AP Statistics- Part V Flashcards

Terms Definitions
SD(^p)
√(pq/n)
heterogeneous
not similar in makeup
block
a subdivision of the population
1 multimodal
having more than two modes
level
the specific values that the experimenter chooses for a factor
multistage
sampling schemes that combine several sampling methods
principals of exponential design
control, randomization, replication
individual
a distinct, indivisible entity; a single thing, being, instance, or item.
Quantitative Variable
Takes numerical values for which arithmetic operations such as adding and averaging make sense.
rescaling
multiplying each data value by a constant multiplies both the measures of position and the measures of spread by that constant
standard deviation
the square root of the variance
outliers
values that fall outside the overall pattern of the data
experiments
study in which subjects are randomly assigned to treatments
unimodal
a description of a distribution with one major peak
replication
many subjects to reduce variation in results
Stemplot
Each observation is separated into a stem consisting of all but the rightmost digit and a leaf, the final digit. Good for small data sets.
design
to prepare the preliminary sketch or the plans for (a work to be executed), esp. to plan the form and structure of:
4 Outcome
Value that is measured or reported from a trial
Systematic Sampling
Asking people based on a pattern (choosing every 5th person in line).
normal model
useful family of models for unimodal, symmetric distributions
modified boxplot
a display for quantitative data that graphs the five-number summary on an axis and shows outliers of they exist
statistically significant
when an observed difference is too large to believe that it is likely to have occurred naturally
Mode
The value(s) that occur most often in a data set.
Sample
A part of the population selected for study
Union
The union of any collection of events is the event that at least one of the collection occurs.
3 Response Bias
Anything in a survery desin that influences responses
Binomial probability model
appropriate for a random variable that counts the number of successes in a fixed number of Bernoulli trials
dotplot
graphs a dot for each case against a single axis
systematic sample
a sample is drawn from the population by following a systematic plan to give every object in the population an equal chance to be chosen but all possible groups can not be formed
pth percentile
this of a distribution is the value such that p percent of the observations fall at or below it
variance
The ______ of the sum or difference of two independent random variables is the sum of their variances.
Probability Rules
Rule 1. The probability P(A) of any event A satisfies 0 ≤ P(A) ≤ 1.
Rule 2. If S is the sample space in a probability model, then P(S) = 1.
Rule 3. The complement of any event A is the event that A does not occur, written as Acomplement. The complement rule states that P(Acomplement) = 1 - P(A)
Rule 4. Two events A and B are disjoint if they have no outcomes in common and so can never occur simultaneously. If A and B are disjoint,
P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B)
This is the addition rule for disjoint events.
2 Slope
b1 gives a value in y units per x
regression line
the linear equation y-hat = b0 + b1x that satisfies the least squares criterion
SRS
A sample drawn in such a way that each sample size "n" has the same chance of being selected
Equally likely outcomes
If a random phenomenon has k possible outcomes, all equally likely, then each individual outcome has probability 1/k. The probability of any event A is
P(A) = (count of outcomes in A)/(count of outcomes in S)
= (count of outcomes in A)/k
1 Far outlier
any value that is more than 3 (IQR) from either end of a box plot
Five number summary
Min. value, Q1, M, Q3, Max. value. Use for skewed distributions.
standard normal table (Table A)
a table of areas under the standard Normal curve. The table entry for each value z is the area under the curve to the left of z
Standard deviation parameter of the sampling distribution model for the mean, ȳ, SD(ȳ).
Only goes down by the square root of the sample size. (ϑ/√n)
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