Pharmacology Exam 1 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Definition of pharmacology?
the study or science of drugs.
Difference of drug and medicine?
drug: any chemical that affects the process of living organisms
medicine: drugs used in the prevention/treatment of illness
Why do nursing students need to study pharmacology?
-in order to avoid errors in administering meds
-to understand the therapeutic/potential toxicity of drugs/the impact meds has on clients
-educate clients/families about meds
Explain The Food & Drugs Act (Drug legislation and standards in Canada)
primary legislation that protects consumer from contaminated/adulterated/unsafe drugs and labeling practices. regulates the advertising and sale of: foods/drugs/cosmetics/medical devices
Explain the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (Drug legislation and standards in Canada)
A Health Canada act that makes it a criminal offense to traffic/produce/distribute/import/export/possess substances that can alter mental processes and produce harm to health and society when distributed without supervision. Enforced by RCMP
Factors of the Controlled Drug and Substances Act
-the dependence potential
-likelihood of abuse of the substance
-extent of its abuse in Canada
-the danger it represents to the safety of public
-usefulness of a substance as a therapeutic agent
What are the 4 phases of preclinical investigational drug studies? (Canadian New Drug Developmental)
1-safety
2-effectiveness
3-effectiveness/safety/dosage range
4-post-marketing studies
What is a chemical name of a drug?
-exact description of the drug's composition and molecular structure
-name given by the chemists that first discover the compound
-rarely used in clinical practice
What is a generic or nonproprietary or common name?
-the official name given by the manufacturer who first develops the medication
What is a trade/brand/proprietary name?
-name under which a manufacturer markets a medication
-has the symbol TM or R at upper right of name
What can and cannot vary in a generic vs. trade medication?
-cannot: must have the same amount of active ingredients, in the same quantity
-can: inactive ingredients (flavors/preservatives/fillers), shapes, colors, markings, price
Explain CPS (source of drug info)
-compendium of pharmaceutics and specialties
-comprehensive and detailed
-provides generic and trade names
-2500 monographs
What is a monograph?
-factual, scientific document on the drug product
-describes the properties, claims, indications, conditions of use for the drug, and any other info that may be required for optimal, safe, and effective use of the drug
-no promotional material
Explain Nurse's drug handbooks (source of drug info)
-concise/practical info
-relevant to nursing
-info on nursing implications (assessment/administration, etc)
-health teaching to clients/families
What are some sources of drug information?
-electronic databases/web sites
-pharmacist
-package inserts
-labels on medication containers
What are some ways that drugs are classified?
-by the body system they affect (drugs affecting the GI tract/CNS)
-therapeutic use (pain relief/decongestant)
-by their physiologic action (ex. proton pump inhibitor)
Explain the role of prescriber/pharmacist/nurse and client in pharmacotherapy
prescriber: person who orders the client's medication
pharmacist: person dispensing the med
nurse: person administering the med
client: person taking the med
-all must take care to ensure that the right med gets to the right patient in the right amount (dose) via the right route at the right time
How does the nurse do her assessment?
-physical assessment, lab reports, health/diet history
-current med profile (natural prod), V/S, wt, ht, cognitive abilities
- alcohol/tobacco/caffeine use, swallowing ability, motor skills
-allergies/reactions to med, attitude, financial concerns
How does the nurse do her interventions?
-receiving orders
-transcription and communication of orders
-accurate does calculation and measurement
-correct administration (5 rights)
-recording medication administration
-teaching
How does the nurse do her evaluation?
-monitor responses to a med on an ongoing basis
-determine whether goal was met or not
What is the prescriber's role (in the hospital)?
-following thorough assessment ,prescribe the med using the format below: - patient's full name
-date and time the order was written
-name/dose of drug. only accepted abbreviations
-frequency/route of administration
-signature/appropriate stationary or computer system
What is the pharmacist's role?
-dispenses the correct med in the proper dosage and amount as prescribed by the prescriber and provides an accurate label
-follows prescriber's orders accurately and ensures the prescriptions are valid
-provides info about med side effects, toxicity, interactions and incompatibility
What is the client's role?
-ensure taking the correct med
-take the med as prescribed
-report any untoward effects
-report effectiveness of med
What are some adverse drug EVENTS? The 2 categories are what?
MED ERRORS and ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS
-a very broad term for any undesirable occurrence involving med
-can vary from no effect at all to death
-can be preventable or unpreventable
What are 6 categories of adverse drug reactions?
-adverse or side effects
-allergic reactions
-idiosyncratic reactions
-teratogenic effects
-carcinogenic effects
-mutagenic effects
What are adverse or side effects?
-expected well known reactions resulting in little or no change in client management
-effects resolve after drug is discontinued
What's the difference with adverse drug events/reactions/ and events
events: broad term, two categories
reactions: 6 categories
effects: 1st category of adverse reactions
What are allergic or hypersensitivity reactions?
-immune response to med
-occurs when person becomes sensitized to initial dose of med
-with repeated doses the person develops an allergic response to med
-response can be mild: itchy rash/hives: uticaria to life-threatening (anaphylaxis)
What are idiosyncratic reactions?
-unusual unexpected unpredictable reactions to a med particular to a client (other than an allergic reaction)
-usually genetically determined (ex. G6PD)
What are teratogenic effects?
-teratogens are substances that cause structural defects in the fetus
-a med that induces malformations in the developing fetus is considered teratogenic
What are carcinogenic effects?
-ability of a med to cause living cells to mutate and become cancerous
What are mutagenic effects?
-permanent changes in genetic composition of living organisms
-alter the number and chromosome structure or the genetic code of DNA
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