquire, store, and use knowledge about the world
Higher-order conditioning
conditioning that occurs when conditioned stimuli are linked together to form a series of signals
Negative punishment
Pleasant stimulus is taken away
+1.00 to -1.00
A Correltaion-Coefficient, if calculated correctly, will fall in a range in value from _____ to _____
schizophrenia prevalence
one percent of adult population
Transduction
process by which sensory organs transform mechanical, chemical, or light energy into the electrochemical energy that is generated by neurons firing.
Grouping
The perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups.
Regression
the act of returning psychologically to a younger, and typically simpler, safer age 
typically have jobs in the spotlight
histrionic
Self-Esteem
A person's overall self-evaluation or sense of self-worthEx: See ourselves as attractive, smart, or weak, ugly
Gestalt Psychology
Early perspective in psychology focusing on perception and sensation, particularly the perception of patterns and whole figures.
analytical psychology
Jung's psychodynamic theory, which emphasizes the collective unconscious and archetypes
kleptomania
an irresistible impulse to steal, stemming from emotional disturbance rather than economic need
Neuron
Cell specialized to receive and transmit information to other cells in the body - also called a nerve cell. Bundles of many neurons are called nerves.
Triune Brain theory
1. Brainstem
2. Limbic System
3. Cerebral Cortex
Blood-injury-injection Phobia
Unreasonable fear and avoidance of exposure to blood, injury or the possibility of an injection. Victims experience fainting and a drop in blood pressure.
Androgyny
when a person sees themselves as possessing positive / desirable attributes of both sexes.
Types of Individual differences
1. personality types2. optimism/pessimism
Autobiographical memories
Our recollections of circumstances and episodes from our own lives.
taste preferences
largely learned and heavily influenced by social processes
Conservation (Piaget)
In Piaget's theory, the understanding that two equal quantities remain equal even though the form or appearance is rearranged, as long as nothing is added or subtracted.
The Psychosexual Stage when the sexual drive is awakened and the pursuit of sexual relationships begins is called...
Genital
Testosterone
The male hormone that is released primarily by the testes when they are stimulated by the gonadotropins.
sensory receptors
specialized cells that detect sensory stimuli and convert them into neural impulses
imagery audience
common belief among adolescents tat they are the center of other people's attention
Symptoms of Anxiety Disorders
motor tension, hyperactivity, apprehensive expectations and thoughts, maladaptive behaviors to reduce anxiety, 18.1% prevalence rate
problems of inducting structure
discover relationsEx. series complexation problems, analogies
Blastocyst
Ball of identical cells early in pregnancy that haven't yet begun to take on any specific function in a body part
Priming
The process through which a detector or proportion of the nervous system is prepared for an upcoming input, making it easier for the participant to recognize that input
obsessions and compulsions
persistant thoughts and ritualized behaviors
Norm
An understood rule for accepted and expected behavior. Norms prescribe "proper" behavior.
introvert
according to jung, a person who usually focuses on ihs or her own thoughts and feelings.
Superego (age 4 or 5)
moral component
Conscience (punishment)
Ego-Ideal (reward)
stage 4
deepest sleep. most difficulty waking up
egocentrism
inability to see another's point of view
heretability
The fraction of variance in a population that is attributed to genetics and is computed using correlational techniques.
reaction time
the interval between stimulation and response
object permanence
the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived
Fraud
the explicit effort of a researcher to falsify or misrepresent data
Interneurons functions
- most common neuron.
- connects neurons to neurons.
- in spinal cord, connect sensory neurons to motor neurons
- in brain, form complex assemblages of interconnected nerve cells that process info from sensory organs and that control higher mental functions : planning, thinking
Axon
The part of the neuron that carries messages destined for other neurons.
depth perception
ability to judge distance and three demensional relations
dendrites
the parts of the neuron that are specialized to receive info, complexity of branching varies greatly
Zygote
The fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo.
What stage does a child acquire object permanence?
sensorimotor
Amygdala
A structure in the limbic system that increases arousal related to emotions, particularly fear, rage, and aggression.
stress
the process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging
Habit Hierarchy
in social learning theory, a learned hierarchy of likelihoods that a person will produce particular responses in particular situations
Approach-Avoidance Conflict
Conflict in which achieving a positive goal will produce a negative outcome as well.
rebound insomnia
the longstanding use of many sleeping pills can make it more difficult to sleep once people stop taking them
Definition of Control Condition/Control Group
Opposite of independent variable. Placebo.
afterimage
the image left behind by a previous perception
Trust propensity
A general expectation that a person can be relied upon
KSAOs
Knowledge: what a person needs to know to do a job. Skill: what a person is able to do on the job. Ability: a person's capability to do a job or learn to do job tasks. Other personal characteristics: anything relevant to the job that is not already covered.
what causes temporary sleep deprivation psycholsis
sever loss of sleep
Wilhelm Wundt
Founded the first labortory for the study of Psychology based on consiousness and began the branch of Structuralism
visuospatial sketchpad
permits people to temporarily hold & manipulate visual images
One of the two categories used to describe biofeedback; an example might include a device that lets one know of an effect of biofeedback on a specific biological function that results in lights appearing on a panel
Binary
Rorschach test
a test for revealing the underlying personality structure of an individual, using a series of inkblot designs which the subject describes in his own words
productive language
the total of words that babies can use
ribbon and mobile task--implicit/procedural memory
Carolyn Rovee-Collier.When a ribbon is tied to a baby's ankle and connected to an attractive mobile, it will shake a leg now and then and learn that leg kicking being positively reinforcing consequences: jiggling of the mobile test memory--mobile presented later to see if kid kicks again. infant must recognize mobile and know to kick
sympathetic nervous system
the division of the automatic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations.
group intelligence tests
IQ tests administered to many people at one time; test is highly verbal and uses paper and pencil.
reaction formation
is behaving in a way that's exactly the opposite of one's true feelings
observabal patterns of behavior
In order to facalitate dignostic reliability, the DSM-IV typically bases diganosises on
Peripheral nervous system
The network of nerves that connects the brain and spinal cord to other parts of the body
general intelligence or "g"
Spearman argued that intelligence is based on one factor, ..., and proposed that intelligence tests should measure intelligence without becoming clouded by specific abilities.
Self Determination Theory
A theory motivation that proposes that three basic, organismic needs (competence, autonomy, relatedness) characterize intrinsic motivation
Describe techniques of research employed to study genetic and environmental effects on development
twin studies, especially identical twins. And adoption studies- compare child's characteristics to adopted and biological family.
Which of the id, ego, and superego are dominantly unconcious
id
This was a biomedical therapy used still today. It started with the use of insulin to cause shock in patients. In more modern days, electricity currents are run through the brain and the procedure is more controlled and restraints are used.
Electroconvulsive Shock (ECT)
Norm of Reciprocity
The unwritten rule that people should benefit those who have benefited them
- Retention of information over time- Short-term memory: retain info for up to 30 seconds if there is no rehearsal of the info- Speed and efficiency of memory improve with age and experience- Becomes more accurate with age
Theory of mind and autism
divergent thinking
the ability to generate a variety of solutions to one problem
Rating scale
(measuring personality: behavioral measures)
assessment in which a numerival value is assigned to specific behavior that is listed in the scale.
lateral hypothalamus (LH)
if stimulated the animal will eat and eat, if destroyed the animal refuses to eat
Ward findings about nature of media messages about sexuality
-Themes1.Sexual/romantic relations are a competition (11.8%)2. Men value and select women based on their physical appearance (11.5%)3.Sex is a defining act of masculinity. TO be male is to be sexual with women (9.6%)4. Women are attracted to specific types of men (men with status and good looks; 9.6%)
afferent nerve fibers
axons that carry info inward to the central nervous system from the periphery of the body
Organ of Corti(p 211)
A structure in the cochlea containing hair cells that serve as the receptors for hearing.
Crystallized vs. Fluid intelligence
Fluid- ability to acquire new info, processCrystallized- facts you know, general knowledge
Cultural bias
The tendancy of items on a test of intelligence to require specific cultural experience or knowledge.
Erik Erikson
Each stage of life has a task, and two main ways to complete (or not) complete the task. One of the first lifespan psychologists.
Name three parts of the ear.
outer ear, middle ear, inner ear
What is the difference between fluid and crystallized intelligence?
1. Fluid learninga. Measured by tasks in which relatively little advantage comes from intensive or extensive education. b. Thought to increase and then decline over lifespan (fluctuates).2. Crystallized learninga. Reflects more organized, systematic, acculturated learning (provided by certain institutions). b. Should generally increase or remain stable over adult years.
What are the 2 other names for Engineering Psychology?
Human factors & Human engineering
George, at age 42, lost his job, was divorced by his wife, and couldn't seem to keep friends for very long. George came more and more to feel that he was accomplishing nothing with his life. According to Erikson, George is probably:
experiencing feelings of stagnation
evolutionary theory on love by kenrick and trost
passionate love has evolved as an innate behaviour to ensure strong pair bonding and thereby a secure family unit in which to nurture the young
 
Tiny spaces between neurons; the gaps between neurons are referred to as synaptic gaps.
What are the tiny spaces between neurons called? S
concerning sexual arousal whcih of the following statement is TRUE
women tend to place more emphasis on emotional closeness with a lover then men do
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