Risk. Reactions. Patient Management. Flashcards

Terms Definitions
What two types of reaction can occur when RCM is injected?
* Dose dependent - Volume/Concentration etc..

* Dose independent - Histamine from mast cells
Name 3 things histamine does:
Vasodilation.
Itching.
Contraction of smooth Muscle
Where are most mast cells found?
Abundant around small blood vessels.
Who are at risk of dose independent reactions?
People with low levels of CI inhibitor
Name 5 observable affects on the patient of histamine
Skin - Uticaria
CV System - BP. HR.
Alimentary system - Metallic Taste/Vomiting
Respiratory - Mucus/Oedema
Central Nervous - Diziness/Headaches
What does ABCDE stand for?
Airway. Breathing. Circulation. Disability. Exposure.
In all cases of a reaction what should you do?
Keep Calm.
Retain Iv Access
Call for help Early.
monitor patient BP/HR/O2 SAT
ABC
How do you treat a vasovagal reaction?
Provide O2. Sats >94%
Raise Feet
List some signs of anaphylaxis
Swelling of eyelids/lips
Abdominal Pain / Vomiting
Rhinitis
Bronchoconstriction
Skin changes.

REMEMBER SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS HAVE AN ACUTE ONSET
What drugs might a doctor give in the case of a patient cardiac arrest?
Oxygen.
Adrenaline.
Atropine - +Heartrate
Antihistamine
Saline.
What are the three drugs that save lives?
Oxygen. Adrenaline. Electricity.
Why do we perform a risk assessment for IV injections?
Assess the nature of the problem.
Dtermine risk level.
Provide evidence for the action we take.
What does CMIN stand for.
Contrast Media Induced Neohropathy
What does ARF stand for?
Acute Renal Failure
How is ARF measured?
As a 25% increase in serum creatinine.
List some patient related risk factors for ARF
Renal Impairment with diabetes - HIGH risk
Renal impairment without diabetes - At risk
Dehydration.
Age.
Congestive Heart DIsease
Why are the kidneys at risk?
Drugs are nephrotoxic.
Name some risk factors of contrast media.
Dose.
Type
Arterial Administration.
Mlutiple Administrations.
Name some safety questions.
Prior Sensitivity
Diabetes.
Renal Disease
Asthma/Breathing difficulties
Anxiety
Allergies
Overactive Thyroid
Sickle Cell Anaemia
What is the medium dose of iodine per kg?
0.3g
/ 20
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Definition:
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