Reconstruction 2_1 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Congressional Reconstruction
Southern Homestead Act
True or FalseReconstruction governments were responsible for some positive changes in the south, including building many public schools.
Andrew Johnson
President that was IMPEACHED
white southerners who resisted change/Reconstruction
enforced segregation of races. This made sure there wan't an mixing of races. Everywhere you went there was segregation.
True or FalseAfrican Americans were accepted as equals after the Thirteenth Amendment.
Jim Crow laws
laws that separated public facilities
Twelve year period that is considered the years of reconstruction.
To bring charges of serious wrongdoing against a president
Main issues of Reconstruction
Economy, equality, and unity
Horris Greeley
Grant ran against him in 1872
Whiskey Ring
During the Grant administration, a group of officials were importing whiskey and using their offices to avoid paying the taxes on it, cheating the treasury out of millions of dollars.
John Wilkes Booth
actor, racist, Southern Supporter, killed Lincoln
Reconstruction was necessary
The southern economy was damaged because southern currency had no value, the plantations and industry were damaged, the southern labor force (slaes) were no longer required to work, etc.
the process used by a legislative body [a group of people who make laws] to bring charges of wrongdoing against a public official
name for the northerners who moved to the south after the war
Tenant Farming
Did not own the land they farmed.
To end, do away with or make void
Moderate Republicans
group that viewed Reconstruction as a practical matter of restoring states into the Union and keeping the former Confederates out of government
Which amendment ended slavery in the U.S.?
Thirteenth Amendment
1. prohibited blacks from renting land or borrowing money to buy land
2. placed freedmen into semibondage by forcing them to sign work contracts
3. prohibited blacks from testifying against whites in court
Black Code
The south's way of keeping the freed slaves in subjection
Plessy v. Ferguson
Supreme Court ruled that separate but equal facilities is legal
Land restriction
Freed people could only rent land or homes only in rural areas. This forced them to live on plantations.
Wealthy White Planters
Who led the South under Johnston's Reconstruction plan?
Wanted to destroy all power of former slaveholders; believed that African Americans should be given citizenship and the right to vote.
Radical Republicans
negro baptist and african methodist episocopal churches
black ministers were leading figures
Ku Klux Klan (K.K.K.)
A secret society organized in the South after the Civil War to reassert white supremacy by means of violence.
Booker T. Washington
Born a slave, wanted more support for the blacks, helped blacks move their way to freedom, made speeches for the blacks
18th amendment
in 1917 it is illegal to sell alcohol in the US
Blanche K. Bruce
He was also one of the first African American to be a senator.
Republicans during control of S state politics
-abused power for selfish ends
-governed responsibly in public interest
Southern white's anger towards Radical Reconstruction was directed at:
the blacks who were being radical republicans and tired to gain spots in the government.
why didn't the 15th amendment help alot?
literacy tests, poll taxes, and the "grandfather clause", and terror
The greatest success of the Freedman's Beurea was:
They set up basic health care and literacy teachings for African Americans.
Union Leagues
Scottish word meaning scrawny cattle
Thomas Nast
A talented political cartoon artist.
Compromise of 1877
Ended Reconstruction. Republicans promise 1) Remove military from South, 2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet (David Key postmaster general), 3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river
landowners who didn't have cash money to pay for labor allowed poor freedment and whites to use a part of their plantation to farm, in return they also worked other parts of the plantation and gave the landowner a sizeable shar of the profits they may have gained from their own portion of the crops.
(verb) to improve the condition of something or someone
Enforcement Act of 1870
The ________________________ banned the use of terror, force, or bribery to prevent people from voting.
Amnesty Act
removed voting restrictions from white Southerners
-Only senetor from Confed state who was loyal to Union
-was S Democrat but Repub picked him as Lincoln's runningmate to encourage pro-Union Dem to vote for hte Union/Repub party
-wrong for job b/c white supremacist
(verb) to come together again after a period of separation
intimidating voters
The KKK sought to eliminate the Republican Party in the south by_____________________
New Freedman's Bureau
Helped former slaves adjust, and Congress overrode President Johnson's veto for the 1st time in history
Freedmen's Bureau
Federal agency formed to help former slaves. It help set up Schools, Hospitals, and Distributed Clothes and food to help former slaves transition to freedom.
What is an official pardon for illegal acts called?
a pardon
men and women that had once been slaves
(verb) to show or express a feeling by doing something or acting a certain way
ten percent plan
required 10% of voters in each southern state to pledge loyalty; every new state had to abolish slavery; confederate rights restored
Radical Republicans
believed that the Civil War had been fought over the moral issues of slavery
Examination to see if a person can read and write; used in the past to restrict voting rights
Literacy test
What does segregation mean?
forced separation of people by race
15th Amendment
-state cannot deny the right to vote due to race-gave african americans the right to vote-however, still had the poll tax, literacy test, and grandfather clause
Wade-Davis Bill
set up by the Radicals in response to Lincoln's Ten Percent Plan. The bill proposed that Congress, not the president be responsible for Reconstruction
Edmund G. Ross
His vote was the deciding factor for Johnson trial
Prohibits the denial of the right to vote based on race, color or previous condition of servitude.
15th Amendment (1870)
literacy test
had to read & explain a part of the Constitution to be able to vote
Stated that the president could not remove cabinet officers during their term--even by the president who appointed them--without the consent of Congress; Congress based 9 of Johnson's impeachment charges on this act.
Tenure of Office Act (1867)
Lincon's Plan for reconstruction was known as the "10 percent plan" because it:
only required 10 percent of the southern population to vote republican.
Name agricultural resources of the South?
The South had textile mills to turn cotton into cloth; also had a growing tobacco industry.
What is true concerning the land confiscation in the 1860's?
sherman gave the blacks the land and three months later it got confiscated
white southern Republicans (traitors!)
thirteenth amendment
The constitutional amendment ratified after the Civil War that forbade slavery and involuntary servitude.
hated group that terrized and wanted to removed blacks from the south, drive out the union troops and return to a plantation system in the south
Northerners who moved South to get rich or help freedmen
Thaddeus Stevens
leader of Radical Republicans- wanted south to change more than they had
lincoln's reconstruction plan
lenient plan, required southerners to take an oath of loyalty and promise not to secede again
Freedman's Bureau
The bureau's focus was to provide food, medical care, administer justice, manage abandoned and confiscated property, regulate labor, and establish schools.
13th Amendment
an 1865 amendment to the U.S. Constitution that outlawed slavery throughout the whole country
johnson's reconstruction plan
similar to lincoln's plan only more lenient, did not require many to take a loyalty oath he ended up pardoning officials as well
The Compromise of 1877
It withdrew federal soldiers from their remaining position in the South, enacted federal legislation that would spur industrialization in the South, appointed Democrats to patronage positions in the south, and appointed a Democrat to the president's cabinet.
Impeachment of Andrew Johnson
law prevented johnson from removing cabinet official without US senate's approval broke the limited president power by firing secretary of war and was voted to be impeached
presidential election of 1876
Rutherford B. Hayes and Samuel J. Tilden tied in an election. Democrats said, "Hayes can be president if you get rid of the troops here in the south," Thus ending reconstruction
Ku Klux Klan
one of the secret societies formed by white southeners to regain power in the South. This Klan worked to keep African Americans out of office by shouting threats and burning wooden crosses and their homes. Sometime this klan resorted to violence when the threats didn't work and murdered a lot of African Americans
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