religions of the world Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Benedire
Bless
vivaha
marriage
sawm
fasting i
satan
the devil
Messiah
Christ in Hebrew
41 AD
-Caligula assassinated
Tartarus
place of punishment
abraham
founder of islam I
jahilliyah
unbelief (pre islamic era)
Holy Books of Hinduism
Vedas
Mosque
the muslim place of worship
Upanishads
philosophical reflections on the Vedas
HINDUISM Sacred Text
Vedas & Upanishads
belief
the acceptance of factual statements
Long history of persecution, prejudice, and captivity by Egyptians, Assyrians, Babylonians, Romans, medieval Christians, Russians, and modern Germans
Judaism
dream time
mythological past when ancestors walked the earth and marked out the territory belonging to a particular group. acknowledged by the aboriginal people of australia. knowledge is secret!
yamakah
jewish head covering worn in synagoge
Who authored the work De Principiis?
Origen
civil religion
a quasi-religious loyalty binding individuals in a basically secular society
Islam
Major world religion -- litereally means "submission; to surrender oneself."
that quality or assemblage of qualities which makes a person what he is, as distinct from other persons
personality
li
concucian virtue of "propriety, right form"
animism
belief in spiritual being or agencies
Mana
impersonal sacred force, so named in Melanesia and Polynesia
Synagogue
house of prayer where scriptures were read and Yahweh was worshiped, place of discussion for legal settlements, local school. Pharisees' place
J Hanukah
big war destroyed everythin, dark times, find oil that last 8 days instead of 1, light was a symbol of hope in that time
Books in the Bible are called...
The Scriptures
true or falsemaking the right choices has a positive affect
true
Shakti
power of glance, word, touch, or thought of the guru
The divine power of destruction that makes for a new life
Shiva
the use of mechanical, chemical, or medical procedures to prevent conception from taking place as a result of sexual intercourse
contraception
KRISHNA
encarnation of hindu god vishu who appears as main character in avadghada
Believers try to live according to duty - dharma
Hinduism
genetic creation
dieties procreate, then universe is born, reproduction of dieties was the world/universe
Terapanthi
Thirteen, member of the newest Jain sect.
Karma
the effects of a person's actions that determine his destiny in his next incarnation
caliph
a title taken by Muslim rulers who claimed religious authority to rule
Deists
This group of people believed in God, but did not follow any one Religion.
Responsibility
The demand for an account of one's actions before authority, oneself, and God
Orthodox
stand by a historical form of their religion.
buddhist councils
3 months after the passing of buddha

100 years after death of B (444 BC)

called circa 250 BC
in their belief in the "___________" "brotherhood of man" "good will to men" "do unto others"
the golden rule
Orthodox Judaism
Jews that follow the Torah very closely, speak Hebrew at services, follow Kosher rules, believe Moses wrote the Torah
What famous document did Martin Luther nail to the door of the Church at Wittenburg?
95 theses
hindu
a person, esp. of northern India, who adheres to Hinduism.
what are the senses/levels of the bible
LAMA
Literal-straight out account
Allegory-deeper reality related to jesus
Moral-lesson/truth
Analogical-prophecy about future
Divine Revelation
Refers to this free gift of God's self-communication by which he makes known the mystery of his Divine Plan
Who seduces Timat when she is about to seek revenge?
Marduk
Who are the Aryans?
Combination of Iranians and Indians anciently
What is the Hebrew name for this group of five books that includes Genesis and Exodus?
Torah
he influence exerted by a peer group in encouraging a person to change his or her attitudes, values, or behavior in order to conform to group norms.
Peer Pressure
Morocco: feast of sacrifice
the king publicly plunges a dagger into a ram's throat...a reenactment of muhammad's performance of the sacrifice on the same day in the seventh century. men who are heads of households do this all over the country and then dab its blood on their faces.
What is a dogma
A Doctrine taught under the fullest solemnity of the Church1. Trinity - God is the father, son, holy spirit 2. Incarnation - God became human in Jesus
"What is scripture?"
A text which is set apart as especially normative for worship, teaching and doctrine, and as a guide for daily life
How many people came to New England from 1630-1642?
80 000 people
intelligent design (ID)
the idea that life is so complex that it could only have been created by intelligent design
collaborator of the truth
Pope Benedict X1 - His Motto, His lifes Work etc
The Throne of the Liberator
the Cross of Christ is considered to be the throne - the liberation refers to the effect of the crucifixion and resurrection of Christ on all mankind, i.e freedom from sin and death
Tell the story of Ruth & Boaz
ruth gleans in boaz' fields, naomi asks boaz to marry her & he does
Possible evidence in favor of the historicity of the book of Exodus
Moses's name is egyptian, was born poor became rich and went back to being poor which is usually the opposite so they wouldn't have made this up, 10 commandments were written as a Suzerian contract which is similar to ruling parties at the time
What is the primary virtue that the author of Hebrews seems to be trying to develop in his audience?
Courage so that they will "finish the race" and be able to attain their final telos.
the core of the taoist ethic is let nature take its course or action without action. what describes this ethic
wu wei. yu wei is action with action
influx
increase
Wu-wei
non-resistance
Bodhi (Buddhism)
Enlightenment
moses
hebrew prophet
geometric shapes
islam symbol
Puranas
stories of trimurti
Nirvana
Like Hindu Moksha
Polytheism
Belief in multiple deities.
bible
the scriptures held sacred
filial piety
respecting your elders
blessing/curse
passage describing God's grace bestowed upon someone
brahman
foundation of everything; pantheistic conception (god is everything and everything is god)
atman
altar, where sacrafice was done
self
in having "holy____" to which people make pilgrammiges. The place may be the birthplace of a founder, or the scene of some important religious incident.
place
Fifth Commandment
You shall not kill
Levi was the head of whom?
Priests
Taoism
philosophical system developed by of Lao-tzu and Chuang-tzu advocating a simple honest life. Scholars, priests, and magicians began to try to live as long as possible by limiting their diet to very little liquid food, or practicing fasting and breath control. Another popular means of extending life was alchemy.
What is a canticle?
song of praise
Why kills Aspu ?
Lesser deity Enki
Ganesh
worshipped to overcome obstacles and upholds dharma
Vedas are divided into four collections of these hymns
samhitas
sapiential literature
wisdom writings categorized. proverbs, ecclesiastes, job
which denomination; they believe in reason, and they do not believe in the concept of original sin
Deism
kumaris
in nepal, hindus and buddhists worship young girls who are thought to be the living embodiment of a goddess. girls who appear at religious events and bless people. when they reach puberty they return to ordinary life and receive a monthly stipend
Peter
chief apostle of Jesus; became a missionary and first bishop of Antioch and Rome.
Joshua
takes over after Moses (who's not allowed to pass into Holy Land) and does all the military conquests
formal expression of praise within a liturgy
doxology
Transubstantiation
-The Catholic doctrine that the bread and wine of the eucharist actually become the body of Christ in their essence, but in their accidents (appearances) appear still to be bread and wine.*The doctrine is an attempt to explain how the believer may actually participate through that eucharist in the life and death of the Lord.
Manifest Destiny
the motivation and rationale for conquest and domination - served as justification for westward expansion in 19th century America

*exemplifies the differences between a border and a frontier
Atharvaveda
hymns and poems for the lower castes
according to budha man would go through several ___________before he would be able to overcome his desires.
rebirths
Who are the Svetambaras?
"white-clads," wear white robes and allow women full participation
The Ethics of happiness Examples
Teleology

Hedoism
Utilitarianism
Bentham
Mill
An important theological figure who initiated the great awakening
Jonathan Edwards
symbol
something used for or regarded as representing something else; a material object representing something, often something immaterial; emblem, token, or sign.
abram goes to egypt b/c of
drought and famine
arminianism
# Humans are naturally unable to make any effort towards salvation (see also prevenient grace). # Salvation is possible only by God's grace, which cannot be merited. # No works of human effort can cause or contribute to salvation.
Compassion65
-is a sense of shared suffering, most often combined with a desire to alleviate or reduce such suffering; to show special kindness to those who suffer.
Pentecost
-The day in the church calendar 50 days after Easter which celebrates the coming of the Holy Ghost to the church.*The liturgical color is red.
one of the youngest religions and one of the largest
islam
scripture
is the sacred writings of a religion that are considered authoratative because people read scripture to learn what is right or wrong
St Ignatius was the first to have reffered to the "Catholic Church"
True
Today found primarly in India - 3rd largest religion
Hinduism
the prayer of union with God, "just being with God"
contemplation
magisterium
the authority and power of the church to teach religious truth.
Chi-rho
1st two letters of the Greek word for Christos; symbol for Jesus Christ
Barmen Declaration
This document was drafted in 1934. It was drafted by Karl Barth on behalf of the Confessing Church. This was written as a way of disagreeing that the Confessing Church should cooperate with the Nazi’s.
ghost dance
And they danced the Ghost Dance during which many participants would faint or enter into a trance where they would see and speak to their dead relations.
cyclical time
belief that time is repetative with no begining or end
Yahweh
Jewish name for God. It means "I am who I am" the Jews believed God was everlasting
eternal existance
what has been always will be, like hinduism, has distinct start
Samaritan Bible number of books
5 books of Moses (in Hebrew)
herod philip
-4 BC to 33/34 AD
-only to rule till death
-got Golan (pop. by gentiles)
-married to herodius, daughter of herod's sis salome but childless
-after death, territory under legate for direct roman rule
Identify character and book of Bible; then explain story and importance.
Joshua
Exodus, Numbers, and Joshua
apprentice, then succeeded Moses
conquered land among tribes of Israel
theology, history, Bible
a wide venue of religious facts and fun tidbits
not associated with the exodus. jews light a candle each day for 8 days. it is thus a festival of lights as a festival of dedication. has become increasingly important for jews in th US because of its proximity to christmas
chanukah (the feast of dedication)
Name 5 sorrowful mysteries
Agony in the garden, scourging at the pillar, crowning with thorns, carrying of cross, crucifixion.
Two promises of Jesus?
To David - Jews
To Abraham - family of God
Who were the three Cappadocian saints?
St Gregory of Nyssa, St Gregory of Nazianzus and St. Basil the Great
what is secularism according to eliade?
denies the existance of the sacred all together
What did Pope Clement VII do/think about Thomas Cardinal Wolsey?
He thought he was a traitor and ordered him back to London to answer charges.
Which form of partition does Paul seem to use in Romans? Give examples of this usage.
Paul seems to be using the 2nd form of partition (identify with opponent and then introduce dispute).

Example: in verses 1-32, Paul seems to be in agreement with his rhetorical opponents, the Jewish converts [this is seen when he lists a stereotypical view of Gentile sinning].

Chapter 2:1, however, contains a shift to first person singular (you who are judging another are doing the very same thing).

Now, Paul's accusation is clear (you are all sinners guilty of the same things). His partition has set up the argument that he will now have to prove.
David
Sannyasin
Brahmin
priests
Rosh Hashannah
mogul empire
Four Noble Truths
-Dukkha-Tanha-Nirodha-Magga
attachments
consequence of ignorance
Loas
spirits of voodoo
kama
(sensual pleasure) - desire
Muslim
One who practices Islam.
Ideal
What people strive for
Holscher Interpretation of Prophets
ecstatic poets
Arhat
person who has reached nirvana
Christians developed their own interpretation of religious persecution based on the Jewish book f daniel
true
cosmogony
the creation of the world
Who is Immanuel?
• Hezekiah• An “otherwise unknown” person• Birth predicted by Isaiah to Ahaz• Assured Ahaz that line would continue
the word for tradition is
hadith
Murti
an image of a Hindu deity
What is Li?
Righteousness; Conformity to prevailing customs, etiquette, manners
The first ancestors received God's revelation in Mesopotamia around 1800 B.C.E
False
Five Pillars
specific religious and ethical requirements for Muslims: the Confession of Faith (Shahada), praying or worship fasting during Ramadan, Wealth sharing and the pilgrimage to MEcca
Sangha
the community of monks and nuns
trikaya
the three bodies of the Buddha
Moksha
release from the birth death cycle
Gautama
The Buddha's family name, meaning "on earth the most victorious." It is a Brahmin name, although the clan was the warrior caste.
Petro
fiery, vengeful, patrons of the slave revolutions of Haiti named "Don Pedro"
Tenochtitlan
Capital City if the Aztec Empire, believed to be the center of the world. Home of the Great Temple, or Serpent Mountain. Site of Present Day Mexico City
Rites of passage
birth, death, suffering, adulthood, marriage, love, tragedy, etc
"puja"
"A hindu ceremony of offering. Mainly performed in the home and in public temples"
Aryans
A nomadic group that migrated into India in 1800-1500 BC, conqured the Dravidians, and began the caste system.
Book of Revelation
last book in the Bible
the first muslim converts were among Mecca's powerful political leaders
false
freedom
when you realize that you are an illusion and that you are brahaman you are free
Wu Wei
"no action" doing only what comes naturally - effortless
who wrote the institutes of the Christian religion
john calvin
what are letters found in the new testament to the early christian communities about God's Revelation in Jesus
epistles
The Holy
a breakthrough to the sacred, an opening to the divine; implies a hierophany.
puja
offerings and ritual in honor of a deity
America's first star, and first to publicize his arrivals
George Whitefield
THE DHARMA FOR BUDDHISM
Four Noble TruthsEightfold PathFive PreceptsThree Marks of ExistenceNirvana
Satnam
A Sikh name for God meaning "The True Name."
What are the Three Fires of Buddhism?
 
Greed, Anger, Illusion
Religion
A means of getting in touch with and of attaining at-onement with "ultimate reality."
Characteristics of Axial Sages
Acquired modern form of consciousness, stronger idea of "I" and "me" - self reflected consciousness; Anxiety about death and the afterlife; Empathy - understanding and seeing everyone as individuals, know everyone feels things like me; finite/infinite - something on edge of the this group existed; Transcendence - beyond sensory experience; Immanence - "deep in us"
Jonathan Edwards & George Whitefield
Revivals, George Whitefield most famous preacher.

1) Faith Perspective: Other terms to understand Religion


Monistic: One underlying substance


Incarnations: Sacred reality invisible. Appears in human form.


Atheism:  Non beleif in deity


Agnostics: Questions the nature of the divine.
Monistic: (in metaphysics) any of various theories holding that there is only one basic substance or principle as the ground of reality, or that reality consists of a single element. Incarnation: From Latin "incarnatus, pp. of incarnare "to make flesh," from in- "in" + caro (gen. carnis) "flesh."Atheism: From Greek the adjective atheos (from privative a- + theos "god") meant "without gods" or "lack of belief in gods"Agnostics: Gk. agnostos "unknown, unknowable," from a- "not" + gnostos "(to be) known" . Sometimes said to be a reference to Paul's mention of the altar to "the Unknown God," but according to Huxley it was coined with ref. to the early Church movement known as Gnosticism (see Gnostic- gnostikos "knowing, able to discern," from gnostos "knowable).
How do Zen Buddhists come to understand truth?
through saton, or enlightenment
Which prophet said “let justice roll down like waters and righteousness like an ever flowing stream….” To what modern leader is this prophet related?
• Amos• MLK (quoted Amos’ statement)
Amos Themes: Interpretation of Old Traditions
Election tradition: Israel's status as Yahweh's special people is the reason why Yahweh's punishment of nation will be especially harsh Day of Yahweh: The day when Yahweh will fight against, not for Israel
What eventually happened to the 2 kingdoms of the Jews?
they were divided and conquered
Solomon’s Wisdom and Downfall? What signals to everyone that Solomon should be king?
Solomon’s wisdom was recognized when he effectively made Jerusalem the religious capital of Israel by building the temple there• Solomon’s fall was because he had to much public debt and had too many wives. • Soloman ask’s God for wisdom and mentoring through out his rein
Isaiah Themes: Emphasis on Zion/Davidic Traditions
Zion/Jerusalem is holy city of God. He resides there and will protect it
Who helps them into the land?
Rahab the prostitute who assisted the Israelite spies
Who and what is Wakan Tanka
He is the Lakotan tribe's vision of the ultimate reality it means great spirit/most sacred/great mysterious/16 seperate dieties
How was the Qur'an written (originally revealed)?
It was revealed from God through the Angel Gabriel to Muhammad?
If the intellect rises into wisdom, and the will does not become married to it, what happens to the intellect then?
It is brought back down and enslaved by the lower willThe intellect comes back down and defiles the will
which of the following is not true of the muslim practice of almsgiving
muslims are required to give away between 5% and 12% of their wealth
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