|What two types of reaction can occur when RCM is injected?||
* Dose dependent - Volume/Concentration etc..
* Dose independent - Histamine from mast cells
|Name 3 things histamine does:||
Contraction of smooth Muscle
|Where are most mast cells found?||
Abundant around small blood vessels.
|Who are at risk of dose independent reactions?||
People with low levels of CI inhibitor
|Name 5 observable affects on the patient of histamine||
Skin - Uticaria
CV System - BP. HR.
Alimentary system - Metallic Taste/Vomiting
Respiratory - Mucus/Oedema
Central Nervous - Diziness/Headaches
|What does ABCDE stand for?||
Airway. Breathing. Circulation. Disability. Exposure.
|In all cases of a reaction what should you do?||
Retain Iv Access
Call for help Early.
monitor patient BP/HR/O2 SAT
|How do you treat a vasovagal reaction?||
Provide O2. Sats >94%
|List some signs of anaphylaxis||
Swelling of eyelids/lips
Abdominal Pain / Vomiting
REMEMBER SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS HAVE AN ACUTE ONSET
|What drugs might a doctor give in the case of a patient cardiac arrest?||
Atropine - +Heartrate
|What are the three drugs that save lives?||
Oxygen. Adrenaline. Electricity.
|Why do we perform a risk assessment for IV injections?||
Assess the nature of the problem.
Dtermine risk level.
Provide evidence for the action we take.
|What does CMIN stand for.||
Contrast Media Induced Neohropathy
|What does ARF stand for?||
Acute Renal Failure
|How is ARF measured?||
As a 25% increase in serum creatinine.
|List some patient related risk factors for ARF||
Renal Impairment with diabetes - HIGH risk
Renal impairment without diabetes - At risk
Congestive Heart DIsease
|Why are the kidneys at risk?||
Drugs are nephrotoxic.
|Name some risk factors of contrast media.||
|Name some safety questions.||
Sickle Cell Anaemia
|What is the medium dose of iodine per kg?||