psychology midterm Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Meditation
Menarche/Spermarche
first menstruation/ejaculation
Encoding
Stores memories forever
nociceptors
pain (plucking eyebrows)mechanicalheatmixedchemical
Descriptive Statistics
Data Summaries:-Frequencies-Central Tendency -Dispersion
prosocial behavior
constructive helpful behavior
subliminal
employing stimuli insufficiently intense to produce a discrete sensation but often designed to influence the behavior of an individual
mean
the atrthmetic average of distributionn, obtained by adding the scores then dividing them by the number of scores
Instincts
Innate, automatic dispositions toward responding in a particular way when confronted with a specific stimulus
function of eating
gives you energy
Kelly and guidance of behavior
Emotional Intelligence
self-awareness, mood management, self-motivation, impulse control, and people skilils
Daydreams
Fantasises that people construct while awake.
Geutamate
Brain neurotransmittewr that enhances synaptic communication (LTP)
Egocentrism
In Piaget's theory, the preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view.
Brain Circuit
Neurotransmitter current or neural pathway in the brain.
Determinism
the assumption that everything that happens has a cause or determinant in the observable world.
Resistance
The blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material.
Norepinephrine
A neurotransmitter linked to anxiety disorders.
social phobia
major diagnostic features: an irrational fear of being publicly humiliated or emarrassedsubcategories: public speaking, eating in public, using a public toiletHow common: 11% of men and 15% or women in the usbiopsychosocial causes: 1) can develop in chldhood but suually develops in early adolescence and age of 253)highest rates found among poeple who are undereducated, how low incomes or both
avoidance
person often avoids close emotional ties with family, colleagues and friends; reminders of event; survivor's guilt
latent content
underlying conflict; interpreted by therapist
dreams:
perceived experience of sensory images and sounds during sleep
Agency
Bx not just controlled automatically or mechanically via environmental stimuli (as in early conditioning theories). Cognitive processes exert influence.
Exaggerated Fear
The opposite of overconfidence, expecting the worst
ie:after 9/11, we feared all Muslims
locomotor-genital stage - conflict?
initiative vs. guilt
Describe the Sensory Perceptual dimension.
Vision, hearing.
Rods
retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision, when cones dont respond
group therapy
simultaneous treatment of several clients in a group; clients discuss problems, experiences, coping strategies; therapist keeps group unity
compulsive
characterized by an irresistible urge to act; governed by an obsessive need to conform coupled with an inability to express positive emotions
symbolization
dream elements have common meanings for many people
Independent variable
This variable can vary independently of other factors
Three stages or "Box" model
Sensory
 
Short term
 
Long term
Fixation
according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, where conflicts were unsolved.
somatoform symptoms
physical impairments (but no physical cause)
reflex
an automatic behavior of the body involving movement that is activated through the spinal cord without using the higher brain
psychophysics
the study of the relationships between sensory experiences and the physicial stimuli that cause them
stimulants
drugs that tend to increase central nervous system activation and behavior activity ex:amphetamines(speed), cocaine(crack), caffeine, nicotine
bipolar disorder
a mood disorder involving periods incapacitating depression alternating with periods of extreme euphoria and excitement; formerly called manic depression
conversion disorder
type of somatoform disorder-the person appears to be blind, deaf, or paralyzed-usually caused by stress
Height and weight are _____ correlated; elevation and temperature are _____ correlated.
positively; negatively
biomedical therapies
drug therapy -involve interventions into a person's physiological functioning

The psychological disorder that involves the coexistence in one person of two or more largely complete, and usually very different, personalities is
Dissociative identity disorder
Preconventional Morality
Kholberg's lowest level of moral development- individuals have not internalized a personal code of morality. stages 1 and 2- punishment and obedience (act is moral if rewarded), instrumental orientation (act is moral if satisfies needs)
Communication competence
The ability to accomplish one’s personal goals in a manner that maintains a relationship on terms that are acceptable to all parties
Types of Bullying Behaviors


Bullying: Repeated, systematic efforts to inflict harm through physical, verbal, or social attack on a weaker person.
Bully-victim: Someone who attacks others and who is attacked as well
Correlation Coefficient
A statistical technique that assesses how well you can predict one variable from another
Classical Conditioning
deals with relationship between two independent stimuli (Pavlov's Dogs)
• Neuromodulators
are chemical released in the nervous system that influence the sensitivity of the receiving neuron to neurotransmitters
Discovery learning
Learning based on insight and understanding.
Sample
The partial collection of people who actually were measured in a study
a relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience
Learning
Parasympathetic rebound
excess activity in the parasympathetic nervous system following a period of intense emotion
halo effect
a potential inaccuracy in observation due to overgeneralization from a limited amount of evidence or the influence of preconceived beliefs
afterimage
a visual image or other sense impression that persists after the stimulus that caused it is no longer operative
semantic encoding
the encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 356)
ingroup
"Us"- people with whom we share a common identity
primacy effect
the tendency for items at the beginning of a list to be remembered better than items in the middle
Philippe Pinel
famous for demanding that the mentally ill be treated with kindness, personally unlocking the chains of inmates in France
amygdala
part of limbic system that plays key roles in fear, excitement, and arousal
bilingual
if you don't know this, stop studying right now
intermittent reinforcement
occurs when a designated response is reinforced only some of the time
phen-fen
a slang term for the combination of the anti-obesity drugs phentermine and fenfluramine
variable ratio
reinforcer after random # of responses (gambling) MOST EFFECTIVE!
Lifestyle Orientations are the scale between
Judgers and Percievers
UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS
STIMULUS THAT CAN ELICIT A RESPONSE WITHOUT ANY LEARNING
Idiosyncrasy credits
... refer to a group's tolerance of an individual's disregard for group norms.
schedule of reinforcement
determines which occurrences of a specific response result in the presentation of a reinforcer
Naturalistic Observations
 
Directly observe behavior in a natural setting

Pros- gets at real world behaviors
Cons- Demand characteristics.(observers can affect subjects behavior)
observer bias
Axon
the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands
Biblical view of soul
A quality
2 uses:
unique human capacities
what survives after death
Inner Ear
The innermost part of the ear, containing the cochlea, semicircular canals and vestibular sacs.
He said intelligence is mostly inherited
Sir Francis Galton
PRESCRIPTIVE GRAMMAR

rules that tell people how they should speak/writeprescribing how we should talk

ex. “DON’T end a sentence w/ a preposition”

longitudinal fissure
deep fissure that divides brain in half creating 2 hemispheres
Barnum Effect
The tendency of people to accept overgeneralized descriptions of personality as accurate appraisals of their own. "a little something for everybody"
word association test
a technique for determining a subject's associative pattern by providing a verbal stimulus to which a spoken response is required
Turner's Syndrome
"XO" Female with wedded neck, and shield-like chest, sterile
Setpoint for fat cells

Cannot decrease number of fat cells.
biological drives
state of arousal, such as hunger and thirst, that urge the organism to obtain a the basics for survival
Seasonal Affective Disorder
A controversial disorder in which a person experiences depression during the Winter and an improvement of mood in the Spring. Treatment involves phototherapy or exposure to fluorescent light
Consistency Bias
Bias to reconstruct the past to fit the present
What influences our values?
Religious views, Ethnic and Cultural Views, Academic Involvment
shared psychotic disorder
one or more people develop a delusional system as a result of a close relationship with a psychotic person who is delusional in which disorder develops in context of relationship with history of pathological dependence where nonpsychotic person gets caught up in delusional system of psychotic person and becomes equally consumed ny irrational belief
Sheldon's work
wrote a number of books on how specific body types (whether one is skinny, muscular, or fat) promoted specific personality traits.research failed to support Sheldon's findings so theory is of historical interest only.*body types relation to personality*.
James- Lange Theory
Theory that emotions precede and cause bodily changes 
Single-Blind Study(54)
An experiment in which subjects do not know whether they arein an experiemntal or control group.
WHat term do sleep researchers use to designate stages 1 to 4 of sleep
NREM sleep
Feel-good, Do-good Phenomenon
people's tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood
What is neuroplasticity?
the ability within the brain to constantly change both the structure and function of many cells in response to experience or trauma.
stream of consciousness
thought regarded as a succession of ideas and images constantly moving forward in time
drawing conclusions with IVs
1. manipulated. no confounds --> IV causes DV!2. subject. groups differ!
Ego
The ego is in the middle. It wants moderation. It strikes a balance between the needs for pleasure from the id, and the need for rules from the superego.
alternative systems of medical practice
health care ranging from self-care according to folk principles, to care rendered in an organized health care system based on alternative traditions or practices
Positive Symptoms of Schizophrenic Disorders
excess or distortion of normal functionsdelusions, hallucinations, and disorganized speech
What factors do not explain homosexuality?
A smothering motherAn absent fatherEmotional ProblemsSame-sex play in childhood and adolescenceParental PracticesRole ModelsSeduction by an older adult
What is a negative reinforcer?
an unpleasant stimulus whose removal leads to an increased probality that a preceding response will occur again
DA - FuelNE - Mediator5-HT - Modifier
Drug treatment for anxiety?
coping with symptoms,the 5 D's
1. Delay until urge passes (3-5min)2. Distract yourself3. Drink water4. Deep breaths - relax5. Discuss your feelings
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) –
a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue; allows us to see structures within the brain.
You show your nephew two beakers that are the same size and shape and contain the same volume of liquid. You then pour one of the beakers into a third beaker that is tall but thin. Your nephew now tells you that the third beaker contains more liquid. Your
a) egocentrism.b) conservation.c) reversibility.d) formal operations. e) the sense the Good Lord gave a head of cabbage.
3 Levels of the structure of personality
1. ID2. EGO3. SUPER EGO
 
How do the wishes escape the unconscious?
 
Through wish fulfillment in our dreams.
 
The unacceptable desires that can't be satisfied in the conscious mind are instead expressed through dreams where the sleeper is protected from the consequences of these urges overtaking their life.
 
Dreaming it seems, allows us to release the tension of repressing forbidden desires and unacceptable urges.
what is the glass escalator?
he rapid promotion of men over women, especially into management, in female-dominated fields such as nursing.[citation needed]Men in these fields are promoted with ease – they actually have to struggle not to advance due to facing invisible pressures and expectations to move up from where they currently are. This is based on traditional gender roles and stereotypes that men are expected to be in the chief roles, while women are to be in the subordinate positions. Therefore, in the fields where men are less common, they receive differential treatment that favors them to exert their authority and control in the workplace.
A monochromat can match any colour using only
One hue and can only perceive variations in lightness
With regard to the process of neural transmission, a refractory period refers to a tiem interval in which:
A) a neuron fires more rapidly than usual
B) an electrical charge travels from a sensory neuron to a motor neuron
C) positively charged ions are
C) positively charged ions are pumped back outside a neural membrane
I-O Psychology ψ  Chapter 9 Frankenburger 1954 Burnout  
Counterproductive Work Behaviors
(CWB's) 
Deviant, negative behaviors that are harmful to an organization and its workers.
 
e.g. stealing, vandalism, sabotage, harassment, drugs, etc.   
13
closure
zygote
fertilized egg
functions
outcomes or results
habituation
decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 143)
Tranquilizers
mood disorder, panic disorder
Epiphenomenon
Type of monism
 
Mind (consciousness) a by-product of brains
 
Consciousness is real but not relavent to actual behavior
 
Partly true b/c we do make lots of automated decisions
meta-analysis
a procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studies
Who developed the classification system or “taxonomy” by which all living things are described?
Linnaeus
IQ
mental age/chronological age X 100
pyschological disorder
deviant,distressful and dysfunctional behavior patterns
hippocampus
memories; formation of new memories
receiver factors
personality, expectations initial attitude on issue, strength of preexisting attitudes
imagery
mental images collectively, especially those produced by the imagination
Approach that suggests forgetting to pick up mother at airport as unconcious way of resenting her visit
psychoanalytic
Somatoform Disorder
Pathological concern of individuals with the appearance or functioning of their bodies, usually in the absence of any identifiable medical condition.
Incapacitating efforts to avoid specific anxiety-producing situations is most indicative of certain
C) phobias
adolescence
the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence
Depth perception
The ability to perceive distance
Children's thought processes are particulary egocentric during which Piagetian stage?
Preoperational Stage
implicit memory
Retention independent of conscious recollection, such as bicycle riding or swimming. Contrast with explicit memory.
lightness or luminance, the dimension of visual experience related to the amount of light emitted from or reflected by an object
brightness
morphemes
the smallest meaningful units of language. ish- sort of
down syndrome
a chromosomal disorder characterized by mild to profound mental retardation
 
has 3   21 chromosomes
biological psych
physiological specialty focused on physical and chemical changes that cause, and occur in response to, behavior and mental processes.
mood disorders
emotional extremes (Major Depressive Disorder; Mania, Bipolar;)
The operant conditioning procedure of selectively reinforcing successively closer appoximations of a goal behavior until the goal behavior is displayed.
shaping
Limbic System
Involved in motivation, emotion, memory, and learning
multiple intelligences
linguistic, logical, spatial, bodily, musical, inter intrapersonal, naturalistic
ambivalence
the coexistence within an individual of simultaneous positive and negative feelings toward the same person or object
self-actualization
the achievement of one's full potential through creativity, independence, spontaneity, and a grasp of the real world
effortful processing
encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.
Prevalence
Number of people displaying a disorder in the total population at any given time.
Conventional Level


Stage 3 Good boy/girl Orientation Right and wrong is determined by close others’ approval or disapproval
Stage 4 Authority Orientation Right and wrong is determined by society’s rules and laws, which should be obeyed rigidly
Syndromes
Groups or clusters of related symptoms that are characteristic of a disorder.
perceptual constancy
perceiving objects as unchanging even as illumination and retinal images change
Domains of Development
Physical: brain, nervous system, sensory capabilities, motor functions, needs for food, drink & sleepCognitive: mental abilities including learning, memory, language, problem solving, intelligenceSocial: interactions with others, social relationships, enduring characteristics that differentiate one person from another
proactive interference
the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new info
Group polarization
tendency of group discussion to strengthen the dominant positions held by individual group members
language production
actually speaking or signing or writing to others
Functionalism
Concerned with how behavior and mental abilities help people adapt to their environments
Homesign
system of signs invented by deaf children of hearing parents who receive no language input
anal
The ... stage occurs from one to three years and involves conflicts around toilet training and retention versus expulsion.
Synapse
includes the synaptic gap and a portion of the presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes that are involved in transmitting a signal between neurons.
enzymatic degradation
a way of removing excess neurotransmitter from the synapse, in which enzymes specific for that neurotransmitter bind with the neurotransmitter and destroy it.
Color blindness
(protanopia)
"1st color defect"
confuse red and green
red cones are filled with green opsin(photopigment)
Kinship Studies
Identical Twins separated prove enviro or bio impact... also with adoptees.
personality inventory
paper&pencil or comp. test that consists of statements that requie a specific, standardized response from tester
independent variable
the experimental factor that is manipulated - the effect of the variable being studied. ex) breast milk or formula.
neurons that carry messages from sense receptor cells toward the central nervous system
sensory neurons
Psychotherapy
An interaction between a therapist and someone suffering from a psychological problem, with the goal of providing support or relief from the problem
men masturbate...
3 times as often as women
defense mechanisms
unconscious mental strategies the mind uses to protect itself from conflict and distress
psychological perspectives
general points of veiwused for explaining peoples behavior and thinking wether normal or abnormal
moderate mental retardation
Mentally retarded individuals with an IQ range 35-49. They can learn simple tasks, therefore are sometimes classified as trainable.
Sigmund Freud
Set up levels of consciousness and believed dreams were made up of the unconscious mind.
Mudane Realism
Degree to which an experiment is superficially similar to everyday situations.
Cerebellum
part of the lower brain located behind the pons that controls and coordinates involuntary, rapid, fine motor movement.
Decrease or increase under sympathetic and parasympathetic: endorphine production
S: increaseP: decrease
When this lobe of the brain is electrically stimulated people report physical sensations, as if they had been touched, for example, on the arm.
Parietal
inattentional blindness
failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere
ALARM (GAS)
: Body's initial reaction to the stressor (sympathetic n.s. like dry mouth/perspiration/increased heart rate)
pragmatic develpment
the acquisition of knowlege about how language is used
psychedelic drugs
a category of psychoactive drugs that create sensory and perceptual distortions, alter mood, and affect thinking
primary sex characteristics
physical characterisstics, such as the gonads, that differentiate males and females but are not directly involed in reproduction
Milgram's Study (1965)
65% of participants completed entire shock regimenwhen the responsibility lied with someone else they were more likely to continue.
Positive Reinforcer
event or stimuli presented after the target response that increases the likelyhood that this response will happen again
Which two schools of thought have contemporarily vanished?
structuralism, functionalism
Placebo effect
erroneous belief that one is receiving treatment when they really are not
within groups
when only looking at the differences within participants
confounding variables
Factors or conditions other than the independent variable(s) that are not equivalent across groups and could cause differences among the groups with respect to the dependent variable.
Memory loss for events that happened prior to the point of brain injury.
Retrograde Amnesia
Relative size
the smaller of similarly sized objects is further
Rapid increase in height that coincides roughly with puberty
Adolescent growth spurt
Social motives
learned motives acquired as part of growing up in a particular society or culture
attention
concentration of the mind on a single object or thought selected with a view to limiting or clarifying receptivity by narrowing the range of stimuli
Iconic Memory
Stores the encoded light patterns that we see as visual images.
patriarchal terroism
based in control and it is constant, escalating, and almost exclusively male
most often encountered in domestic violence shelters
Haley's parents bought her a used bicycle for her birthday. She was thrilled until she learned that her best friend received a brand new bicycle for her birthday. Haley's declining satisfaction illustrates
A) relative deprivation
Meniere's Disease- Van Gogh
inner-ear disorder that can produce disabling dizziness, nausea, and auditory disturbances
Long term potentiation
In response to stimulation at a synapse, changed amplitude of an excitator postsynaptic potential that last for horus to days or longer and plays a prt in associative learning
According to the Stanford-Binet test, the IQ of a ten year old with a mental age of eight is...
...80 [(Mental age/Actual age)x100]Make Mr. Moran proud with math.
triarchic theory of intelligence
Sternberg's theory that there are three distinct forms of intelligence, analytic, creative, and practical
a circular reaction
In the sensorimotor stage, when a pleasurable event accidentally occurs, the infant tries to repeat it. Piaget called this _________.
liberal feminist
laws need to be passed that guarantee equal rights for women and men
Dopamine released by the medial preoptic area of the hypothalamus
Can cause sexual arousal
Summative Evaluation
completed at the close of a program that attempts to determine its effectiveness in solving the problem for which it is planned
What is stimulus discrimination?
The ability to differentiate between stimuli
What is androgyny?
the presence of desirable male or female characteristics in the same person
Substantia Nigra
group of neurons in the midbrain that release the neurotransmitter dopamine from their terminal buttons (thought to produce Parkinson's disease)
mental age
the level of native mental ability or capacity of an individual, usually as determined by an intelligence test, in relation to chronological age
Social readjustment rating scale
Easy and popular way to measure stress.
Sympathetic (Fight or Flight)
involved in preparing us for the expenditure of energy.
regression to the mean
threat to internal validity under the topic of "people change".
the tendency for people who receive high or low scores on a particular measure to score closer to the mean on subsequent testing.
Name the four lobes of the brain.
frontal, temporal, occipital, parietal
Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)
A small part of the hypothalamus just above the optic chiasm that registers changes in light, leading to production of hormones that regulate various bodily functions.
Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task.
what is an action potential
inside recieveing cells balanced by ions(+ and -) and have a resting potential = unusal level of inside ions; mainly -ive inside and +ive outside
electrical stimulation of the brain (ESB)
involves sending a weak electric current into a brain structure to stimulate it
delays in language , language impairment
 the criteria for Asperger's Disorder specifically exclude ...whereas Autistic Disorder requires... .
Movement or Bodily kinesthetic:
Ability to use and control partsof the body skillfully
Informational social influence to conform
Influence other people have on us because we want to be right
Social group can provide information we didn’t know so we come to agree with the group
Depends on how confident we are in our own indepdendent judgement
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)
- most common cause for infant death- accidental suffocation
hypofunction of DA receptors (but ADHD is unlikely attributable to this) and low levels of DA Dopa decarboxylase may be deficient - catalyzes conversion of Dopa in DA,
DA deficiencies most evident in anterior frontal lobe.
what is the superego of the personality freaudian theory
The superego operates on the ideal principle.  It is the moral part of us and arises from moral and ethical considerations placed on us by our parents and society; loosely speaking it's our conscience. 
What are the effects of neuron loss?
With age, hard clusters of damaged or dying neurons (senile plaques) are more likely to form—leading to inadequate supply of nutrients to brain cells.
lesion
tissue distruction,
Pathophobia
Fear of disease
acoustic encoding
encoding sounds
 
 
Standardization
 
Uniform procedure; all participants experience the same thing
 
Experiment can be repeated multiple times
phonemes
the sounds of language
Nativisim:Plato
Innate inborn knowledge hardwired
types of tests 
objective tests
projective tests 
Striatum/basal ganglia
starts and stops motion
perception
the brains process of organizing/interpreting sensory information to give it meaning i.e a cube, simple components are organized into a recognizable form 
Tricycles
anti-depressant drugMAO inhibitors - used less due to toxicity SSRI's - block the reuptake of serotonin, fewer side effectsmay increase levels of norepinephrine and serotonin60-70% effectiveness
piloerection
erection of the skin, goosebumps
• PET
(positron emission tomography) scan is an imaging technique in which a radioactive sugar tracer is injected into the bloodstream and uses to measure levels of activity of various parts of the brain
HEaring
frequency-#of cycles per second measured in HZ)compression/rare faction or fare moleculesamplitude-intensitytamper-complexity(diff instruments playing)
 
 
 
Placenta
structure that allows oxygen and nutrients to pass into the fetus from the mother's bloodstream and bodily wastes to pass out to the mother
motor neurons
neurons that carry outgoing information from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands.
Cognitive Style
An individual's distinctive, enduring way of dealing with everyday tasks of perception and problem solving
Puberty
When sexual maturation begins, marks the beginning of adolescence
counterconditioning
condition new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors
Heuristic Thinking
Trial and ErrorAlgorithms- systematic pattern of reasoning, used by computers, every solution to problemHeuristic- short cuts, efficiency, crime scenes, medicine- diagnosis
age
2-5= dreams are brief; involve animals; images are unrelated
7-9= more inheritive
9-10=adult-like
adults=4-5 dreams, more real time
CORRELATION METHOD
ONE GOES WITH THE OTHER
Homeostasis
Stable biological state appropriate to theenvironmental conditions
therapeutically approach phobias
Systematic desentization and flooding
dementia
severly impaired judgement, memory, or problem-solving ability that is irreversible and caused by organic brain damage or disease
repeating what the other people say
echolalia
agonist
chemical that mimics action of neurotransmitters causing similar effects
individulaism
-emphasis on individual goals, more personal freedoms and privacy
kleptomania
an irresistible impulse to steal, stemming from emotional disturbance rather than economic need
generalization
responding similarly to a range of similar stimuli
Character
value judgements of a person's moral and ethical behaviors.
 
 
 
Experiment
 
A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable). By random assignment of participants, the experimenter aims to control other relevant factors.
Dissociative Fugue
Disorder in which the person experiences total amnesia, moves, and establishes a new identity.
psychosurgery
destruction of brain tissue for the purpose of treating mental disorders.
cognitive unconscious
Mental processes that are not experienced but that influence thoughts, emotions, behaviors
central nervous system
the brain and spinal cord
Mindlessness
When you dont register anything. But this can be beneficial, as if you stopped to think about eevery little thing you'd never get anywhere.
emotion
a response of the whole organism, involving physiological arousal, expressive behaviors and conscious experience.
Equity Theory
Theory that partners will be comfortable in their relationship only when the ratio between their perceived contributions and benefits is equal.
myelin sheath
glial cell-wrappers around axons that act as insulators of the neurons signal
Ovaries and Testes
Glands controlling the reproductive organs.
Debriefing
at the conclusion of an experimental session, informing the participants about the general purpose of the experiemtn, including any deception that was involved
Quasi-Experimental Design
same as true experimental design (manipulation of internal variable), except subjects are not randomly assigned
NEUROTIC DISORDER
involves anxiety, distored view of reality.
Conformity
changing one's behavior to match the behavior of others as a result of real or imagined group pressure
Theory

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 


a set of related assumptions from which
scientists can make testable predictions
Psychoneuroimmunology
the study of the relationship among psychological factors, the immune system, and the brain
Eclectic Approach
useful to select information from several sources rather than rely on a single source / perspective
Hassles
Annoying minor events of everyday life that cumulatively can affect psychological well being.
coping mechanism
an adaptation to environmental stress that is based on conscious or unconscious choice and that enhances control or gives psychological comfort
mediating factors
cues used to organize two items
heirarchies
a way of organizing related pieces of info from the most specific feature they have in common to the most general
fetal stage (3)
the third stage of prenatal development, lasting from two months through birth. Organs and structures continue to grow, and eventually function (hearing around 20 weeks)
Central Traits
not as all consuming- affects some aspects of life
Visual cliff
- a laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals.
auditory cortex
neurons in primary auditory cortex are tonotopic
Cognitive Development
(Piaget) qualitive changes and the way people think.
Absentmindedness
A lapse in attention that results in forgetting
In ___________ humor lies in the amygdala where as in ____________ it lies in the frontal lobe.
introverts; extroverts
List 4 sleeping disorders
Insomnia- recurring problems falling or staying asleep
Sleep Apnea- one intermittenly stops breathing during sleep
Night terrors- One appears terrifyed and gives a blood curtling scream. Usually in children
Narcolepsy- Period of overwhelming sleepiness, often at inappropriate times
Neuroplasticity
The ability of the human brain to change as a result of one's experience
monochromats
ability to only see one system of colors such as black and white,-colorblind
Freud's Theory
verything you become is determined by your first few years - indeed, the adult is exculsively determined by the child's experiences, because whatever actions occur in adulthood are based on a blueprint laid down in the earliest years of life 
variable
in an experiment, any factor that is measured or controlled and is capable of a change
instinct theories
the view that certain human behaviors are innate and due to evolutiionary programming
Define INDPENDENT VARIABLE:
A VARIABLE that an EXPERIMENTER MANIPULATES.
monitors the routine operation of the body's internal functions
parasympathetic division
cross sectional
studying involving different ages at a given timeadv: a lot lest time consuming, less expensivedisadv: more variables, data not as reliable
Biological Psychology
biological processes in the brain and other organs affect, and are affected by, behavior and mental processes
Germinal Period
The first two weeks of prenatal development after conception, characterized by rapid cell division and the beginning of cell differentiation.
Iris
A ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening.
Peripheral nervous system
All nerves and neurons connecting the CNS to the rest of the body. Carries messages to and from the central nervous system to the periphery of the body.
Type B Personality
A type of personality with relatively relaxed, patient, easygoing, amicable behavior.
Case Studies
An in depth analysis of an individual subject
reflexes infants are born with
rooting, sucking, startle, babinski, grasp, stepping
Sternbergs triarchic theory
3 separate and different aspects of intellignece. each of these components is learned not the result of genetics, analytical, practical, creative
Dependent Variable
The variable in a study that is measured by the researcher
Terry's treatment approach
got rid of neutrality and "picked sides" w/ victim (soul of blunt)
Twin and adoption studies
Twin studies: Compare groups of identical and fraternal twinsAdoption Studies: Compare adopted children to their biological and adopted parents.
speech segmentation problem
the problem of organizing a continuous stream of speech into separate parts that correspond to individual words
energetic, more agressive, outgoing, extrovert
athletic, Kretshmer physique and character theory
conditioned food (or taste) aversion
conditioned avoidance of certain foods even if there is only one pairing of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli
Hormones
What is the structure in the center of the brain that controls the pituitary gland?
social norms intervention
-give information and explain how it happens
-compare real norm to perceived norm in hope of changing behavior and attitudes
Sensory Cortex
The area of the fron of the parietal lobes that registers & processes body sensations.
stage theories of development assume that
individuals progress through specified stages in a particular order because each stage builds on the previous stage
Schanberg and FieldImplications of skin-to-skin contact for the premature baby
-treated grp receives body massages for 10 days (45 min)-control grp did not receive massage-results for massage grp:gained 47% more weightrated as more alert and activeleave hospital 6 days earliergains maintained 8 mo. later
Principle of falsifiability
a theory prediction of what will and will not happen
 


—We associate things with words.

—We ask for what we want, we get reinforced.
—  Possibly we learn by imitation as well.


How did Skinner explain language devlopment
hostile environment sexual harassment
the type of sexual harassment that occurs when employers allow offensive elements to exist in the work environment
Problems of inducing structure
relations among the parts of the problem. series completion problems and analogy problems
observational, learning, social learning, or modelling
learning that occurs as a result of observing the experiences of others.
Outputs from cell body are..
Large , faster signals traveling along axon
_____ is the time in life in which an individual first shows sexual attraction and becomes capable of _____
puberty, reproduction
What is the simulation heuristic?
More easily we can imagine a different outcome more we will be affected by outcome that actually occurred -If only things had been a little different…
Explain the two ways pain works.
The Gate Control Theory explains that pain impuulses must get past a "gate" in the spinal cord, and then travel to the brain to be recognized as pain.
 
Another theory, the Neuromatrix Theory, explains that pain can be, and often is, generated by the brain.
 
(p 218-219) 
Hunger: We eat due to external factors
: time of day, others eating, associating food with event, senses, eating while full etc.
The best type of communication is ________. You express your thoughts and feelings _____ and ______, and you encourage others to do the same
clear and direct

openly and directly
After the attacks on the World Trade Centers on 9-11 many people across the USA developed emotional sympotoms vast majority of htese people...
were healed by the passafe of time and support of friends
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