Psychology Test 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
psychic energy
generalized anxiety disorder
mary ainsworth
aviodance etc.
neural impulse
dendrites--cell body--axon--terminal buttons--synapse--dendrites
a fertilized ovum (egg)
neither chronic or episodic
all cases in the group
sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks
Knowledge of everyday livingStreet smartIntelligence important for jobs, complex jobsIndustrial revolution
report what you are feeling
A group decision-making style characterized by an excessive tendency among group members to seek concurrence
the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory
Suspicisousness; deluisons of grandeur or persecution
Neural "cables" containing many axons. These bundled axons, which are part of the peripheral nervous systm, connect the central nervous system which muscles, glands & sense organs.
Research method that can establish causation by manipulating the variables in question and controlling for alternative explanations of any observed effects.
The results from a scientific investigation.*Often expressed as numbers
destroying a piece of the brain.
Stage 4 NREM sleep
delta brain waves
parallel processing
simultaneous processing of several aspects of a problem simultaneously; visual cortex processes color by moving from the retina to the visual cortex
Antidepressant Drugs
prescribed for: depression, anxiety disorder, panic disorder, OCD
cognitive approach
emphasizes mechanisms through which people receive, store, and retrieve info
Problem-Focused Coping
Attempting to alleviate stress directly by changing the stressor or the way we interact with the stressor.
Secondary gains
Positive outcomes that balance negative aspects of being ill
crystallized intelligence
language developmentverbal language comprehensionspelling ability
onset of sexual maturation; with accompanying physical development
Adults almost always quit masturbating when they get pregnant. TF?
process which brain organizes and interprets
the first menstrual period; the establishment of menstruation.
second stage of general adaptation sydrome, attempts to endure situation
related to ESP; mind over matter principle; for example levitating a table, influencing a roll of dice
the group of elements selected with the intention of finding out something about the population from which they are taken
Cephalocaudal trend
the head-to-foot direction of motor development
work through
to confront and resolve problems, conflicts, and ineffective coping responses in everyday life
D: Dendrite
Receive electricity from the previous neuron
cultural bias
The unfair measurement of cultural groups' abilities. Tests have traditionally been geared towards whites.
trichromatic theory
(young helmholtz theory) the first level of processing occurs in the retina, only three colors to repond blue, green, red other colors are just combinations of these three
psychotropic medications
drugs that alter mental functions, alleviate psychological symptoms, and are used to treat psychological or mental disorders
Acculturative Stress
Particular stress that deals with conflict that occurs between different cultural groups.

·         Occur when people of different ethnic groups come in contact with each other and have to make decisions
coneswhere located
normal light and color vision;fine spatial detail located in fovea center of the eye (center of retina)more cones than rods
In an ...conflict, the individual is both drawn to and repelled by the same alternative.
Implicit Memory
memories that are unavailable to conscious awareness, but contribute to explicit memories.
Defense Mechanisms
Repression - buriedProjection - put thoughts on someone elseDisplacement - diverting feelingsReaction Formation - Behaving oppositeRegression - Reversion to immaturityRationalization - false excusesIdentification - forming alliance for self esteem
John B. Watson
(1878-1958)studied the impact of learning on human emotion and is associated with behaviorism. He believed that careful, structured parenting could prevent most psychological problems from ever happening; he wrote a book on child rearing.
A technique for ingesting cocaine i which the pure cocaine basic alkaloid is chemically separated from processed cocaine, vaporized by heat from a flame, and inhaled with a pipe.
ability of the nervous system to change
Ann used the follwing to remember five of the neurotransmitters: "Sand appears near great dunes". What type of memory aid is Ann using?
What type of psychological tests are used to infer motives,conflicts,unconsious dynamics on bases of persons interpretation on ambiguous stimuli?
a defense mechanism used to push troubling material from the conscious into the unconscious
the rat has complex mental processing, ex. rat and maze, shortcut to the cheese
beliefs about the underlying causes of behavior
an abnormal fondness or preference for animals
A unique state of consciousness in which we are asleep but experience a variety of visual, auditory, tactile images. The most vividly recalled occur during REM sleep.
fluid intelligence
one's ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 184)
The distance from the peak of one light or sound wave to the peak of the next. Electromagnetic wavelengths vary from the short blips of cosmic rays to the long pulses of radio transmission.
experimenter bias
a phenenemonon that occurs when a researchers preconviced notions or expectations in some way influence participants behavior/and or the researchers interpretation of experimental results
the need to take larger and larger dosages of a drug while still only getting the same effect as from the original dose.
occipital lobe
area of the brain that interprets visual information
fixed-interval schedule
specific amount of time must elapse for reinforcement
preparedness theory
humans are predisposed to develop some phobias and not others b/c avoiding them had real survival value
panic attack
a sudden episode of extreme anxiety that rapidly escalates in intensity.
A symptom of schizophrenia in which a person talks in rhymes pg 364
What is research?
The process of discovering new knowledge by means of the scientific method
Latent Learning
Learning that remains hidden until it is needed
queer theory
social theory about gender identity & sexuality that emphasizes the importance of difference
functional assessment
-set of procedures that define the relationsihp btw events in the environment and specific target beh.
-considered the most effective tool for the development of successful individualized behaivoral interventions for persons with MR
4)  Industry vs Inferiority
-virtue: competence
-7 to 12 years
-eager to accomplish complex skills
reaction formation
a threatening impulse that is so strong that the person acts in the manner of a very strong behavior on the other extreme
a rule of thumb based on experience used to make decisions
Stage 4 of Sleep
30 minDelta wavesdifficult to awakensleep walking and bedwetting
Comparative Psychologists
study and compare the behavior of different species, especially animals.
Optimum Arousal
Theory arguing that humans are driven to increase or decrease arousal to produce a comfortable level that is not over- nor under stimulating.
You must be very specific and define things in your hypothesis.
ignore your kids emotions; deny them;
Piaget: Moral reasoning
information overload
an excess of incoming information that forces one to be selective in the information received and retained
provides a standard for diagnosing and can help provide treatment
Self persuasion
A long lasting form of attitude change that results from attempts at self justification
approval motive
A young woman practices her gold so her friends will praise her. A salesperson wants all his clients to like him.
Cognitive Development
Babies and kids don't know less, they just think differantly than adults, they reason with odd logic.
A collection of processes that facilitate language learning
nodes of Ranvier
spaces seperating the segments of the myelin sheath covering of the neuron; they help speed the nerve impulse along the axon.
When talking about Operant Conditioningwhat is:Secondary reinforcer?shaping?Chaining?
Secondary reinforcer- shaping- closer and closer till u get the result you wantchaining- linking actions together to get the same end result as before
Stage 3 sleep
A sleep characterized by slow brain waves, with greater peaks and valleys in the wave pattern than in stage 2 sleep.
content validity
refers to the degree to which the content of a test is representative of the domain it's supposed to cover
formal v. informal reasoning
formal: logical, one solution, clear cutinformal: multiple approaches, not just one solution (rule of thumb)
Stereotype(p 302)
A summary impression of a group, in which a person believes that all members of the group share a common trait or traits (positive, negative, or neutral)
What is the PARIETAL LOBE?
Is responsible for processing PRESSURE, PAIN, TOUCH, TEMPERATURE.
What is Wernicke's aphasia?
Wernicke's aphasia results from damage to Wernicke's area, leading to the inability to perceive the pitch, rhythm and emotional tone of speech. Language content is incorrect
fixed interval schedule
a reinforcement schedule in which the correct response is reinforced after a fixed length of time since the last reinforcement.
escape mechanism
a means of avoiding an unpleasant life situation, such as daydreaming
virtual reality and exposure therapy
same as exposure but with stimulations
Stage 3 NREM sleep
mixture of theta and delta brain waves
control group
the group that is not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment
What is a hemophilia?
Person more interested in children who has gone through puberty (13).
we seem to think we know more than we do
A model of describing memory as consisting of three distinct stages: sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory.
stage model of memory
Negatively skewed data
Graph is leaning to the right. Right?
insomnia: side effects of sleeping pills
not a good longterm solutionlose effectreduce time in REM & Delta sleepDependencecan make you sleepy the next daywithdrawl leads to worse insomnia SUGESTIONS: - avoide caffeinee and cigs before bed time - Keep a regular schedual
Influencing Dreams:
What are first night effects?
In a sleep lab, many sleep charcteristics are unusual the first night sleeping, including dreams
Insight Oriented Therepy
A type of therepy that aims to remove distressing symptoms by leading people to understand their causes through deeply felt personal insights.
Your psychology professor tells you that in her private practice she considers herself to be a behavior therapist, accordingly she is most likely to argue that pathological behaviors
can be modified directly, through the application of established principles of conditioning
What does the vestibular sense control?
reports tilt of the head, acceleration of the head and orientation of the head.
What are the two types of inferior colliculus sound detectors? (frog)
1. "W" shaped tuning curves-"or" detectors, "and" detectors require both to fire 2. Pattern recognizers-cannot have energy in the middle even if correct frequencies are being heard
Chapter 1: (7)What is the issue of 'nature vs. nurture'?
'Nature vs. nurture' is concerned with whether behavior is determined mainly by genetic inheritance ("nature") or by environment and experience ("nurture").
Francias Galton
nervous system-endocrine system
acoustic encoding
sound encoding
inhibit a particular neurotransmitter's release or block its effect
Operant Conditioning
Behavior modification.
desired behavior is
undesired behaviors
are punished
sensorimotor stage:
substage 6
18-24 months
mental representations
deferred imitation
cause/effect of actions
synaptic vesicles
spherical sacs containing neurotransmitters
catatonic schizophrenia
immobility, extreme negativism, parrot-like repetition
Psychotic Disorders
Schizophrenia- pervasive thought disturbance, fluid thinking, difficulty with selective attention, withdrawal form social contact, delusions
Stages 3 & 4
Delta waves
(colliculus) basic sensory reflexes. Visual tracking, localizing a visual stimulus, where a sound is in space.
variable ratio
reinforces response after unpredictable # of responses; creates high rate of responding; very resistant to extinction
a therapist for mental disorders
revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others
a methodical, logical rule or proceedure that guarentees solving a particular problem.
spinal cord
transmits messages from sensory receptors in the brain and from the brain to muscle and glands
Memory illusion
false but subjectively compelling memory (ex. optical illusions)
aggresive behavior
threat behavior and defensive behavior
recurring problems in falling or staying asleep
Positive reinforcement
Presenting of a rewarding stimulus after a behavior occurs.
Refers to reasonably stable patterns of begaviors that characterize a person's adaptation to life
field independence
rely on internal framesnomadic, personal autonomy
Personality Disorders
Marked by extreme, inflexible personality traits that causesubjective distress or impaired functioning
study of individuals or small groups
scientific method
The orderly,systematic procedures that researchers follow as they identify a research problem, design a study to investigate the problem, collect andd analyze data, draw conclusions, and communicate their findings.
controls body's 600 voluntary muscles
motor cortex
Principles of Ethics
A.) Beneficence and Nonmaleficence
B.) Fidelity and respnsibility
C.) Integrity
D.) Justice
E.) Respect for People's rights and dignity.
an irresistible impulse to steal, stemming from emotional disturbance rather than economic need
a set of expectations about social position
Resting Potential in Neuron
-70 mv
not capable of firing
Forensic psychologist
provide advice and consultation to those who work in the criminal justice system
the effect that occurs when the knowledge that one is being observed alters the behavior being observed
small structures at the tips of axons
ruffini cylinder
deeper in dermis, sense stretching, and slow adapting
projection test
Rorshach (ink blot) test, thematic apperception test -- analyzing pictures
Flashbulb Memories
Detailed recollections of when and where we heard about shocking events
Edward Teitchener
Wundt's student that brought his studies to the US
Lower level consciousness/awareness
Includes automatic processing that requires little attention as well as daydreaming
exposure of normally clothed parts to unsuspecting viewers (flasher)
Social Norms
Guidelines provided by every culture for judging acceptable and unacceptable behavior.
personality inventory
a structured survey, items guage feelings and behaviors, assess select personality traits
Priority is given to the group's goals, desires, needs versus those of the individual.
structure that sits under the thalamus and plays a central role in controlling eating and drinking and in regulatin the body's temperature, blood pressure, and heart rate.
Group Therapy
psychotherapy conducted with at least three or four non-related individuals who are similar in some ways such as gender, age, mental illnesses or presenting problem
Conditioned Response:
Response elicited by a conditioned stmulus that has been paired with an unconditioned stimulus
Learning principle proposed by Thorndike that responses followed by a satisfying effect become strengthened and are more likely to recur in a particular situation, while responses followed by a dissatisfying effect are weakened and less likely to recur i
law of effect
make some assertion that relates a subject (ex. chickens) & a predicate (ex. lay eggs)sentence meanings: what the sentence is all about: main theme
oidipus complex
child develops sexual attraction for opposite sexed parent
A condition in which people recieve from a relatioship in proportion to what they give it.
In Freud's theory, the part of personality that takes account of external reality in the expression of instinctive sexual and aggressive urges.
Specialise in the medical treatment of mental disorders.
Conversion of one form of energy into another. In sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies into neural impulses.
two-word utterances
praces children put together such as "my ball", "mo wawa", or "go way"; starts around 18 mos
the theory and therapy based on the work of Sigmund Freud
When ACh is released to our muscle cell receptors, the muscle _____.
means-end analysis heuristic
a problem-solving heuristic in which the distance to the goal state is decrease systematically by breaking the problem down into sub goals and achieving these subgoals
Franz Anton Mesmer
The first to suggest psychological treatments for pyschological problems. Mesmer believed psychological problems were caused by psychological imablances and could be solved by introducing a hypnotic state. He practiced an early form of hypnotism.
Preconventional Level
First level in Kohlberg's theory of moral reasoning. Focuses on avoiding punishment and maximizing rewards. (would not steal the medication)
Harlow Study
baby moneys ^__^ chose "mother" that was softer and only went to wire one for food
family studies
if genes influence a trait, closer relatives should share that trait more often than distant relatives
Problem focused
– to express ongoing concerns of waking life and/or resolve current concerns and problems
Constructive processing
referring to the interval of memories in which those memories are altered, revised, or influenced by newer information
absolute refractory period
time during which another action potential is impossible.
Social Psychology
Branch of psychology which sudies how people think about, influence and relate to one another
Instrumental Aggression
Hurtful behavior that is aimed at gaining something that someone else has
the process of learning the rules of behavior of the culture within which an individual is born and will live
part of the brain stem that connects the cortex with the cerebellum
Ken is planning on studying the influence of intelligence on the ability to recall events from the 1960s. If Ken does not account for variables such as age that could also influence one's ability to recall these events, age could be considered an:
extraneous variable
who is the theoretical father of the humanist school
Availability Bias
Items that are more readily available in memory are judged as having occured more frequently
Piaget: assimilation
fitting new details of reality to existing schemas
passionate love
an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship
Weber's law
the larger or stronger a stimulus, the larger the change required for an observer to notice a change
Correlation Coefficient
A mathematical index of the degree of agreement or association between two measures
A process by which a person is induced into a trance state where action is partially under the control or another
positive correlation (essay)
2 variables change together in the same direction
Anal Expulsive Personalities
"slobs" as adults- person who sees messiness as a statement of personal control
Random Assignment VS Random Sampling
Random Assignment:
- Assign everyon in a random way
Random Sampling
-You have to represent the whole populationi
Most surveys sample a target group. Before believing survey findings, think critically: Consider the sample. You cannot compensate for an unrepresentative sample by simply adding more peopleThe best basis for generalizing is from a representative sample of cases
  Larissa was opposed to animal cruelty and decided to attend an animal rights rally. After the rally, Larissa experienced intensification in her views. Specifically, she became a vegetarian and decided to stop using products tested on animals. Her shif
Group polarization
Frederick Bartlett
wrote a book that promoted a cognitive psychological view in the 1930's.
-stated that memory is not an objective and accurate representation of events but rather a highly personal reconstruction based on one's own beliefs, ideas and P.O.V.
ex. if a person witness a crime and a certain race commits that crime, they may be likely to hold a bias about that race because of what they saw.
Corpus Callosum
The thick band of nerve fibers that connects the two cerebral hemispheres and makes possible the transfer of information and the synchronization of activity between the hemispheres.
Gender Role
A set of expected behaviors for males and for females.
external hypothesis:In normal controls:
people's assessment of how hungry theey are depends on time since last meal, but not in obese people.
Diathesis- Stress Model
suggests that a person may be predisposed for a mental disorder that remains unexpressed until triggered by stress
Research Methods of an Experiment
1.) naturalistic Observation
2.) Case study method of observation
3.) Correlation research
4.) Differential research
5.) Experimental research
identity v role confusion
Erikson's name for the crisis of adolescence.
discuss the effect that nicotine has on sensitivity to pain
decreases sensitivity to pain.
natural selection –
the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations
Young-helmholtz trichromatic (three color) theory
The theory that the retina contains thress different color receptors-- one most sensitive to red, one to green, one to blue--which when stimulated in combination can produce the perception of any color.
temporal lobe
are part of the cerebrum. They lie at the sides of the brain, beneath the lateral or Sylvian fissure. Seen in profile, the human brain looks something like a boxing glove. The temporal lobes are where the thumbs would be.The temporal lobe is involved in auditory processing and is home to the primary auditory cortex. It is also heavily involved in semantics both in speech and vision. The temporal lobe contains the hippocampus and is therefore involved in memory formation as well.The Temporal lobe is involved in speech, memory, and hearing.
Basic Rights that Participants are entitled to
Informed consent, Freedom from coercion, protection from harm, risk-benefit analysis, and debriefing
Fetal Stage 4th month
face looks human lower body outgrows head bones are defined
Implications of PAL findings for associative accounts
information close to together willl have better memory
What is the placebo effect?
changes in behavior caused by belief that one has taken a drug
What is the corpus callosum?
The corpus the corpus callosum are axon fibers connecting the two cerebral hemispheres
assertiveness training and social skills training
client it taught how to interact with people more comfotably and effectively.
General procedures and logic that are common to all the major forms of multiple-baseline designs.
a. Procedures: take multiple baselines (at home, at work, and school) then introduce a treatment in one (while still observing all 3 situations) the behavior in the one treated area should improve, while the other 2 situations should not, then introduce treatment into one other situation, while still observing, hen introduce treatment into the last scenariob. Logic: demonstrates that behavior changes only when the treatment is introduced
What is the self-concept?  What is a self-schema?  What is a working self-concept?
Self concept-everythign you know about yourselfSelf-schema- integrated set of memories, beliefs, and generalizations about the self.Working self-concept- the immediate experience of self, limited to the amount of personal information that can be processed cognitively at any give time.
Long Term vs. Short Term Orientation
refers to the degree to which cultures encourage delayed gratification of material/social/emotional needs among its members
to list and describe the four signs of a pseudoscience
1) Lack of self correction 2) Overreliance on anecdotes 3) Evasion of peer review 4) Psychobabble
oral stage
hierarchical processing
sequential processing
inniates eating
feeding system
retaining memory storing memeory
coordinates voluntary muscle movement
Schemes, Assimilation, Accommodation, Organization
- Schemes
Localities LOA
Set of Organizations
geographic localities. usually have governments, local eonomies, media, systems of social, eduactional and health services, & other institutions that influence individaul quality of life.
Example: neighborhood, small town, rual area, city
sensitive to all 3 wavelengths
Conceptual frameworks that individuals use to make sense out of stored information. In Piaget’s theory, the mental structures we form to assimilate and organize processed information.
Psycodynamic perspective
Unconscious processes Unresolved past conflict (most activity we are unaware of) 
neurotransmitter involved in arousal, learning and mood regulation (sympathetic)
Positive Stereotype
black people can jump
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 027)
objective tests 
measures beliefs, feelings, or behaviors of which an individual is aware 
scientifc method
making observations, forming theories, and then refining theories in the light of new observations.
cerebral cortex
intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres; the bodys ultimate control and information-processing center
attaches to the spinal cord, (breathing,maintaining muscle tone, & regulating circulation)
post traumatic stress disorder: stress based anxiety disorder, flashbacks, avoidance of stimuli associated with event, chronic arousal symptom (sleep, anger, irritability, and concentration problems)
Communication Problems
4 Barriers

Defensiveness: excessive concern with protecting oneself from being hurt.

Motivational Distortion: believing what one wants to hear.

Self-Preoccupation: being so self-absorbed, one cannot possibly listen to anyone else.

Game-playing: concealing real motives for selfish reasons

Collusion: unspoken agreement between couples to deny a problematic reality.
Thalamus –
the brain’s sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla (hearing, tasting, seeing touching)
Mood Disorders
disturbance of mood9.5% prevalence2 major categories - major depressive disorder (unipolar), bipolar disorder
we're evolutionary predisposed to fear certain stimuli more than others
mental representation of an object, scene or event
prevent the reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin ex: imipramine, amitriptyline
Which reinforcement pattern leads to the easiest and quickest extinction?
double-blind study
keeping both experimenter & participants in study are blind as to which participants get which treatment
Explanations of Behavior(Skinner)
proximate cause: environmentultimate cause: ontogeny
a person characterized by concern primarily with his or her own thoughts and feelings
Triarchic Theory
theory proposed by Robert Sternberg that states that intelligence consists of three parts including Analytic = the ability to solve problems, Creative = the ability to deal with new situations, and Practical = the ability to adjust and cope with one's environment
William James concerned w/ how an organism uses its perceptual abilities to function in its environment
proximal systems
closest to the individual and involving the most face-to-face contact, are closer to the center of the diagram
The hypothalamus responds not only to blood sugar level and the amount of food in the stomach but also to _____
Projective Test
An assessment technique that atempts to study personality through use of a relatively unstructured stimulus, task or situation
Long-term potentiation (LTP)
gradual strengthening of the connections among neurons from repetitive stimulation
opponent process theory
3 pairs red+green blue+yellow black+white
Long-Term Memory
Relatively enduring (from minutes to years) retention of information stored regarding our facts, experiences, and skills
effortfull processing
Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.
The science of behavior and mental processes
a person of normal intelligence with extraordinary ability
Kalat's laws #4
Variation among individuals Reflects heredity and envioroment
Display Rules
Culturally Specific rules for which emotions to display, to whom, and to whom they can be displayed 
the physical changes that occur in the body as sexual development reaches its peak.
Experimental Group
Any group participating in an experiment that receives a treatment
explains why two variables relate to one another.
A person's answer to the question, "who am i?""I am..."
Many bodily changes occur, the result of changing _____ levels and these physical changes require many adjustments for young adolescents
collective unconscious
Jung's hypothesized store of vague memories of our ancestral past(inherited)
the power of abstract thought; logical power
reaction time
the interval between stimulation and response
mental set
when people persist in using problem-solving strategies that have worked in the past
EEG (electroencephalogram)
an amplified tracing of brain activity produced when electrodes positioned over the scalp transmit signals about the brain's electrical activity ("brain waves") to an electroencephalograph
external validity
extent to which the findings are relevant to other populations, contexts, times
inferiority complex
feelings of low self-esteem that can lead to overcompensation for such feelings
presynaptic neuron
the neuron that is sending the signal at a synapse in the nervous system
baby talk
the different format of speech that adults use when talking with babies that involves the use of shorter sentences with a higher, more melodious pitch
A depth cue involving the rotation of the eyes to project the image of an object on each retina
sensory adaptation
a phenomenon in which receptor cells lose their power to respond after a period of unchanged stimulation; allows a more rapid reaction to new sources of information.
Primacy Effect
Tendency to remember words at the beginning of a list especially well
Short Term Memory
a limited capacity memory system involved in the retention of information for brief periods. it is also used to hold information retrieved from long term memory
A stimulus that follows a response and increases the frequency of the response
what fraction of your life do you spend sleeping
polygenetic inheritance
many genes interact to influence a characteristic
The coiled structure in the inner ear that contains the basilar membrane
Hippocampus(p 128)
A brain structure involved in the storage of new information in memory.
was afraid someone was going to poison him
Describe knowledge acquisition.
a. Combining specific bits of information into a new “whole” are aspects of knowledge acquisition. b. Helps us gain new knowledge.c. Ex: Separating new versus old, relevant from irrelevant, being able to form new knowledge by combining specific bits of information into a new “whole”
The form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When it's level is low we feel hunger
process of by which one person tries to change the belief opinion position or behavior of another
pituitary gland
A key component of the endocrine system, which hangs directly below the hypothalamus, to which it is connected by a narrow stalk. Its anterior section regulates growth and controls much of the endocrine system, while its posterior section regulates water and salt balance.
Psychological Dependence
A psychological need to use a drug, such as to relieve negative emotions.
False Consensus Effect
the tendency for people to project their way of thinking onto other people.
Basic Trust
- according to Eric Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experience with responsive caregivers.
Texture gradient
A graduated change in the texture, or grain, of the visual field, whereby objects with finer, less detailed textures are perceived as more distant
What is the component that leads to hart attacks?
anger, hostility
Edification and Independent Inquiry
Being uplifted; Moral improvement or guidance; Enlightenment; Seeking or requesting the truth, information or knowledge
Neurons in the retina of the eye, which gather information from receptor cells by way of intermediate bipolar cells, their axons make up the optic nerve
ganglion cells
degree to which twins share a trait. Expressed as a correlation coefficient.
Hostile Sexism
A type of sexism that involves making unwanted sexual advances or engaging in other conduct of a sexual nature that unreasonably interferes with an individuals work performance or creates an imitating, hostile, or offensive atmosphere
Cohen's F
A measure of effect size when there are more than two means that defines an effect relative to the degree of dispersal among group means. Based on Cohen’s guidelines, an f value of .10, .25, and .40, defines a small, medium, and large effect size, respectively.
I-O Psychology ψ 
Chapter 2
The elements measured in research investigations
Prevalnece of Mental Disorders
48% of adults will have them
80% of people don't get help
Women: anxiety, depression
Men: substance abuse, anitsocial personality disorder
You project your feelings of something on some one else
Projection (Defense Mechanism)
a person who draws a source of control from the external world, depending on others as a source of values, ideas, and security
stratified random sampling
a sample is obtained by dividing the population into subgroups (strata) and then randomly selected equal numbers from each of the subgroups. guarantees that each subgroup will have adequate representation, but the overall sample is usually no representative of the population
Executive Competence
The childs feeling that he or she is an autonomous force in the world, with the ability to influences the outcome of events.
prayer and health
whether or not praying for someone has an impact on how quickly they recover from illness.:
prayer helps.
prayer warriors
Harry Stack Sullivan (1892-1949)
Found that the most powerful human motive is to avoid the anxiety that results from loneliness.
Amato & Keith (1991)

Impact of divorce similar for boys and girls. Divorce most harmful during childhood and adolescent years compared with the preschool or college years .As divorce became more common (i.e. during the 1980’s) the consequences associated with divorce became smaller
Motivation Potential Score (MPS)
combined scores of hackman's 3 core characteristics.
MPS= (skill variety+ task identity+ task sig) / 3 X autonomy X feedback
electrical changes in rods/cones cause electrical responses in other cells in the retina which produce
action potentials (neural impulses) and form the optic nerve
2 parts to automatic nervous system?
sympathetic (fight or flight) and parasympathetic (calming)
Kohlberg Stage 2 Conventional
Step 3: Right and wrong determined by affect upon immediate relationships - see people as needing to live up to expectations of family - to behave in "good" waysStep 4: Right and wrong are determined by the actions’ effects upon society, obeying laws, respecting authority, maintaining the social order - “getting along by going along
Who was Little Albert?
Little Albert was a baby who was conditioned to be afraid of rats.
(p 243) 
If one was successful in earlier stages, they have...
energy to develop healthy relationships, healthy personality.
How is information transmitted across the synapse?
when the action potential reaches the knoblike terminals at an axon's end, it triggers the release of chemical messengers called neurotransmitters. these cross the synaptic gap and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron.
what are criticisms of the freudian model?
no scientific base, sexist against women, emphasis on sex/not evolutionary, not testable

The typical prison guard in the Stanford Prison Simluation

behaved in an abusive and malicious manner toward the prisoners
What happens to a male with hyperprolactinemia?
He has too much prolactin, leading to no sexual desire.
How can a stop in electrical energy in brain affect memory?
May result in loss of short term memory
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