Psychology Vocab Flashcards

Terms Definitions
receive messages
archetype - mask
faithful subject role
good participants.
Children birth- adolescenceno morality, not much judgementParents must teach them, kids respond to punishment/reward
a state of awareness
nightmares generally occur
during REM sleep
Causes of stress changes2.chronic stressors3.hassles and burnout4.frustration5.conflicts
What is behavioral genetics?

Inherited characteristics 
Mental activities involved in acquiring, storing, retrieving, and using knowledge.
a coiled-up thread of DNA
chemical messenger specialized for communication from neuron to neuron
an approach stressing individual personality as the central concern of psychology
frontal lobes
behind forehead. speaking, muscle movement, making plans and judgement.
Grey Matter
in axon
non myelinated nerve tissue
The unconscious act of keeping threatening thoughts, feelings, or impulses out of consciousness.
Observational Learning
Learning through observation and imitation of others behavior.
speed, synthesized in a pharmaceutical lab, produce buoyant , elated, energetic, feeling accompanied by increased alertness
confirmation bias
inductive reasoning
search for or interpret info which confirms our preconception
Capacity to store and retreive information.
positive or negative stimuli that propel or repel us
Social Isolation
an environment lacking social interaction, such as one in which an elderly person lives alone.
Examines how biological structures and functions of the body affect behaviour
Placebo Effecs
Occur when participants expecations lead them to experience some change even though they recieve empty, fake or ineffectual treatment
Central nervous system neurons that internally communicate and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs.
refers to a genetically determined, naturally unfolding course of growth.
Change Bias
Exaggerating differences between past and present events
Statement about a presumed or theoretical relation between two or more variables.
a relationship between persons in which the condition of one induces a parallel or reciprocal condition in another
paying active attention to information by constantly repeating it
dual processing
principle that information is often simutaniously processed on seperate conscious and unconscious trakcks.
instinctive drive
learned behavior that shifts towards instinctive, unlearned behavior tendencies
in thinking, is characterized by a limited ability to share another person's point of view. a notable feature of this is animism
Change in the brain that occur throughout the life span relating to the addition of new neurons, new interconnections between neurons, and the reorganization of information-processing areas.
set of ritualized practices that train attention and awareness
place theory
holds that perception of pitch corresponds to the vibration of different portions, or places, along the basilar membrane
pre birth breathing exercise used to dissociate pain (mom)
Narcissistic personality disorder
Personality disorder defined by extreme selfishness and self-centeredness, a grandiose view of one's uniqueness, achievements, and talents, an insatiable craving for admiration and approval from others, willingness to exploit to achieve goals, and expectation of much more from others than she or he is willing to give in return.
Alternatives to Marriage
Tremendous increase in cohabitation over recent years.

Many couples use cohabitation as a sort of "trial marriage".
However, cohabitation before marriages tends to result in less happier marriage, rather than more success.

Rates of cohabitation are high in less educated places.

1. More freedom
2. Less financial dependability

Association between cohabitation and higher divorce rates.
the sudden realization of how a problem can be solved
the smallest quantity of physical energy that can be reliably detected by and observer
absolute threshold
Psychological Models
mental disorders attributed to the interaction of 3 factors; Biological, Psychological, and Sociocultural.
things near one anothermake shapes out of many dots
broad term describing a compulsion to use a specific drug or engage in a certain activity
Problem Solving
Generating a cognitive strategy to accomplish a goal
ANOVA use with multiple groups, want the difference between groups to be more than the differnces within groups (due to chance or error) [a ratio= between/within] so if F is 1 then nothing more than chance happened
Short-term memory
temporary storage of information that someone has just encountered.-infor may be new or old-limited capacity- 7 +-2
A conditioned stimulus leads to a conditioned response, and a conditioned stimulus-conditioned response pairing is a consequence of learning
the system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts
case study method
indepth investigation into individual or small groupadv: provides insights into special casesdisadv: focus on events that can't be repeated, people interviewed might distort experiences, researchers might influence others to answer in a certain way
How common are anxiety disorders?
19% lifetime prevalence
Correlation Research
Main focus is to quantify relationships between two or more variables
Constrained measures are needed
a procedure, as a reward or punishment, that alters a response to a stimulus
removal of a part of an organism’s brain, to test the change in behavior
Preoperational Stage
In Piaget's theory, the stage (from about 2 to 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic.
cross-sectional study
different age groups at the same time
Positive Correlation, Negative Correlation, uncorelated
Variables vary directly together, Variables vary inversely togetherVariables are completley independent of each other
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
marked emotional disturbance after experiencing or witnessing a severely stressful event
vestibular sense
the sense of body movement and position, including the sense of balance
temporal lobe
contains the area devoted to auditory processing (primary auditory cortex)
Superordinate goals
Can be achieved only by cooperation between groups.
Intense desire to expose one's body to others.
Steps in Assertive Training
How to be Correctly Assertive
5 Steps

Understand assertive communication (don't forget nonverbal cues)

Monitor your assertiveness

Observe a model's assertiveness

Practice assertiveness (fantasize, roleplay)

Adopt an assertive attitude
Daniel Schacter
Proposed that obese ppl eat when environmental cues are present. Conducted study where he gave subjects a random questionairre to fill out and sat out a bowl of nuts, one unshelled and one shelled and told subjects to help themselves. One group was of avg. weight and the other was obese. The obese group ate the nuts 95% when the shells were off and only 5% with the shell on. The avg weight ppl ate 50% of the time in both situations. In conclusion obese ppl eat more than avg. weight  ppl when food is present and when it;s easy to get
REM sleep
Rapid eye movement sleep when we dream. Stage 1 of sleep, a light sleep.
Social Loafing
same group process as diffusion of responsibility but in work situations rather than a crisis
institutional review board
reviews all research carefully with and eye toward protecting participants against abuses.
Which of the following concepts was NOT used by Piaget? (a) critical period; (b) schema; (c) accommodation; (d) assimilation
critical period
collective unconscious
Carl Jung's concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species' history.
self-effacing bias
attribute success to the help one receives from others or to the ease of the task, while downplaying the importance of their ability
Visual Spectrum
Wavelengths that comprise a small part of the electromagnetic spectrum that humans respond to
Corpus Callosum
the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them.
What type of learning is drug dependency?
Classical Conditioning
Study of ways in which mental and emotional states affect the immune system.
mass hysteria
a condition affecting a group of persons, characterized by excitement or anxiety, irrational behavior or beliefs, or inexplicable symptoms of illness
self efficacy
Bandura's term for the belief that we can perform behaviors that are necessary to accomplish tasks, and that we are competent. (high v. low)
Seasonal Affective DisorderSAD
Mood disorder involving a cycling of episodes corresponding to the seasons of the year, typically with depression occurring during the winter.
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
(SSRIs). SSRIs target serotonin and work mainly by interfering with the reabsorption of serotonin in the brain
Major life event
job loss, death of close person, marriage, going to college
Sleep Apnea
A sleep disorder in which a person cannot sleep and breathe at the same time. pg 399
drive reduction theory
the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need
dreams and information processing
reprocessing information that we have gathered during the day; strengthen memory
what's placebo effect?
effect on behavior caused by the placebo
Prompts and reminders
The initial triggers for health and behavior
Organizational Politics
When someone goes for what they want without thinking about what others want
What is social psychology?
Concentration of how people are influenced by others at a given moment
Power law of Forgetting
Rubin & Wenzel
log(p)= a - B(log(t))
p= # of items recalled
t= time since studied
self-efficacy expectations
beliefs to the effect that one can perform a task succesfully or manage a stressor
the ability to test what it is meant to test
males - midlife
Feels a sense of urgency. Focuses on physical decline. Appreciates his feminine side.
gamma motor system
system by which the cns controls and modifies muscle sensitivity
What are the subdivisions of the Peripheral nervous system/ PNS?
Somatic Nervous Sstem/SNS
Autonomic Nervous system/ANS
Family issues theoretical framework for MR
focus has shifted from psychopathology to stress and coping, child with MR is an extra "stressor"
     -family systems reactions to offspring with MR
     -double ABCX model
     -stress-and-coping emphasis
     -interventions with all memevers and subsystems of families
     -identification of stressors and ameliorating factors
definition of substance abuse
mal adaptive pattern of substance use leading to clinically significant impairment or stress
ventromedial hypothalamus
an area of the brain in which damage leads to weight gain via an increase in the frequency of meals
diffusion of responsibility
-in groups, the tendency of members to avoid taking action because they assume that others will
The order of the basic memory processes in which information enters our memory system and is used later is:
encoding -> storage -> retrieval
What the effects of Rohy?
Loss of consciousness, loss of muscle control and anterrograde amnesia. (Manufactured abroad for sleep disorders)
Each hemisphere is made up of what four lobes?
frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital
What is the Retinohypothalamic path?
It is a direct connection from Retina to SCN- allows light to reset SCN- originates in ganlion cells that use melanopsin- responds directly to light without use of Rods and cones
Depth perception in infants
6 to 14 month infants will not crawl to deep side of visual cliff
In active listening, what 6 steps are crucial?
1. Eye contact
2. Minimal encouragers
3. Paraphrase what was said
4. Ask questions to clarify
5. Use empathy to reflect understanding
6. Feedback -- summarize what was said
What % do you have of getting better versus getting worse after treatment?
Hypothesis (always a statement, NOT a question)
What is a system of interrelated ideas used to explain observations?
cognitive therapy
Punishment :
Decreases behavior
general well being
Pshychosocial stages, "ego virtues"
Encodingsignals into long termmemory
inner ear
cochlea, basilar membrane
characteristic mood, activity levels, and emotional reactivity
Echoic Memory (Sensory)
Sound, 2-4 seconds.
Natural chemicals that influence organs throughout the body
in psychoanalytic theory defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place the real, more threatening unconscious reasons for one's actions.
genital stage
sexual needs.. during puberty
parental ethnotheories
parental cultural belief systems
the diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug's effect. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 297)
multiple item measures, serve the basic function of providing a usable measure of a theoretical construct
Behavioral Perspective
B.F. Skinner studied operant conditioning of voluntary behavior
Behaviorism became a major force in the 20th century
Skinner introduced the concept of reinforcement to behaviorism
secondary traits
characteristics that affect behaivor in fewer situations and are less influential than central or cardinal traits. ex; reluctance to eat meat or love of art.
autoerotic asphyxiation
Achieving sexual arousal by suffocation, often by hanging onself
increases likelyhood of a behavior, reward of somesort
Echoic memory
memory of an auditory stimulus
Multiaxial System
1. clinical conditions2. personality and retardation3. medical conditions4. environmental factors5. assessment of functioning
-relay station for sensory -sends incoming and outgoing info to appropriate areas in brain
Biopsychosocial Approach
Integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural anaylsis
used to treat depression, OCD, ptsd
hermann ebbinghaus
german philosopher and pioneering researcher of verbal memory. formed a list of all nonsense syllables and put a vowel between each set - to study a different type of learning.
What is an individual's environmental and social experiences? N
involves expectations or demands that you behave in a certain way
a condition characterized by frequent and uncontrollable periods of deep sleep.
The central process of social learning, by which a person observes the actions of others and then copies them.
An emotional tie with another person' shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation.
physical or mental change which is caused by a particular disease
Seperation Anxiety
Emotional distress seen in many infants when they are seperated from people with whom they have formed an attachment.
_______ secrete _______, which travel through the blood to the brain and stimulate sexual desire.
Glands; hormones
classical conditioning
learning in which previously exsisting behaviors come to be elicited by new stimuli
Learned Helplessness
MARTIN SELIGMAN: describe a situation in which repeated exposure to unavoidable punishment leads an organism to accept later punishment even when it IS avoidable
Dave is reminiscing about the first car he owned in high school and how he felt the first time he drove it through town. This is an example of __________ memory.
actor-observer effect
The tendency to use situational factors to explain your behavior and use personality factors to explain the behavior of others
naturalistic observation
when observed in the natural setting
One's sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent's task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles.
the science of behavior and mental processes
"Little Albert"
An orphan who was classically conditioned to fear white rats and other similar looking organisms due to John B. Watson making him associate them with loud, fearful noises.
study of the purpose mental processes serve in enabling people to adapt to their environment.
Mindfulness in DBT
allowing experiences rather than suppressing or avoiding them
minor hassles
The _________ we experience are sometimes more stressful than major ones.
Idiographic approach
approach to personality that focuses on identifying the unique configuration of characteristics and life history experiences within a person
the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life
Sternberg's triarchic theory
intelligence has three dimensions: analytic, practical, and creative
Brain waves when in a deep sleep
Survey is...
a research technique for acquiring data about the attitudes or behaviors of a group of people, usually by asking questions of a representative, random survey.
behavior modification
the direct changing of unwanted behavior by means of biofeedback or conditioning
halo effect
a potential inaccuracy in observation due to overgeneralization from a limited amount of evidence or the influence of preconceived beliefs
Stranger anxiety
The fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age.
partial reinforcement
reinforcing a response only part of the time
sympathetic nervous system
gears body up for dangerous situations
extent to which we have things in common with others, a predictor of attraction
germinal period
the period that begins at conception and lasts until the developing organism becomes attached to the wall of the uterus about 8-10 days later
secondary reinforcement
Anything that comes to represent a primary reinforcer, such as money bringing food.
The colorful part of the eye, which constricts or relaxes to adjust the amount of light entering the eye
a binocular cue for depth that is based on the extent to which the two eyes move inward, or converge, when looking at an object
the study of how animals and people adapt to their environment
a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave.
facial feedback hypothesis
facial muscles send signalsto brain and these signals help brain to recognize emotion
According to your text, what is the process by which we perceive and respond to certain events that we appraise as threatening or challanging?
Shared Environmental Influences
features of the environment that siblings share. ex. # of books in the home, the presense or absence of a tv/vcr, quality of the food in the home, the valuses and attitudes of the parents, etc.
minimal or no awareness
unconscious mind: freudian concept, unacceptable thoughts, feelings and memories too painful or anxiety provoking to be admittedunconsciousness: biologically based lowest level of awareness due to head injuries, disease, anesthesia during surgery or coma
Trial & Error
trying and learning from mistake
ie: cooking
Stimulus Discrimination(p 252)
In operant conditioning, the tendency of a response to occur in the presence of one stimulus but not in the presence of other, similar stimuli that differ from it in some dimension.
William James
Yale Professor - founded the concepts of functionalism[ focused on evolutionary or adaptive view of behavior] applied Darwin's theories to human behavior - published the first textbook in 1890 "The Principales of Psych"
the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands.
three attachment styles
secure- happy, when parent leaves cries, until they returnavoidant- insecure, doesn't show care either wayambivalent- insecure, freaks out even when parents return
respondent behavior
behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus
The process by which a sense organ changes, or transforms, physical energy into electrical signals that become neural impulses, which may be sent to the brain for processing.
the quality in a person or society that arises from a concern for what is regarded as excellent in arts, letters, manners, scholarly pursuits, etc.
to pass into or through every part of:
attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
a psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one or more of three key symptoms: extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity
Axes I and II
are concerned with the classification of psychological disorders
Sleep paralysis
State of being unable to move just after falling asleep or right before waking up
The (Resting) Membrane Potential
The baseline difference in electrical charge between the inside of the neuron and the exterior is typically -70 millivolts and is called the resting membrane potential, sometimes just called the resting potential. This value can vary slightly in different neurons and in different animal species, but most mammalian species have a resting potential of -70 millivolts. The inside of the neuron is just slightly more negative than the outside of the cell; -70 millivolts is -0.07 volts, less than one-tenth of a volt. The establishment of the resting potential is generated by moving electrically charged ions against their chemical concentration gradients or against their electrical gradients or sometimes both gradients. The concentration gradient is determined by simple chemical diffusion, i.e., that atoms or molecules tend to move from regions of higher concentration to lower concentration. The higher the concentration of a chemical, the stronger the diffusion force is pushing all the atoms or molecules of that chemical away from each other. Hence, the higher the concentration, the greater the energy needed to resist or overcome the diffusion force. The electrical gradient is present because the atoms or molecules being moved across the neuronal membranes carry either positive or negative electric charges. Like charges repel each other. When particles of similar (same sign) charge are moved physically closer together, energy is required to overcome the electrical repulsion between those similarly charged particles.
Neural Trace (Untrue)
Pavlov said some crap about stimuli taking a while to build up before making neurons fire. F A L S E
What is the mean of the following set of scores?: 3, 6, 0, 7, 2, 2, 8A) 2 B) 3 C) 4 D) 7
Source monitoring
Ability to identify the origins of a memory
Gate-Control Theory
theory that neural gates in the spinal cord allow passage of pain signals to the brain; these gates may be closed by the simultaneous firing of nonpain nerve fibers, so that pain is not perceived.
T or F : Nature and nurture both factor into determining development.
Collective effort model
The theory that individuals will exert effort on a collective task to the degree that they think their individual efforts will be important, relevant and meaningful for achieving outcomes that they value
frame of reference training
give raters examples of performance and correct ratings. *adv: reduces errors *disadv: not sure accuracy.
bipolar disorder
a mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the over excited state of mania.aka manic depressive disorder.
What do people often mistake a panic attack for?
heart attack
a person who draws a source of control from the external world, depending on others as a source of values, ideas, and security
differential scales
a list of statements in which if one agrees with one statement, it is assumed that they agree with statements close to theirs and disagree with the distant ones
What is a stereotype?
a positive or negative assumption that a group or individual acts or should act a certain way based on popular belief vs actual knowledge/experience.
information ; normative social influence
Accretive of nevs opinions about reality is to                as the desire for social approval is to
Generalized conditioned reinforcers
.. are a special case of secondary reinforcers that acquire their reinforcing value because they can be exchanged for other reinforcers.
Serial position effect
our tendency to recall best the last and first items
Your tutor has "one last word" for you before she ends today's session. She tells you to study material in the middle of your study session a little harder. WHat concept from meory research is the basis of her advice?
serial position effect
When does bipolar disorder occur?
late adolescence, most common in 20's
Rotter's theory of personalityInteral locust of control
Primarily in control of their own behaviors and their consequences
restorative theory of sleep
the view that sleep and dreaming are essential to normal physical and mental functioning
Threats to internal Validity (definition)
extraneous variables that a do not allow for a clear cause and effect relationship to be determined
What is a synapse, (or synaptic gap)?
microscopic fluid-filled space between the synaptic knob of one cell and the dendrites or surface of the next cell.
What are the pitfalls of problem solving?
1) functional fixedness2) Failure to pay attention to negative instences3) Problem solving set
The process in classical conditioning by which a conditioned response can recur after a time delay, without further conditioning.
What is the process in classical conditioning by which a conditioned response can recur after a time delay, without further conditioning? S
What are the physical effects of cocaine (snorting and ingesting)?
Snorting can cause to damage nasal septum, loss of smell. Ingesting can cause damage to gastrointestinal tract. CVS= increased heart rate, perspiration and respiration; can lead to death.
Which part of the brain is involved in the "arousal" part of consciousness?
The reticular activating system (Brain stem, medulla, and thalamus)
One of the worries people have is: Am I NORMAL?
The author says it is normal to fear being abnormal normal to have problems
the hunger center
emotions mechanically induced
internally produced opiate analgesics
conversion of protein to glucose
identification of objects by touch
Studied thinking, learning, and perception in whole units not by analyzing experiences into parts
Can prescribe medicine (medical training)
negative reinforcement
something unpleasant stopped/taken away, if the organism does something (ex. gagging at the dinner table)
shaping and chaining
approximations, reinforced, complicated/complex behaviors (ex. training a cat to use the toilet)
(watson and skinner)
focused on observable behavior and the importance of the environment. not concerned about thoughts/thinking/consciousness b/c watson and skinner didnt think it was important
vestibular system
carries information about the direction and intensity of head movements, which helps us maintain our balance
Gordon Alport
Identified common traits and individual traits and made the distinction between cardinal, central, and secondary traits
Overt Behavior
Can be directly observed (crying)
random assignment
assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing pre-existing differences between those assigned to the different groups.
operational definition?
definition that specifies the operations, used to produce or measure something.
imitation, also a complex inner person
Experimental Research
in an experiment...
random assignment to condition and manipulate the independent variable, controlling for possible cofounding variables
Rhinal Cortex
plays huge role in object recognition
Exteroceptive sensory system
the auditory somatosensory olfactory and gustatory systems.
Counseling Psychologist
Treats milder emotional and behavior disturbances
Four theoretical models of personality
Trait TheoriesPsychodynamic TheoriesBehavioristic TheoriesHumanistic
giving priority to one's own goals over group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather then group identifications.
what are some threats to external validity?
a response no longer followed by reinfo.
a theory is an explanatory statement about a phenomenon
semantic memory
explicit memories based on facts or logic
medial geniculate nuclei
the auditory thalamic nuclei that receive input from the inferior colliculi and project to primary auditory cortex
Control Group
The group of participants that does NOT get the independent variable
Freud came up with psycho analysis and believed our behavior is largely influenced by our unconscious thoughtsPsychodynamic Theory
every non genetic influence , from the prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us
*dependent variable
the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
study of humans and objects they use, human response to objects.
multiple trace theory
theory that memories are stored in hippocampus and other cortical structures for as long as they exist
association cortex
any are of cortex that receives input from more than one sensory system
Willhelm Woundts
Set up first lab to study conscious experience and renamed structuralism
X chromosome
the sex chromosome found in both men and women. Females have 2 X chromosomes males have one An X and a Y
autonomic nervous system
the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs
peripheral nervous system (PNS)
has 1) somatic nervous system: voluntary control of skeletal muscles and 2) automatic nervous system (ANS): self regulated control of glands and muscles of internal organs, 2 different functions: sympathetic (arousing) and parasympathetic (calming)
distal segment
the segment of a cut axon between the cut and the synaptic terminal
in an experimental design, what is the variable that the experimenter measures?
the dependent variable
4 requirements for experiment
1.manipulate at least one IV and measure one DV2.Compare at least 2 groups. (control, experimental)3.randomly assign4.control for any systematic diff. b/t conditions except for manipulation of IV
T OR F: the closer the number is to 0, the weaker the relationship
what is hypothesis? how is it different from theory?
Hypothesis is an educated research guess while a theory is more than a guess, it is an explanation that fits observations.
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