Terms  Definitions 

SD(^p) 
√(pq/n)

heterogeneous 
not similar in makeup

block 
a subdivision of the population

1 multimodal 
having more than two modes

level 
the specific values that the experimenter chooses for a factor

multistage 
sampling schemes that combine several sampling methods

principals of exponential design 
control, randomization, replication

individual 
a distinct, indivisible entity; a single thing, being, instance, or item.

Quantitative Variable 
Takes numerical values for which arithmetic operations such as adding and averaging make sense.

rescaling 
multiplying each data value by a constant multiplies both the measures of position and the measures of spread by that constant

standard deviation 
the square root of the variance

outliers 
values that fall outside the overall pattern of the data

experiments 
study in which subjects are randomly assigned to treatments

unimodal 
a description of a distribution with one major peak

replication 
many subjects to reduce variation in results

Stemplot 
Each observation is separated into a stem consisting of all but the rightmost digit and a leaf, the final digit. Good for small data sets.

design 
to prepare the preliminary sketch or the plans for (a work to be executed), esp. to plan the form and structure of:

4 Outcome 
Value that is measured or reported from a trial

Systematic Sampling 
Asking people based on a pattern (choosing every 5th person in line).

normal model 
useful family of models for unimodal, symmetric distributions

modified boxplot 
a display for quantitative data that graphs the fivenumber summary on an axis and shows outliers of they exist

statistically significant 
when an observed difference is too large to believe that it is likely to have occurred naturally

Mode 
The value(s) that occur most often in a data set.

Sample 
A part of the population selected for study

Union 
The union of any collection of events is the event that at least one of the collection occurs.

3 Response Bias 
Anything in a survery desin that influences responses

Binomial probability model 
appropriate for a random variable that counts the number of successes in a fixed number of Bernoulli trials

dotplot 
graphs a dot for each case against a single axis

systematic sample 
a sample is drawn from the population by following a systematic plan to give every object in the population an equal chance to be chosen but all possible groups can not be formed

pth percentile 
this of a distribution is the value such that p percent of the observations fall at or below it

variance 
The ______ of the sum or difference of two independent random variables is the sum of their variances.

Probability Rules 
Rule 1. The probability P(A) of any event A satisfies 0 ≤ P(A) ≤ 1.
Rule 2. If S is the sample space in a probability model, then P(S) = 1. Rule 3. The complement of any event A is the event that A does not occur, written as Acomplement. The complement rule states that P(Acomplement) = 1  P(A) Rule 4. Two events A and B are disjoint if they have no outcomes in common and so can never occur simultaneously. If A and B are disjoint, P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) This is the addition rule for disjoint events. 
2 Slope 
b1 gives a value in y units per x

regression line 
the linear equation yhat = b0 + b1x that satisfies the least squares criterion

SRS 
A sample drawn in such a way that each sample size "n" has the same chance of being selected

Equally likely outcomes 
If a random phenomenon has k possible outcomes, all equally likely, then each individual outcome has probability 1/k. The probability of any event A is
P(A) = (count of outcomes in A)/(count of outcomes in S) = (count of outcomes in A)/k 
1 Far outlier 
any value that is more than 3 (IQR) from either end of a box plot

Five number summary 
Min. value, Q1, M, Q3, Max. value. Use for skewed distributions.

standard normal table (Table A) 
a table of areas under the standard Normal curve. The table entry for each value z is the area under the curve to the left of z

Standard deviation parameter of the sampling distribution model for the mean, ȳ, SD(ȳ). 
Only goes down by the square root of the sample size. (ϑ/√n)

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