Reading Comprehension Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Contrast Keywords
But Despite
Yet Although
However Even So
Nevertheless Whereas
On the other hand Conversely
Text-Based Questions
1. Initial Information/Closing information - the first five lines and last lines of a passage is usually forgotten. Go back
2. Dates and Numbers - Dates often provide important markers
3. Definitions - helps you to clarify an idea
4. Examples - underscore a point
5. Difficult words or phrases -
6. Enumerations/Lists
7. Text questions - when the author poses
Question Types
• Global
• Detail
• Inference
• Logic Function
• Logic Reasoning
Illustration Keywords
: In contrast to
For example
Evidence Keywords
Because Since
This is clear from
Opinion Keywords
Believed by Thought to be
Asserts Some maintain
Argues that According to
As X sees it The astronomers assumed
Detail Questions
• Identify the question type: "According to the author", "The passage states", "the author mentions"
• Task: Research the relevant text
Reading Strategically
Whatever strategy you choose, you should give the passage or pair of passages at least one careful reading before answering the questions. Try to distinguish main ideas from supporting ideas, and opinions or attitudes from factual, objective information. Note transitions from one idea to the next and identify the relationships among the different ideas or parts of a passage, or between the two passages in Comparative Reading sets. Consider how and why an author makes points and draws conclusions. Be sensitive to implications of what the passages say.
Words that reveal the author's viewpoint - Positive
Cogent Completing
Inference Questions
• Identify the question type: "the author implies", "the passage suggests", "likely to agree"
• Task: Read between the lines, Perhaps combine statements, Identify what must follow from the passage
• Inference means "must be true". It's a statement that must be true if everything in the stimulus is true.
• Inference questions require you to paraphrase the relevant text or make a deduction
• Common wrong answer choices; 180, faulty use of detail, extreme, out of scope
• Answer inference questions after you've already picked up points with Global and Detail questions
• The correct answer to an inference question doesn't require any information that isn't included in the stimulus
• Valid inferences aren't necessarily mind-blowing
• Beware of extreme wording in inference answer choices
• The correct answer doesn't have to take the entire stimulus into account
Causal Reasoning
Asserts or denies that one thing causes another
Logical Reasoning Questions
• Identify the question type: Will mimic LR question types, including
o strengthening / weakening - "supports" / "undermines"
o Principle - "principle"
o Parallel Reasoning - "analogies"
• Task: Use the appropriate LR strategy
Trap of Separation/ Misdirection
It's taking information and then physically separating those pieces by a number of lines of text that discusses a different concept.
Use the clues
• Proper Nouns & Names; look for same key word in the text or margin notes
• Line Reference; context is key. Look at the surrounding paragraph (+/- 2 sentences)
• Direct Quotes; context is key. Who is quoted (author, critic) Associated Keywords
• Paragraph References; consider paragraph in totality. Consider paragraph in context of larger argument
• Content Clues; word or phrase of the text. What paragraph. Look for associated key words
Trap of Inserted Alternate Viewpoint
Another trick is to discuss a particular viewpoint, and in the middle of the discussion insert a new viewpoint
Trap of Similarities and Distinctions
i.e. compare and contrast
1. If a list of compare and contrasts get complicated, a bracket to the side with a note allows one to keep the section in perspective.
2. Don't get bogged down in details
bump into
to jam
la portière
car door
à la retraite
to weigh down (overwhelm)
le capot
the hood (car)
depuis belle lurette
ages ago
pire (le pire)
worse (the worst)
showing, indicating, or characterized by affection or love; fondly tender:
les prévisions du temps (météo)
weather forecast
Japanese poetic form that contains three lines of 5, 7, and 5 syllables. Normally deals with nature
categories of fiction
folklore, fantasy, realistic fiction
view, structure, tone, arguments, main point
lack of similarity or equality; difference
to engage in thought or reflection
narrative poems
long poems that tell a story
Is a fairytale a narrative or expository text?
people (or personified animals) in the story
fiction text factors
narrative genres, story elements, narrative devices
to establish by proof or competent evidence
What are some cognitive strategies?
Activate background knowledge, predicting, determining main idea, previewing, classifying, categorizing, visualizing, making inferences, questioning, summarizing
free verse
un-rhymed poetry where word choice and visual images are important
the emission of visible light by a body, caused by its high temperature.
Reading Workshop: Reading
students spend 30 to 60 minutes reading independently, chose own books using Goldilocks Principle.
RTI (Response to Intervention)
Tier 1: screening and preventionTier 2: Early interventionTier 3: Intensive Interven
Give related subject matter to Business.
Marketing, advertising, management, and economics.
Why is story structure important?
authors manipulate structure to make stories interesting and to organize text
to prove to be false as an opinion or charge
Why is theme important?
it is the underlying meaning of the story
What is the most effective way of working with struggling readers in the middle grades?
Differentiate instruction, use guided reading for small groups of same-level readers, explicit lessons, authentic texts, student choice
What are the benefits of using literature focus units and literature circles?
Students read and respond to authentic literature, they get more choices in books and responses, and they get to have different roles.
What is the strategy for Natural Science reading passages?
Skim the passage to determine it's central idea and organizational structure (presentation or argumentation).

Look for "key words" from the question to get the answer.

Don't memorize details or try to figure out the author's reasoning.
What will get kids to want to read the most?
Sharing in a book discussion
to dare
to park
les panneaux
le syndicat
(labor) union
un pont-levis
draw bridge
sudden or unexpected:
assez occupé (e)
pretty busy
vérifier l'huile
check the oil
four viewpoints
first-person, omniscient, limited omniscient, objective
(of light) produced by incandescence.
faire le plein
fill up (with gas)
tension or opposition between forces in the plot
Guided reading
small-group instruction used for students who read at approximately the same instructional level
to realize beforehand; foretaste or foresee:
an incidental mention of something, either directly or by implication
la grève (faire grève)
strike (go on strike)
literal comprehension
Most basic level of comprehension. Readers pick out main ideas, sequence details, notice similarities/differences, identify explicitly stated reasons
person, place, or thing used to represent something else (ex: dove and peace)
text sets
reading materials collected by teacher on topics to use in teaching thematic units. Incorporate different genres, reading levels, and media.
3.Logical Structure Questions
The Author proceeds primarily by
avoir la priorité
to have the right of way
Omniscient viewpoint
author is godlike, seeing and knowing all. Thoughts of each character are shown.
literature focus units
instructional approach in which the class reads and responds to a piece of literature
to examine in detail with careful or critical attention
3 text factors of comprehension
Genres, text structures, text features
a small bed for an infant, usually on rockers.
Why put students in groups?
Learn from others, social interaction, different background knowledge, different viewpoints, etc
6. Tone Questions.
1. The attitude of the the author.

2.The author regards... as...

3.Which of the following best describes the author's attitude toward...?
What are some components of literacy centers?
Author study, computer, grammar, graphic organizers, library, poetry, word wall, spelling, revising,
What are Three Subjects normally found in LSAT reading comprehension passages?
Natural Science,
Social Science, and
How can a teacher help students take control of their own reading?
Have kids read independently, gradually extending time to build stamina. teachMetacognition, have them recognize obstacles to reading and
What is the Presentation technique?
The author presents an idea with which he will agree or partially agree. Sometimes the author intentionally contrasts his position with an opposing view. Most often, the author is just anticipating an objection that he will soon refute.
Which approach to teaching reading is the best?
There is no best approach to teaching
What is the strategy for Social Science reading passages?
The passage is easier to understand but the questions will be harder.

You will need to synthesize several sentences or make some reasoning before you pick the right choice.

In general, do not choose the answer that contains exact words or phases from the passage.
How do capable and less capable students differ?
more capable readers view reading as a process of comprehending or creating meaning, but less capable readers focus on decoding
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