psychology terms for final exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
standard deviation
experimantal groups
recieves treatment
Do routine tasks
conditioned taste aversions
taste-nausea associations
-therapist does it
-personality profile
-give you things to work on
high reponse high demand
Pre conventional
rewards and punishments. 0-9 
characterized by the amplitude, wavelength and purity, affect mainly perceived qualities ( loudness, pitch, timbre)
The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
The brain’s sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem which sensory and motor neurons pass through, also involved in sleep and attention, skills
life support, most primitive structure. has cerebellum-involved in complex motor skills
produces insulin and glucogen; controls sugar metabolism
Hindbrain structure responsible for automatic body functions such as breathing and heartbeat.
Reinforcing different parts in a sequence
when participant modify their natural behavior in response to the fact tha they are participation in a research study or the knowledge that they are being measured
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them.
chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons. when released by the sending neuron neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor siteson the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuon will generate a neural impulse
lower levels of serotonin and norepinephrine
agonists and antagonists
agonist: enhance/ mimic neurotransmitters( re-uptake inhibitors: send back to receptor)antagonists: block neurotransmitter (may bind w. neurotransmitter or receptor)
A neurotransmitter, low levels of which can increase appetite.
personailty disorder
inflexible enduring behavior patterns impair social functioning
Medical Model
psychological disorders are medical diseases with biological origins
what's culture?
enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, & traditions shared by a large group of people & transmitted from one generation to next
2 views of human development
stage theories
specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders and everyday behavioral problems, have doctoral degrees, use either insight or behavioral approaches, do psychological testing, psychotherapy and conduct research
In close-knit groups, the tendency for all members to think alike for the sake of harmony and to suppress disagreement.
Who pioneered the Lobotomy? F
Dr, Freeman
gestalt principles
automatically perceive whole organized patterns and objects
a condition characterized by frequent and uncontrollable periods of deep sleep.
the coexistence within an individual of simultaneous positive and negative feelings toward the same person or object
a split in consciousness, which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 293)
Asks the characteristics we develop in childhood more or less permanent & fixed, or do we change in predictable(and unpredictable) ways over the course of our lives
individual wellness
Emory Cohen
values the attainment of optimum health and wellness, not just the absence of disease and distress
focuses on: development of competencies and coping skills; social support and self-help groups; interventions outside of health care settings; prevention of maladaptive behaivor
Example: AA, DARE
physical, behavioral, cognitive
three parts of all emotions
in Erikson's theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships
Next-in-line effect
can't remember what the person directly before you said/did because you are not paying attention as you are preoccupied thinking of what you were going to do/say
Norepinephrine (NE)
The brain's supply of norepinephrine, is produced by the locus ceruleus (LC; Latin for the blue spot). Norepinephrine cells first go through all the steps of manufacturing DA and then dopamine-beta-hydroxylase converts dopamine into norepinephrine. The LC, which is associated with the reticular activating system, provides NE for the entire forebrain and this transmitter seems to be especially important in memory, attention, emotional arousal and response to novelty.
static checklist
a checklist used to record characteristics that will not change during the course of the observations
Fading of information from memory over time
An event that decreases the behavior that it follows.
A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behaviors or mental processes
Secondary Sex Characteristics
Bodily structures that change dramatically during sexual maturity but aren't involved in reproduction
psych method
1. Make observation
2. Collect data
4. Conclusion
projective tests
Personality tests that ask individuals to respond to vague, ambiguous stimuli in ways that may reveal the subject's needs, feelings, and personality traits are called _________
cell resulting from the uniting of the ovum and sperm.
Smaller women are more attactive in food [abundant/scarce] countries
multidimensional approach
does not combine individual criterion measures. *disadv. not as easy to compare employees, but good for individual feedback
random assignment
how subjects are assigned to experimental and control groups to reduce the impact of random variables on the results
Which quality of attachment is a strong, healthy bond?
positive/negative reinforcer
Positive- a reinforcer that increases the frequency of behavior when it is presentedNegative-a reinforcer that increases the frequency of behavior when it is removed
behavior modification
the direct changing of unwanted behavior by means of biofeedback or conditioning
a visual image or other sense impression that persists after the stimulus that caused it is no longer operative
teach self regulation strategies 489
self monitoring-reality check
self instructions
self imposed contingencies-motivational boost
avoid power struggles, promote productive behavior
attribution theory
deals with our casual explanations of behavior. We attribute behavior to the individual's disposition or to the situation
cognitive therapy
therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting
monozygotic twins
Twins who come from one fertilized egg; have the same heredity (Identical twins).
Internal Consistency Reliability
Degree of consistency between subparts or equivalent parts of a test
taste aversion
a type of classical conditioning in which a previously desirable or neutral food comes to be perceived as repugnant because it is associated with negative stimulation
Brown-Peterson procedure
A method for determining how long unrehearsed information remains in short-term memory
relative size
smaller size appears to be farther away
Which drug is known to suppress REM sleep?
system of rules that specify how words can be arranged.
2. Circadian Rhythms
within each 24hour period, the regular fluctuation from high to low points of certain bodily functions and behaviors.
Physical Conditions which play a role in the development
General Medical conditions
Axis 3
derived from a fungus that grows on rye grass. Produces profound distortions of sensations, feelings, time, and thought.
An estimate of the variance within a population that is due to heredity, evidence comes from twins and adoption studies
"Where" system
The visual pathway leading from the visual cortex to the parietal lobe; especially involved in locating objects in space and coordinating movements
Informed Consent(p 63)
The doctrine that human research subjects must participate voluntarily and must know enough about the study to make an intelligent decision about whether to participate.
borderline used to imply line between...
neurotic and psychotic
unconditional positive regard
rogers theory, full acceptance and love another person regardless of our behavior.
Positive Psychology
the scientific study of optimal human functioning; aims to discover and promote strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive
Cognitive Dissonance
our attitude & behavior do not match
ex. oncologist keeps smoking
negative reinforcement
The occurrence of an operant response that either stops or removes an aversive stimulus. Removal of the aversive stimulus increases the likelihood that the response will occur again.
corpus callosum
a great band of deeply situated transverse white fibers uniting the two halves of the cerebrum in humans and other mammals.
equal-status contact
people tend to change their behavior and attitudes toward others if people of different backgrounds are brought together in equality
self concept
(1) a sense of one's identity and personal worth. (2) all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "Who am I?" (Myers Psychology 8e p. 161)
a measure of the extent to which two afactors vary together, and ths of how well either factor predicts the other. The correlation coefficient is the mathematical expression of the relationship, ranging from -1 to +1
Just Noticeable difference
the smallest change in the intensity of a stimulus that we can detect
Nerve deafness
hearing loss caused by damage to the conchlea's receptor cells or to the auditory nerve
general pain assoc w sex not due to lack of lubrication
interobserver agreement
when human judges make some kind of psychological ratings.
interrater reliability.
refers to the degree to which different trained judges independently agree upon an observation or judgement.
a snail shaped fluid filled organ in the inner ear, containing the organ of corti where the receptors for hearing are located
Cochlea (KOCK-lee-uh
Suprachiasmatic Nucleus
an area of the hypothalamus that is located above the optic chiasm. The SCN is also referred to as a biological clock because damage to this area disrupts daily cycles in sleep and other biological functions.
Oedipus Complex
A system of feelings and stage of development named by Freud for the mythical Greek character who unwittingly killed his father and married his own mother, during which boys develop an intense attachment for mother and begin to see father as a rival
ABAB design (reversal design)
A single-case experimental design in which an initial baseline stage (A) is followed by a treatment stage (B), a return to baseline (A), and then another treatment stage (B); the researcher observes whether behavior changes on introduction of the treatment, reverses when the treatment is withdrawn, and improves again when the treatment is reintroduced.
I-O Psychology ψ 
Chapter 5
Evaluating Employee Performance
Criterion Contamination
The extent to which performance appraisals contain elements that distract from the accurate assessment of job effectiveness. e.g. a supervisor may give an employee an overly positive performance appraisal because the employee has a good reputation of past work success.
Dream Interpretation-Freud's Theory of Dreams
Desires were represented by symbols
Window into the Unconcious desires
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
human motives organized in hierarchy, from most necessary for survival to least necessary; arranged in pyramid w/ most basic needs at bottom & less essential needs at top
mental age
the level of native mental ability or capacity of an individual, usually as determined by an intelligence test, in relation to chronological age
the results of Bandura's "bobo doll" studies illustrate _____, and Tolman and Honzik's studies of latent learning indicate the importance of _____ in maze learning by rats.
observational learning; cognitive maps
IQ 70 to 79
IQ score denoting borderline. 6% of the population.
Pineal Gland
A gland that is part of the endocrine system, located about in the middle of the brain, that secretes melatonin. Helps to regulate the biological rhythms. In the dualist view of Rene Descartes, the pineal gland was where the mind and soul are located.
effect size measurementsletter: sign: small: medium: large:
measured in d statisticssign: negative - women are higher than menpositive - men are higher than womensmall: .20 or -.20medium: .50 or -.50large: .80 or -.80
Of the following, which is most likely to result in a subthreshold depolarization of the postsynaptic neuron:
The presynaptic neuron exploding
taking some substance to take the stress off your mind
Self Medication (Ineffective )
stage 4: formal operational period
fourth stage in piaget's theory.age 11 onward.children begin to apply their operations to abstract concepts in addition to concrete objects.contemplate abstractions like justice, love, and free will.more likely to think things through
People who prefer Judging....
Like to live in a planned, orderly wayLike to make decisions, come to closure and then move onLives tend to be structured and organized
Chapter 1: (6)Who emphasized the importance of sex in influencing a person's decision-making?
Sigmund Freud was criticized for emphasizing sex.
major depressive disorder
a mood disorder in which a person, for no apparent reason, experiences two or more weeks of depressed moods
Massey believes that the time era we grew up in, and the events that occurred during that era,
shape our basic values system
What is the mere exposure effect?
attitudes become positive as a result of repeated exposure, comfort in familiarity
consolidation and object constancy, 24 to 36
This is the final stage of Mahler's separation-individuation, occuring between ...months
Why do humans and nonhumans go through puberty?
because if we could have offspring while still only children ourselves, then those offspring probably would not survive.
what would we do if we didn't have color constancy
we would depend on how an object is illuminated
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