Psychology of Learning Flashcards

Terms Definitions
serendipity
accident
Secondary reinforcers
Conditioned reiniforcement
differentiation
neurons become specialists-assume duties
cognitive processes
thoughts, perceptions and expectations
Habituation
a reaction that becomes habit
cognition
mental processes associated with thinking, knowning, and remembering
Aphasia
loss of grammar or syntax
Leibniz
3/4 knowledge acquired (learned through experience) and 1/4 innate
ABA
Applied Behavior Analysis often used with autistic children
variable ratio
reinforcemtnt occurs after vrious numbers of response acquisition is strong and very difficult to extinguish; gambling
Learning
a relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience
prepared learning
evolutionary predisposition to fear certain stimuli more than others.
Standardization
the development f procedures for administering psychological tests and the collection of norms that provide a frame of reference for interpreting test scores.
Conditioned response (CR)
an acquired, learned response
Prosody
refers to intonation, rhythm, and vocal stress in speech.
Human neuropsychology
Studies relationship of brain functions to behavior; case studies with patients with brain damage
Learned Helplessness
feelings of helplessness that develop after explosure to situations in which no effort succeeds in affecting outcomes
Cognitive perspective
modern theory in which classical conditioning is seen to occur because the conditioned stimulus provides information or an expectancy about the coming of the unconditioned stimulus.
CR
a learned reaction to a condtioned stimulus that occurs because of prevoous repeated pairings witha n UCS
operant behavior
behavior that an organism produces that has some impact on the environment
Belief Perseverance
clinging to one initial conception after the bases has been discredited. Ex: continuing with their belief even when they know they're wrong
operant conditioning
behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement or diminished by punishment;
 
discrimination
A learning process in which the subject learns to respond differently to different stimuli because they are paired with different outcomes.
Learning Style
An individuals preferred or optimal method of acquiring new information
Gender Roles
considered appropriate for males and females ina given culture, relate to clothing, games, tools, and toys.
displacement behavior
irrelevant, incongruous, or out of context behavior...does not make sense given the situation. 
Realism
eliminate the copy and have the object
Apparatus used to shape animal behavior using operant conditioning
Skinner Box
latent learning
animals can learn from experience, with or without reinforcement
Medial temporal lobes (MTL)
Hippocampus, amygdala, entorhinal cortex, perirhinal cortex, parahippocampal cortex
Cognitive map
a mental representation of the layout of one's environment
secondary reinforcer
a stimulus that gains its reinforing power through association wit a primary reinforcer
definition of LEARNING
the process through which experience modifies pre- existing behavior and understanding
OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING
a condition in which learning takes place by watching the actions of others
Representative Heuristics
judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match particular prototypes (Barrier to Learning)
Token economy
systems, often set up in psychiatric hospitals, for reinforcing appropriate behaviors and extinguishing inappropriate ones.
Post-Reinforcement Pause
a pause in responding that usually occurs after each reinforcer in a fixed-ratio schedule.
Consequences
follow a behavior, can be either a punisher or reinforcer.
behaviorism theory of learning
focuses solely on observable  behavior, discounting mental activity such as thinking, wishing & hoping. described as relatively stable, observable changes in behavior
conditioned response(CR)
a learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of prior conditioning
A previously neutral event that elicits a response after pairing with an unconditioned stimulus.
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
Conditioned response
A learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous conditioning.
classical conditioning
Type of leanring discovered by Ivan Pavlov in which a neutral stimulus comes to bring about a response after it is paired with a stimulus that naturally brings about that response
Synaptic plasticity
Ability of synapses to change with experience (neurons that fire wire together)
cognitive social learning
emphasizes the roles of thinking and social learning in behavior
Delayed Conditioning
Occurs when the NS is presented jsut before the UCS with an overlapIt produced the strongest conditioning
Children learn to fear spiders more easily than they learn to fear flowers.  This best illustrates the impact of _______ on learning.
A. spontaneous recovery
B. conditioned reinforcers
C. shaping
D. cognitive processes
E. biological predispositions
E. biological predispositions
Fixed Ratio (FR) Schedule
a reinforcement schedule that delivers a reinforcer after a fixed number of responses.
Ratio schedule
based on the number of times the behavior occurs, as when behavior is reinforced on every third or tenth occurence. Leads to greater responding.
Wegner Information processing
mind or machine must contain a operating system and an error detecting system
continuous reinforcement schedule
A schedule in which each specified response is reinforced.
extrinsic motivation
a desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment
sponatenous recovery
CR can occur after some time even with no further conditioning.
bidirectional response system
compare response to CS+ to response to CS-
intermittent (or partial) reinforcement schedule
A schedule in which only some responses are reinforced.
taught to fear humans; but dont learn to hide when humans come around therefore they are shot and killed. they do better with less humans around while in captivity
Mexican Grey Wolf Reintroduction
what is the difference between positive and negative reinforcement?
positive = providing a motivating stimulus. <a>
negative = removing a stimulus.
it requires more retrieval and more effort
why is recognition highest with semantic encoding and not with acoustic or visual?
How is LTP implemented in a neuron?
Postsynaptic receptors may become more responsibe to subsequent inputs, presynaptic neurons may release more neurotransmitters, postsynaptic neurons may permanently change
1. Trained to fear a white rat, which generalized to other similar stimuli2. Bolstered Watson’s stance that learning and the environment are more important than genetics or personality in shaping behavior
THE CASE OF LITTLE ALBERT
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