unit 1 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Descriptive and correlational studies describe behavior, detect relationships, and _____ behavior. But to explain behaviors, psychologists use experiments.
predict
Hindsight bias refers to our tendency to perceive events as obvious or inevitable after the _____.
fact
Correlational research is NOT one of the _____ psychologists use to observe and describe behavior.
techniques
A researcher wants to determine whether noise level affects the blood pressure of elderly people. In one group she varies the level of noise in the environment and records participants' blood pressure. In this experiment, the level of noise is the _____ variable.
independant
Some people wrongly perceive that their dreams predict future events. This is an example of an _____ correlation.
illusory
In the early twentieth century, John B. Watson and other behaviorists redefined psychology as "the science of _____ behavior."
observable
Knowing that two events are correlated provides a basis for _____.
prediction
A study finds that the more childbirth training classes women attend, the less pain medication they require during childbirth. This finding can be stated as a _____ correlation.
negative
To test the effect of a new drug on depression, we randomly assign people to control and experimental groups. Those in the experimental group take a pink pill containing the new medication; those in the control group take a pink pill that contains no medication. Participants in the _____ group take a placebo.
control
A psychologist treating emotionally troubled adolescents at a local mental health agency is most likely to be a _____ psychologist.
clinical
A double-blind procedure is often used to _____ researchers' biases from influencing the outcome of an experiment. In this procedure, neither the participants nor the researchers know who is in the experimental group or control group.
prevent
The predictions implied by a _____ are called hypotheses.
theory
In 1879, in psychology's first experiment, Wilhelm Wundt and his students measured the time lag between hearing a ____ hit a platform and pressing a key.
ball
A prominent psychology _____ was published in 1890. Its author was William James.
text
You wish to take an accurate poll in a certain country by questioning people who truly represent the country's adult population. Therefore, you need to ensure that you question a _____ sample of the population.
random
A newspaper article describes how a "cure for cancer has been found." A critical thinker probably will _____ the article, evaluate the evidence, and assess the conclusions.
question
The laboratory environment is designed to re-create psychological forces under _____ conditions.
controlled
The perspective in psychology that focuses on how _____ and thought differ from situation to situation and from culture to culture is the social-culture perspective.
behavior
As scientists, psychologists view theories with curiosity, skepticism, and humility. This means that they are willing to ask questions and to _____ claims that cannot be verified by research.
reject
In the history of psychology, a major topic has been the relative influence of nature and nurture. Nature is to nurture as _____ is to experience.
biology
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