psychology STUDY GUIDE Flashcards

Terms Definitions
classical conditioning
conditioning
Hilgard and Hilgard
Hypnosis
Statistics:
Application of mathematics to describing and analyzing data.
Types of Research Design
DescriptiveCorrelational Experimental
receptors
sensory mechanisms that carry messages up and down nervous system.
Unlike behaviorists and psychoanalysts, humanists believe that human beings have___.
Free Will.
neuron
a specialized, impulse-conducting cell that is the functional unit of the nervous system, consisting of the cell body and its processes, the axon and dendrites.
dopamine
a catecholamine neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, retina, and sympathetic ganglia, acting within the brain to help regulate movement and emotion: its depletion may cause Parkinson's disease.
wilhelm wundt
German physiologist and psychologist.
unconscious
not conscious; without awareness, sensation, or cognition.
Hawthorne effect:
Phenomenon in which participants' knowledge that they're being studied can affect their behavior.
Informed Consent:
Informing research participants of what is involved in a study before asking them to participate.
dissociative symptom in which the external world is perceived or experienced as strange or unreal
derealization
Puberty
Biological changes of adolescence that involve changes in a young person's physical appearance and the development of the ability to conceive children
parasympathetic
conserves and restores energy instead of expending it(acetylcholine based)
autonomic
efferent system, fibers terminate in glandviscera, blood vessels, and smooth muscle. control circulation, respiration, digestion, metabolism, and body temp. divides into the sympathetic and parasympathetic
Selective attention
restricts cognative activity, helps confine consciousness to immediate task, but also denys access to related info. Prevents overload of limited channels
Early psychologists, like today's psychologists, wanted to describe, ___, understand, and ___ behavior in order to add to human knowledge and increase human happiness.
Predict, Modify.
structuralism
psychology centering on the analysis of the structure or content of conscious mental states by introspective methods.
causation
the action of causing or producing.
discrimination
treatment or consideration of, or making a distinction in favor of or against, a person or thing based on the group, class, or category to which that person or thing belongs rather than on individual merit:
functionalism
a theoretical orientation that views society as a system of interdependent parts whose functions contribute to the stability and survival of the system.
hypnosis
an artificially induced trance state resembling sleep, characterized by heightened susceptibility to suggestion.
narcolepsy
a condition characterized by frequent and uncontrollable periods of deep sleep.
plasticity
the capability of being molded, receiving shape, or being made to assume a desired form:
insomnia
inability to obtain sufficient sleep, esp. when chronic; difficulty in falling or staying asleep; sleeplessness.
perceptual
of, pertaining to, or involving perception.
generalization
a proposition asserting something to be true either of all members of a certain class or of an indefinite part of that class
Dependent Variable:
Variable that an experimenter measures to see whether the manipulation has had an effect.
Range:
Difference between the highest and the lowest scores; a measure of dispersion.
Dissociative disorder in which the person experiences significantly impaired memory for important experiences or personal information, which ordinary forgetfulness cannot explain
dissociative amnesia
A combat veteran undergoing “eye movement desensitization and reprocessing” is experiencing which general form of therapy?
exposure therapy
Theory
An interrelated, coherent set of ideas that helps to explain phenomena and make predictions
1st principle
when you find something interesting drop everything else and study it
amygdala
a ganglion of the limbic system adjoining the temporal lobe of the brain and involved in emotions of fear and aggression.
parkinson disease
a common neurologic disease believed to be caused by deterioration of the brain cells that produce dopamine, occurring primarily after the age of 60, characterized by tremors, esp. of the fingers and hands, muscle rigidity, shuffling gait, slow speech, an
latent
present but not visible, apparent, or actualized; existing as potential:
personality
the visible aspect of one's character as it impresses others:
action potential
the change in electrical potential that occurs between the inside and outside of a nerve or muscle fiber when it is stimulated, serving to transmit nerve signals.
transduction
the transfer of genetic material from one cell to another by means of a virus.
sensation
the operation or function of the senses; perception or awareness of stimuli through the senses.
experiment
a test, trial, or tentative procedure; an act or operation for the purpose of discovering something unknown or of testing a principle, supposition, etc.:
gestalt psychology
the theory or doctrine that physiological or psychological phenomena do not occur through the summation of individual elements, as reflexes or sensations, but through gestalts functioning separately or interrelatedly.
neurotransmitter
any of several chemical substances, as epinephrine or acetylcholine, that transmit nerve impulses across a synapse to a postsynaptic element, as another nerve, muscle, or gland.
hippocampus
an enfolding of cerebral cortex into the lateral fissure of a cerebral hemisphere, having the shape in cross section of a sea horse.
reinforcement
a procedure, as a reward or punishment, that alters a response to a stimulus
Internal validity:
Extent to which we can draw cause-and-effect inferences from a study.
Alex has recently started seeing a psychologist, reporting that he persistenly does not feel real, that the world appears two-dimensional, and that he feels like a robot. Alex says he knows these feelings are not accurate, but experiences them just the s
depersonalization disorder
A torture victim who is subjected to threats of death, mock executions, and degradation is experiencing what type of torture?
psychological
Experimental Research
-The cause was the factor being manipulatedThe effect is the behavior that changed because of the manipulation-all experiments involve at least one independent variable and one dependent variable-The independent variable is the factor that is manipulated-The dependent variable is the factor that is measured
Myelinated
the axon is covered by white myelin sheath(nodes of Ranvier= gaps in myelin sheath)
2nd principle
some ways of doing research are easier
Hypnotic response
-people differ in their abilities to be hypnotized-use score to tell "how deep" a patient is-ability to be hypnotized=hereditary
Cortical Blindness(2)
patient follows target w/ eyes but cannot see it
dependent variable
a variable in a functional relation whose value is determined by the values assumed by other variables in the relation, as y in the relation y = 3x2.
frontal lobe
the anterior part of each cerebral hemisphere, in front of the central sulcus.
occipital lobe
the most posterior lobe of each cerebral hemisphere, behind the parietal and temporal lobes.
correlation
mutual relation of two or more things, parts, etc.
corpus callosum
a great band of deeply situated transverse white fibers uniting the two halves of the cerebrum in humans and other mammals.
parietal lobe
the middle part of each cerebral hemisphere behind the central sulcus.
behaviorism
the theory or doctrine that human or animal psychology can be accurately studied only through the examination and analysis of objectively observable and quantifiable behavioral events, in contrast with subjective mental states.
independent variable
a variable in a functional relation whose value determines the value or values of other variables, as x in the relation y = 3x2.
operant conditioning
a process of changing behavior by rewarding or punishing a subject each time an action is performed until the subject associates the action with pleasure or distress.
manifest
readily perceived by the eye or the understanding; evident; obvious; apparent; plain:
cerebral cortex
the furrowed outer layer of gray matter in the cerebrum of the brain, associated with the higher brain functions, as voluntary movement, coordination of sensory information, learning and memory, and the expression of individuality.
perception
the act or faculty of apprehending by means of the senses or of the mind; cognition; understanding.
temporal lobe
the lateral lobe of each cerebral hemisphere, in front of the occipital lobe.
What is the relationship between gender and mental disorder?
Women are more depressed.
Which of the following is a primary characteristic of an individual with Munchausen syndrome by proxy?
emotionally needy
What is a parasuicide?
a failed attempt to commit suicide
priorities of consciousness
anything that is: changing, novel, or of emotional importance. unimportant info drops out of consciousness to make room for new info
___ have a medical degree and may prescribe medication, whereas ___ are not required to have any degree at all since the term is not legally regulated.
Psychiatrists; Psychotherapists.
psychology
the science of the mind or of mental states and processes.
reticular formation
a network of neurons in the brainstem involved in consciousness, regulation of breathing, the transmission of sensory stimuli to higher brain centers, and the constantly shifting muscular activity that supports the body against gravity.
monocular
of, pertaining to, or for the use of only one eye:
Why aren't self-report measure preferable?
* Self-reports assume that respondents have enough insight in their traits to report. * Assume that participants will be honest. * Naive realism may apply.
Imagine that you just had a “close call” while driving, but now you feel your body returning to normal. Which part of your nervous system is controlling this return to normalcy?
parasympathetic nervous system
how 2 systems interact
they can work independantly, one can have consciousness w/o sensory input; one can also have sensory input w/o consciousness
Other types of professionals who engage in mental-health fields include ___, ___, and ___.
Social Workers, School Counselors, Marriage, Family and Child Counselors.
an individual with somatization disorder must have what?
faulty beliefs about their bodies and physical sensations
3 commisures of the cerebral hemisphere
the anterior and hippocampal connect olfactory portions to the 2 hemispheres, large corpus callosum connects newer parts of 2 hemispheres
direct perception real time and distance
real time events can be percieved from remote locationsno change in reception based on increased distance
What is a possible consequence of somatization disorder?
loss of fitness can occur through avoidance of behaviors believed to be associated with the bodily symptoms, leading to increased experience of those symptoms while performing normal, daily activities.
Why is "mental disorder" hard to define?
It's based on societal norms, causes & symptoms vary, 50% of people have them.
Which of the following is an example of malingering?
intentionally faking a tic in order to avoid military service
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