Reconstruction after Civil War Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Freedmen
former slaves
scalawag
white Southerner supporting Reconstruction policies after the Civil War usually for self-interest
Jefferson Davis
president of the CSA
Fire Eaters
Abolitionists, Southern extremists were called ?. Had said that they would ?? in defense of slavery.
Ford's Theater
where Abraham Lincoln was assassinated
Gettysburg
July 1863
-Lincoln replaced Hooker w/ Meade
- Lee invades North (Penn) for second and last time (3 day battle)
- Biggest battle in history of W. Hemisphere
- Ends w/ (failure) Pickett's Charge: 15,000 men over 1 1/2 miles
reconversion
fed aid (ultimately from north) "malice toward none chairty for all"
Impeachment
The political equivalent of an indictment in criminal law, prescribed by the Constitution. The House of Representatives may impeach the president by a majority vote for "Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors."
Scalawags
-derogatory term for Southerners who were working with the North to buy up land from desperate Southerners
-southerners who supported the Republican party
carpetbagger
Northerner who traveled south to make money off of the Reconstruction
1, twice
Lincoln served ? term, elected ?
Public service
Lincoln appeared to be inexperienced, but he devoted his life to ?? from 27 on.
13th Amendment
This amendment freed all slaves without compensation to the slaveowners. It legally forbade slavery in the United States.
Alabama Claims
-America's demands that England pay for the damage that the confederate ships caused during the Civil War, US got $15 million
-England was annoyed since all they did was make the ships and sell them to Confeds, but they paid anyway
Emancipation Proclamation
-Lincoln announced it shortly after Union victory @ Battle of Antietam
-1863 he declared all slaves in the nation free
George Pickett
Lee ordered George E. Pickett's division forward in its infamous disastrous charge against the Union center
"Stonewall" Jackson
general in the Confederate Army during the Civil War whose troops at the first Battle of Bull Run stood like a stone wall (1824-1863)
Albert Sydney Johnston
CSA highest ranking officer,killed at shiloh
Freedmen's Bureau
1865 (expired in 1872)
- established by Congress
- provide medical care, clothes, food, + education (greatest success teaching F to read)
- Oliver Howard led the bureau
Secede
When the South pulled out of the United States to fight the northern states.
Fort Sumter
Federal fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina; the confederate attack on the fort marked the start of the Civil War
railroad reconstruction
-had to fix destoyed railroads w/ sherman ties)
capitol exists in North -nothing more expensive than building railroads at the ime -> money to do this comes from Northern investment
good 'carpet baggers' provided much needed investment from south
Citizenship
The 14th amendment is the grant of ?
65,000
Lincoln put Grant in control of ? soldiers, about the max at the time for an army.
Andrew Johnson
A Southerner form Tennessee, as V.P. when Lincoln was killed, he became president. He opposed radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts over his veto. The first U.S. president to be impeached, he survived the Senate removal by only one vote. He was a very weak president.
border states
slave states that bordered in which slavery was illegal
Trent Affair
-two Confeds (James Mason and John Slidell) slipped through the Union's blockade and went on the British ship Trent
-Union gen. Charles Wilkes acted w/o authorization and captured Trent to get the Confeds
-pissed Eng. off and US had to apologize
Slavery and Sectionalism
persisted and threatened the union in1850
Whisky Ring Scandal
a conspiracy involving diversion of tax revenues
Dred Scott Decision
nullified the Missouri Compromise by declaring that slaves can only be taken from their owners by due process of law; taking them into free territory does not nullify their status.
reconstruction
the period after the Civil War in the United States when the southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the Union
Women's Loyal League
An organization that called for a constitutional amendment to abolish slavery, but it was used to promote woman suffrage as well. Leaders Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony, Frederick Douglas was a supporter. Couldn't get Congress to allow women suffrage.
Reconstruction Plans
- Lincoln's 1863: 10% Proposal: 10% of voters takes an oath of allegiance and promised to support Emancipation, state will have full membership
Lincoln's Ten Percent Plan
Former Confederate states would be readmitted to the Union if 10% of their citizens took a loyalty oath and the state agreed to ratify the 13th Amendment which outlawed slavery
Johnsons plan for 'restoration'
Johnson issued pardons to former Confed leaders (what Link wouldn't do) in order to be pardoned, leaders had to meet w/ him and request pardon
when did thes 3 plans occur
Links=reconstruction before war over
johnson=right after war
Rad Rep=reconstruction
Nations, Mistakingly
The Civil War was fought between 2 different ?. Not really a Civil War, they ? came together at time of Constitution
Jimmy Carter(1976)
Who was the next Southern pres after the CW?
Potential profit
The South refused to feed armies in hopes of a ??
15th amendment
citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude
Edwin Stanton
Secretary of War under Lincoln. He was a Radical Republican.
Habeas Corpus
-a person can't be held in prison without first being charged with a crime
Lincoln wins reelection
The 1864 election occurred during the Civil War; none of the states loyal to the Confederate States of America participated.
Fugitive Slave Law
Declared that any slave that escaped to the North must be returned to his/her owner.
Battle of Fredericksburg
The Union, led by Major General A.E. Burnside, was defeated and lost 10,000 men. General Robert E. Lee, was the Confederate general who led in the defeat.
Compromise of 1877 provisions
Hayes promised to show concern for Southern interests and end Reconstruction in exchange for the Democrats accepting the fraudulent election results. He took Union troops out of the South
Describe the Franklin-Douglas debates
Link campaigns for U.S. Senate seat -gains national recognition
-debated westward movement of slavery link -didn't want it to moave west (he lost debate)
Bachelor, Black mistress
Stevens is a longtime member of the House of Reps, very powerful. Abolitionist ? but lives openly in DC with his ??
Civil Rights, Freedom
Fed Gov't will bestow ?? gradually. ? does NOT equal equality in Lincoln's mind
What were the political implications of Reconstruction?
The political implications of Reconstruction were the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments which helped support blacks rights. Those were then later deserted by the Jim Crow Laws and Black Codes.
National Draft Law
-led to draft riots in New York
-the number of people volunarilly joining wasn't enough anymore
Black Codes Passed
laws passed on the state and local level in the United States to limit the basic human rights and civil liberties of blacks.
Stonewall Jackson
was shot by his own men at the Battle of Chancellorsville
Fourteenth Amendment: gave African Americans full citizenship and guaranteed due process of law. Fifteenth Amendment: gave African American men the right to vote.
In what ways did the Fourteenth Amendment and Fifteenth Amendment protect the rights of African Americans?
how effective was the blockade?
not abs. perfect, but very good
nothing of significance moved in or out of south for next 4 yrs
100,000, 2
In 63, there are ? men hiding to avoid the Southern draft. Almost ? big S. armies gone. Hundreds of thousand others helping them!
Union Pacific and Central Pacific Railroad Company
created 1860s before the Civil War
-Rebpuclicans took advantage of the absent Southern Democrats (cuz of secession) to pass nationalistic laws
George B. Meade
He made himself known in 1862 at Seven Days Battle and the battles of Bull Run, Antietam, and later at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville. He commanded of the Army of the Potomac from 1863, and won the battle of Gettysburg, but he was criticized for not following up his victory.
It was a secret organization that planned to keep African Americans from voting by threating, beating, of killing them.
What was the Ku Klux Klan?
describe Rad Rep plan for restoration of union
congress dominated by Rad Rep -relationship w/ johnson ->deteorating constant vetoing & overidding -congress sick of it-> wanted to restore union w/ out Pres leadership ( & remove Johnson)
Cemetary Ridge, Farmland, Tree line
The Union army positions itslf on a low hill called ??. In front of it was about a mi of newly plowed Penn. ?, then a dense ?? at the end, that's where Confeds hung out
Calling for military volunteers led more Southern states to secede because
they didn't want to fight against their fellow Southerners
The Bureau provided food, clothing, medical care, and legal advice to poor black and whites. It set up hospitals and schools for newly freed people.
What was the purpose of the Freesmen's Bureau?
describe how slavery was a labor system
everything of value produced in south was directly or indirectly produced by a slave
-south was a civilization whos economy was entirely built on slavery
Reconversion of the South to peace, Freedmen/women, and Restoration of the Union
All 3 plans for Reconstruction deal with what 3 problems?
What was the Union plan of attack called? List its four objectives.
Anacoda Plan; 1. blocked the entire southern coastline 2. seize control of the Mississippi river to cut the south off from the west 3. further divide the south by capturing the Tennessee river valley and marching through Georgia to the coast 4. capture the confederate capital at richmond
describe how slavery was made a moral issue
by 1860 tiny majority has convinced northern majority that slavery is immoral (didn't want to free slaves, but took pleasure in pointing moral finger at south)
as north began to criticize south -south beleives north will act on their morality (south thinks they should start the war before north does)
*North wants to feel morally superior
How did Social differences affect the North and South during the war?
The North had the Government and more people. The South had less people, but tried to convince France and Europe to join, with failed attempts.
Year and a half, Humiliate, Bigger
For the first ? of his admin, this is all AJ does! Big powerful planters come and ? themselves, AJ loves it, finally felt ? than them.
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