AP Statistics Vocabulary Flashcards

Terms Definitions
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Population mean
strata
group of similar individuals
Bias
systematic favoring of an outcome
Factors
The explanatory variables in an experiment.
sample
a representative subset of a population, examined in hope of learning about the population
stratified
sampling design in which the population is divided into several strata, and random samples are then drawn from each stratum
experiment
treatment is imposed on experimental units
1 Histogram
used adjacent bars to show distribution of quantitative variable
Stratified Sampling
Dividing a population into subgroups (strata) and then taking a separate random sample from each stratum.
outliers
extreme values that don't appear to belong with the rest of the data
systematic sample
a sample drawn by selecting individuals systematically from a sampling frame
population parameter
mathematical measures taken from the entire population like the population mean and standard deviation
cluster
sampling design in which entire groups are chosen at random
disjoint sets
sets which contain no common elements
quantitative variable
takes numerical values for which arithmetic operations such as adding and averaging make sense
Center
A value that divides the observations so that about half take larger values and about half have smaller values.
2 Median
middle value. Usually used when data is skewed
Measurement Bias
A form of inaccurate measurement in which the data consistently overestimate or underestimate the true value of an event.
standardized value
value found by subtracting the mean and dividing by the standard deviation
matched design
when our data values are not independent of one another and are related somehow to one subject - it is a form of blocking
outcome
an individual result of a component of a simulation
categorical variable
one of two variable types; determines which of several CATEGORIES an individual belongs to; qualitative; adjectives; anything that falls into a CATEGORY; displayed with bar charts & pie graphs (ex. red, blonde, brunette hair color) (ex. letter grades on a test)
Dotplot
A picture of numerical data in which each observation is represented by a dot on or above a horizontal measurement scale
Voluntary Response Sample
A voluntary response sample consists of people who choose themselves by responding to a general appeal.
3 Census
A sample that consists of the entire population
data table
an arrangement of data in which each row represents a case and each column represents a variable
single blind
when either the subjects or the people who have contact with them do not know which treatment a subject has received
Intersection
The event "A and B" consists of all experimental outcomes that are in both the events A and B
SD( X-Y) (only when x and y are independent)
√(Var(X)+Var(Y))
Association Doesn't Imply Causation
An association between an explanatory variable x and a response variable y, even if it is very strong, is not by itself good evidence that changes in x actually cause changes in y.
disjoint or mutually exclusive
two events that have no common outcomes
ladder of powers
places in order the effects that many re-expressions have on the data
density curve
a curve with an area of exactly 1 (100%) beneath it; alawys on or above the horizontal axis; median divides area under curve in half; mean is the 'balance point'; when mean and median are the same, curve is symmetric
Choosing an SRS
Choose an SRS in two steps:
Step 1: Label. Assign a numerical label to every individual in the population.
Step 2: Table. Use Table B to select labels at random.
4 Statistically Significant
When the p value falls below the alpha level
Strength of a relationship
Determined by how close the points in the scatterplot lie to a simple form such as a line.
Normal Model (sampling distribution model)
If we draw repeated random samples of the same size, n, from some population and measure the proportion we get for each sample, then the collection of these proportions will pile up around the underlying population proportion, p, in such a way that a historgram of the sample proportions can be modeled by ______.
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