reformation and renaissance Flashcards

Terms Definitions
French Protestants
country in Africa
anything non religious
Jan Van Eyck
Flemish painter
Universities Established
cambridge oxford sorbonne
ornate, dramatic artistic style, sparked by the Catholic Reformation, which developed in Europe in the 1550s
Wrote: The Autobiography of Violence(intrigue, quarrel, sexualexcess, egotism), fathers 8 illigitimate kids, banish for sodomy, imprisioned for assult, fled after murdering a man, also a sculptor
European scholars, writers, and teachers associated with the study of the humanities (grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history, languages, and moral philosophy), influential in the fifteenth century and later.
Protestantism encouraged people to make their own religious _______.
central authority of the Catholic Church; the Pope
Niccolo Machiavelli
Italian Renaissance writer, described government in the way it actually worked (ruthless). He wrote The Prince (the end justifies the mean).
the medici
aristocratic Italian family of powerful merchants and bankers who ruled Florence in the 15th century
An Italian painter, sculptor, and architect of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Among many achievements in a life of nearly ninety years, Michelangelo sculpted the David and several versions of the Pietà, painted the ceiling and rear wall of the Sistine Chapel, and served as one of the architects of Saint Peter's Basilica, designing its famous dome. He is considered one of the greatest artists of all time.
"everything should be doubted until its proved"
a renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements
technique that shows three dimensions on a flat surface
Albrecht Durer
brilliant draftsman, made woodcuts that lent support to Luther's doctrinal revolution, moved illiterate peasants
doctrine of John Calvin that adhered to the idea that each person's free is predetermined by God
In Northern Italy, writers & artists began to express the new spirit & experiment with new styles, changing how Europeans saw _____ and their world.
During the Renaissance, their was a trend of people moving to cities which is called...?
The Prince
guidelines for leadership, the ends justify the means
Relative to the sun as a center.
Geoffery Chaucer
helped make the vernacular literature more popular. wrote the canterbury tales.
Charles V
Holy Roman Emperor (Hapsburg ruler) who hoped to preserve the unity of his empire by keeping it Catholic--led to war between himself and the rulers of the german states
pardon sold by catholic to reduce one's punishment
sculptor that studied and copied the statues of Greeks and Romans
Renaissance came from which cultures?
Greek and roman~!
denied the scriptural validity of the Trinity, part of the Radical Reformation
the selling of official positions in the medieval Roman Catholic Church
Counter Reformation
Catholic response to the Protestant Reformation
an instrument used by sailors to determine their location by observing the position of the stars and planets -- an early sextant
_____ was a city-state which had a republican government system dating to the late 1200s. During the Renaissance, it was under the rule of the Medici family, a powerful banking family.
Edict of Nantes
gave religious freedom and some political rights to the Huguenots
Elizabeth 1
Queen of England during the early colonial period
Pierre Ronsard
wrote his own sonnets with common humanist themes of love, passing of youth, and poet's immortality.
classical art
__ has idealized bodies, is not expressive, movement, angular face
not of the clergy or church, not relating to the church or religion
The 95 Theses
These writings listed Martin Luther's complaints about the pardon merchants (the selling of indulgences)
Leonardo da Vinci
strong example of Individualism; Mona Lisa
liberal studies
a set of educational subjects that provides a path of virtue and wisdom
peace of augsburg
1555 agreement declaring that the religion of each german state would be decided by its ruler
Also known as the Society of Jesus; founded by Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) as a teaching and missionary order to resist the spread of Protestantism.
wat artist painted the ceiling of the sistine chapel
Henry VIII
English king who had 6 wives and defied the Catholic church
Savonarola vs. Medici family
Feud in Florence
-a Dominican friar made a bunch of nasty sermons attacking paganism, moral vices of the city, the undemocratic government of the Medici family, corrupt Pope
-contributed to the fall of the Medici family dynasty
-friar eventually executed
-illustrated instability of Flor.
When a person ceases to exist in the eyes of the Church.
Henry of Navarre
france, wins war of3 henrys, converts to catholic, crowned Henry IV, edict of Nantes, assasinated by catholic
Thomas More
wrote Utopia and No Place believed in no greed or corruption and no need for money
a lessening of the time a soul would have to spend in purgatory (a place where souls too impure to enter heaven atoned for sins committed during their lifetimes)
Giotto di Bondone
artist who invented the fresco, and painted lifelike humans
Nicolaus Copernicus
Created theory that the sun is the center of the universe.
what were 2 similarities between Huldrych Zwingli's Protestant movement and Martin Luther's ideas?
1. stressed salvation alone
2. denounced many catholic beliefs and practices
Lower class women
These people were not treated well and were uneducated
St. Bartholomew's Day
August 24, 1572: the bloodiest day on which the Catholics killed 12,000 Protestant Huguenots
95 theses
list of crit of the church and martins rel beliefs
Act of Supremacy
The English king, not the pope, is the head of England's church
The invention of the printing press
How did Luther's ideas spread so quickly?
what events led up to martin luther's justification by faith?
-posting the 95 theses
-reading St. Paul's Epistle
Thomas More
wrote the Prince
Center of Islamic civilization
worldly and concerned with now
the Protestant churches and denominations collectively
to change, to make improvements
Johann Gutenberg
Invented the printing press.
A government ruled by religious leaders (ex. the city of Geneva, 1536).
Italian artist, painter, sculpter, and architect. Painted ceiling of Sistine chapel; sculpted David & Pieta'.
Diet of Wormz
declared Luther an outlaw
Johannes Gutenberg
developed the printing press; Gutenberg Bible - the first European book produced from movable type
Sir Thomas More
1478-1535, important northern humanist, friend of Erasmus, wrote "Utopia," executed by Henry VIII for refusing to take an oath recognizing Henry as Head of the Church of England
who was the father of humanism
member of a protestant group that believed in baptizing only those persons who were old enough to decide to be Christian and believed in the separation of church and state
Type of government where the religious leader and political leader are the same
Martin Luther
He thought people could receive salvation only through personal faith and the grace of God (faith led to salvation). He publicly challenged the selling of indulgences?
a wealthy person who supports an artist
Thomas Wolsey
priest who secured appointment as chaplain to Henry VII. Used his power to gain numerous rich church offices. Grew in power during Henry VII's reign.
the movement to reform the church, ends up creating an all-new church
absolute control- you believe the Pope should have absolute control
huldrych zwingli
swiss priest who led the protestantmovement in switzerland
Trade Routes
Italians benefit from their location; get goods by sea and sell them to inland places
printing press
invention from the mid-15th century that allowed cultural trends of the Renaissance to spread to other parts of Europe
Sistine Chapel
A chapel adjoining Saint Peter's Basilica, noted for the frescoes of biblical subjects painted by Michelangelo on its walls and ceilings. The Creation is one of the notable subjects of the ceiling paintings, and the judgment day is depicted on the rear wall of the chapel.
Isabella d'Este
She used her wealth, intelligence, and power to support artists and scholars in Florence, Italy. Her palace was one of the most brilliant of the Renaissance.
18 June 1815 A.D.
DAY/MONTH/YEAR when Napoleon is defeated at Waterlou, Belgium by the Duke of Wellington. He is exiled to St. Helena(off the coast of the Southern bulge of Africa); he dies there in 1821 by mercury poisoning.
William Shakespeare
English poet who was the towering figure of Renaissance literature. Wrote 37 plays that are still performed around the world. Love of words vastly enriched the English language.
The Last Supper
15th century painting created by Leonardo da Vinci representing the scene of The Last Supper from the final days of Jesus.
Anglican Reformation
There was no pope, divorce was allowed, some sacraments were rejected, services were in English
a separate quarter of the city [Jews were forced here]
Ferdinand and Isabella
They curbed aristocractic power by excluding aristocrats and great territorial magnates from the roal council and istead appointed men of middle class background
The Medici family
Godfathers of the Renaissance; huge patrons of the arts; from Florence
Council of Trent
an ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church convened in Trent in three sessions between 1545 and 1563 in response to the Reformation
Magna Carta
Signed by king John, stated that the law is above the king and the king must obey the law.
Edward VI
som of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour, king at 9, dies at 15, probably tuberculosis, protestant ruler and wanted england to stay that way
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
massacre of the entire Protestant population of Paris; took place on August 24, 1572
Machiavelli's The Prince
described how a prince should acquire and keep political power.
Johan Gutenberg
a German goldsmith and printer who is credited with being the first European to use movable type printing, in 1439, and the global inventor of the mechanical printing press.
Pico della Mirandola
Pico wrote the Oration on the Dignity of Man. This is a piece in which he talks about how man is at the center of the universe, and has the power to go up or down. Divinity is above him, and the natural world is below him.
William of Orange
Leader of the Dutch revolt against the Spanish.
Sonfonisba Anguissola
She was the first women artist to get an international reputation, She made portraits of her sisters and kings
Renaissance in Italy. Why?
ruins of roman empire, seat of catholic church, crusades let to trade w/ Africa, Asia, Byzantine.
Emperor Charles V
held the Diet of Worms for Martin Luther, asked him to recant his theses
leon battista alberti
"men can do all things if they will", did everything,
The divine right of kings
God chooses the kings, you should only answer to god.
Role of women in the upper class?
Lost positions in public, expected to run household
John Calvin
Strict church-state in Geneva
Established church in Scotland; French Calvinists = Huguenots
civic humanism
moral, social philosophy
matters concerning the Church
one of the archangels.
theory stressing interests of individual
symmetrical decorations and classical columns
Baldassare Castiglion
The author of the Courtier
Series of military expeditions to regain the Holy Land
belief that contradict the official teachings of a religion or church one who holds such beliefs is a heretic
landing place of Columbus in 1492
an indifference to pleasure or pain
Johann Tetzel
sold indulgences in wittenburg germany
Made a movable type printing press
Ciompi Revolt
Florence 1378; popolo fought violent struggle against the government that resulted in brief period of political power to the poor
wrote "In Praise of Folly"; most famous of northern humanists; master of Greek language; first humanist to to earn a living by writing; wanted to change church; inspired future humanists
Jacob Burkhart
19th century historian who claimed that the Renaissance period was in distinct contrast to the Middle Ages, hence he coined this french term, meaning rebirth, for the era.
Give up of one's views or beliefs.
HRE Charles V
excommunicated Luther, answered to Pope Leo X
Hernando Cortez
Spanish conquistador who overthrew the Aztecs and carted off their wealth in 1519
Robert Dudley
favourite and possible lover of Elizabeth I
Ulrich Zwingli founded a church in Switzerland with basis of?
Martin Luther believed in 2 sacraments Communion and Baptism
Jacob Burkardt
19th century historian who formulated the concept that teh Renaissance was a "rebirth" or "resurgence" of classical humanism
John Wyclif
English theologian whose objections to Roman Catholic doctrine anticipated the Protestant Reformation (1328-1384).
(Late Renaissance) an art that showed distorted figures and confusing themes and may have reflected the growing sense of crisis in the Italian world
Protestant Reformation
Christian movement that started with Lutheranism in the middle ages that broke from the Catholic Church
Jacob Burckhart
Claimed the Renaissance period was in distinct contrast to the Middle Ages; coined the tern "Renaissance"
Sofonisba Anguissola
A great woman painter of the Renaissance who was possibly the first to paint girls and women playing chess and laughing; she also painted several self-portraits.
the everyday speech of the people (as distinguished from literary language)
Max Weber
German social scientist who coined the term "Protestant Work Ethic" in 1904
Lorenzo Valla
(1406-1457) On Pleasure, and On the False Donation of Constantine, which challenged the authority of the papacy. Father of modern historical criticism.
What is the Renaissance?
A philosophical movement
the time period from the 1300s-1600s
T/F Henry 8 broke ties with Catholic Church when the pope refused to annul his marriage
Divine comedy 1
Dante imagines that ancient Roman poet Virgil is guiding him on a tour of Hell (inferno)
The treatment of light and shade in a work of art, especially to give an illusion of depth.
The Birth of Venus
Painted by Botticelli, depicts a nacked woman, got controversy from church, showed human desire
Queen Elizabeth
was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. Sometimes called The Virgin Queen, Gloriana, or Good Queen Bess, Elizabeth was the fifth and last monarch of the Tudor dynasty.
Christopher Marlowe
dramatist and poet who evoked the the Elizabethan elite's unabashed struggle for position and power
Sandro Botticelli
One of the leading painters of the Florentine renaissance, developed a highly personal style. Painted The Birth of Venus and Springtime
French-Spanish Wars 1527
Fights between France and Spain to control states in Italy.
Cervantes, Don Quixote
Wrote one of the greatest peices of Spanish lit, it criticized excessive religious idealism and chivalric romance
Scientific method
period in the 1500s and 1600s in which scientific thinkers challenged traditional ideas and relied on observation and experimentation
Papal Indulgences
money paid to the church to reduce a persons time in purgatory
Jane Seymour
Queen of England as the third wife of Henry VIII and mother of Edward VI (1509-1537) died 2 weeks after son was born
Age of Exploration
By the end of the 1400's, European sea captains made voyages of exploration and set the stage for an expansion of European power around the world.
Catherine of Aragon
1st wife of King Henry 8, Mother of Mary
Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Rafael
Name the big 3 Italian Renaissance artists
Against the Thievish, Murderous Hordes of Peasants
pamphlet in which Luther condemned the peasant revolts and urged leaders to crush the rebels
What affect did the creation of Anglicanism have?
opened the way for further protestant reform in England
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