AP stat midterm Flashcards

Terms Definitions
 z-score (x-mean)/standard deviation Unimodal Having one mode (bump) outlier an unusually different data point Treatment the specific experimental condition applied to the units. The strength of the linear relationship increases as r moves away from this number 0 experiment a procedure for investigating the effect of experimental conditions (which are manipulated by the experimenter) on a response variable Blocking using extraneous factors to create experimental groups that are similar with respect to those factors, thereby filtering out their effect categorical (quantitative) graphs bar charts, pie charts level the experimental values that are chosen for each factor regression process of finding a regression equation Explanatory Variable attempts to explain the observed outcomes Multistage Sample When we combing several sampling methods response bias preconceived notions of a person answering [a survey] which may alter the experiments purpose, anything in the survey design that influences the responses from the sample. undercoverage occurs when some groups in the population are left out of the process of choosing the sample Independent variable a variable in correlation and regression analysis that can be controlled or manipulated histogram a display for quantitative data that uses adjacent bars to represent counts or percentages of values falling in each interval Sampling observing or gathering data about a portion of the population. Can be very accurate if sampling is done correctly. Samples should be selected using a method of random selection. Statistically Significant An observed effect so large that rarely occur by chance frequency distribution a table that displays frequencies and sometimes relative and cumulative relative frequencies (categorical data), possible values (discrete numerical data), or class intervals (continuous data) Area Principle Each data value should be represented by same amount of area replicate each treatment on many units to reduce chance variation in the results Third Quartile The median of the observations whose position in the ordered list is to the right of the location of the overall median. Cluster sample a sample obtained by selecting a preexisting or natural group, called a cluster, and using the members in the cluster for the sample frequency table lists the categories for a categorical variable and displays the counts for each category Standard Normal Curve the standardized normal curve with parameters N(0,1) mean = 0, standard deviation = 1 *Areas under the curve are listed along with standardized values on the Z-table (left tail areas) *Z-value: a standardized measure in terms of standard deviations FORMULA: discrete variable variable that may assume only a countable, and usually finite, number of values nonlinear data growth that cannot be described with a line. two types are: exponential and power Observational Study A study based on data where no manipulation has been employed Blind Experiment an experiment in which the subjects do not know whether they are members of the experimental group or the control group. Random sample a sample obtained by using random or chance methods; a sample for which every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected right skewed distribution a distribution with a concentration of data on the lower end and the tail on the right Categorical Data data that is not numerical in nature, can be classified in groups.; disploayed in bar charts, pie charts, tables, etc. population mean, mu the average x value in an entire population Law of Large Numbers The long run probability will approach its theoretical probability sample variance and standard deviation the most frequently used measures of variability for sample data random variable a quantity that takes any of a set of values with specified probabilities.
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