Renaissance Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Louvre
Paris, France
Sant'Andrea
Mantua, Italy
Villa Capra
Vicenza, Italy
San Francesco
Rimini, Italy
Roman elements of dome
oculus
Chateau de Versailles
Versailles, France
Palazzo del Te
Mantua, Italy
St. Paul's Cathedral
London, England
Three speed hoist
pulled by oxen
Church of San Lorenzo
Florence, Italy
San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane
Rome, Italy
Double shell
has 2 layers, like an onion
Donato Bramante
architect, best work didn't come until he was 60 years old= Tempietto
Revolving lantern
located at oculus, used to place the lantern
Palladio (Andrea di Pietro)
greatest architect of 16th century, goes above and beyond Greek & Roman, if you had a copy of his book you were smart, Thomas Jefferson had one of the first copies, built the Villa Rotonda
popolo grandi
...
Raphael
(1483-1520) Italian Renaissance painter; he painted frescoes, his most famous being The School of Athens.and his Madonnas
Ghiberti
Gates of Paradise; bronze doors
Pico della Mirandola
Embraced Renaissance Hermeticism
-Human potential is unlimited
"You shall have the power, out of your soul's judgement to be reborn into higher forms, which are Divine"

Works:
Oration on the Dignity of Men
Brunelleschi
Italian architect celebrated for his work during the Florentine Renaissance. His greatest achievement is the octagonal ribbed dome of the Florence cathedral.
Who was the Father of Humanism?
Petrarch
Marsilio Ficino
translated Plato's works into Latin
Jimenez de Cisneros
-Isabella's Grand Inquisitor
-Grand achievement: Six volume work that place, Hebrew, Greek & Latin versions of Bible in parallel columns-"Complutensian Polyglot Bible"

Work:
Complutensian Polyglot Bible
Charles VIII
French King who responded to Ludovico's call for help and invaded Italy. Conquered Florence, Papal States, Naples.
Albrecht Dürer
German artist who lived from 1471-1528. Famous for his woodcuts and copper engravings. Influenced by Venetian artists, he was versed in classical teachings and humanism. He was also the first to create printed illustrations in books.
Niccolo Machiavelli
The Prince, modeled after Cesare Borgia (son of Pope)
El Greco
mannerist from Spain; created the Burial of Count Orgaz
The Prince
"ends justifies the means" mentality. Served as source for gaining and maintaining power
Johann Gutenberg
made printing press; spread humanistic literature to rest of Europe
Leonardo Bruni
Biography of Cicero laid foundation of:Civic Humanism

Works:
New Cicero
History of the Florentine people
Alexander VI
Corrupt Spanish pope. He was aided militarily and politically by his son Cesare Borgia, who was the hero of "The Prince".
Leonardo da Vinci
Italian painter and sculptor and engineer and scientist and architect.
Christian Humanism
a movement that developed in northern Europe during the renaissance combining classical learning with the goal of reforming the catholic church
Jacob Burckhardt
a Swiss historian who wrote "The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy." Argued that the revival of ancient learning gave birth to new secular and scientific vales. Thought the Middle Ages was bad, Renaissance was super awesome
oligarchy
form of government in which a few people have the power
Francesco Ximenes de Cisneros
reformed Spanish clergy; Grand Inquisitor of Spanish Inquisition
Jacques Lefevre d'Etables
French humanist; produced 5 versions of Psalms
Henry VII
The first Tudor king that worked to establish a strong monarchical government and ended the private wars of nobles in England.
Thomas More's Utopia
created an ideal society; saw that accumulation of property/gap between rich and poor was root cause of society's evils
Encomienda
A grant of land made by Spain to a settler in the Americas, including the right to use Native Americans as laborers on it
Jan van Eyck
Flemish painter who was a founder of the Flemish school of painting and who pioneered modern techniques of oil painting (1390-1441)
Who wrote the Oration on the Dignity of Man?
Pico della Mirandola
rebirth
renaissance
Ginger
-India/East Asia
Durer
Gothic Woodcuts
Galileo?
publicized Copernicus' theories.
Protestant
all non-Catholic Christians
vernacular
a person's native language
Martin Luther
-German Monk
-1517->Ninety-five theses
gutenburg
inventer of printing press
REPETITION OF CONSONANT SOUNDS
ALLITERATION
Charles II
came after Oliver Cromwell
humanities
subjects like: history, literature, and philosophy; studied by humanists
Shakespeare
English playwright, poet, and actor
wrote The Praise of Folly
Erasmus
1474
St. Sebastian, Andre Pollaiuolo, Panel, Oratory of S. Sebastian, Santissimo Annunziata, Florence
Machiavelli
Renaissance writer; formerly a politician, wrote The Prince, a work on ethics and government, describing how rulers maintain power by methods that ignore right or wrong; accepted the philosophy that "the end justifies the means."
Culture
a certain way a person lives
alcuinm
leading scholar brought in by charlemagne. wrote epistola de litteris colendis
poet laureat
title Petrarch revived for self-promotion in 1341
Ciambue
1290 madonna and child byzantine tradition, influenced by classical sculpture proto-renaissance
monarchy
strong central government ruled by King
Straight
immediately, when used in a Shakespearean context (page 347).
humanism:
Humanists studied the liberal arts. Grammar, rhetoric, poetry, moral philosophy or ethics, and history, all based on the writings of ancient Greek and Roman authors. Humanism is the most important literary movement associated with the Renaissance
Define patron-
wealthy people who supports artists.
what are characteristics of the paitings of renaissance painters in flanders?
realists.
murky
obscure or thick with mist, haze
Descartes
French philosopher who believed that one should question all assumptions efore accepting them and whose first truth was "I think, therefore, I am"
Vermeer
all painting had pearl in it.
"German da Vinci"
what Durer is known as
lorenzo medici
marries clarice orsini. father was piero. well-prepared and well- liked. plot against medici and younger brother guiliano. stabbed during conspiracy and survived. goes to naples and makes himself a prisoner and made a peace agreement. government run like a mofia and helps ordinary people of florence. became very ill and scared for the furture of the dynasty. called savonarola for judgment and basically damned him to hell.
improvements
growth of banking and trade spread luxury goods all of Europe and enabled merchants tp gain fortunes; kings began to turn their kingdoms into nations
van eyek
italian painter who developed oil based paint
tempestuous
(adj.) characterized by or subject to tempests/a violent commotion
City-State
An independent state consisting of a city and its surrounding territory.
Princely Courts
where despots or oligarchs lived, conducted business, and displayed their wealth and patronage of the arts
Medici
Patrons of the arts; most powerful family in Florence
Albert Durer
German artist used Italian techniques of realism. The German "Leonardo".
Civic Humanism
the individual is responsible for applying his knowledge for public service
Nicolaus Copernicus
-published the Revolutions of the Heveanly Spheres
-proposed the heliocentric theory, saying that sun stands at the center of the universe
knot
unit of speed-one nautical mile an hour
John Wyclif(fe)
Oxford don (professor). Late 1300s. Early cry for reform. Critical of Church's wealth. Said clergy not needed for communication to God. Challenged papacy. Taught salvation only thru Bible. Translated Bible into English from Latin. Had support of Lollards. Branded as heretics. Opposed Eucharist. After his death was tried for heresy, found guilty, bones exhumed, books burnt.
Merchants/Burghers/Bourgeoisie
In the medieval feudal caste system the third estate; they were becoming more and more important as time goes on and they caused some serious problems for the nobles and church
Giovanni de Medici
Medici who stablished headquarters, left fortune and patronage for the arts
"David" by Donatello
The first free-form bronze statue since Roman times
francisco pazzi
head of pazzi conspiracy and pazzi family
humanism
based on study of the classics, works of Greece and Rome
Why?
people wanted to see what they could learn from the past
Filippo Brunelleschi
an architect in the REnaissance who designed a dome for a cathedral
Flemish, developed oil based paints, layered paints, created variety of subtle colors in clothing and jewels, displayed realistic details and revealed personality of subjects
Jan van Eyck
renaissance
the time that the interest in the ancient world sparked a new era of creativity and learning in western europe, rebirth
miguel de cervantes is best known for?
don quixote.
French
Medici rule ends when the ____ King attacks Florence during an invasion of northern Italy
Inquisition
attempt to convert jew and muslims to catholicism and most of them were expelled or killed which destroyed all of spains merchants because those two classes were the merchants of spain
Indulgences
sale of time soul spends in purgatory for sins
Arnolfini and His Bride
-Bruge Belgium
-Marrying his wife
-Wealthy merchant
-Furs and nice decor
Hundred Years' War
1337->1453, between France & England. Over English claims to territory in France. Battles in France at Crecy, Poitiers, Agincourt. Longbows helped the English in early stages. Patriotism fueled in both countries but especially England. Parliament increased powers. Nobles unruly because king depended on them for soldiers. Joan of Arc revived French spirit. England lost all except Calais. Costly for both. English nobles kept fighting each other after war -> War of Roses. One of several disasters/disruptions of 14th and 15th centuries.
Literary, musical, athletic, scholarly
Some characteristics of a "Renaissance man", as shown by King Henry VIII
girolamo savonarola
an anti renaissance man who was a thorn in the side of the medici
Northern Renaissance
Focus on arts and literature were more spiritual and less secular then in Italy.
More focus on Religion.
Ex: Cervantes, Shakespeare, Erasmus.
Marchiavelli
wrote a guide for rulers on how to gain and maintain power, book looked at real rulers in an age of ruthless power politics
tragic flaw
the character of a tragic hero that leads to his downfall
Vascow da Gama
made first journey from Europe to India
indulgence
an official pardon for a sin given by the pope in return for money
Hans Holbein the Younger
Painted Erasmus, Thomas More and King Henry VIII of England
quatrain
4 line stanza or poem; a group of 4 lines unified by a rhyme scheme, in a Shakespearan sonnet, the 3 quatrains express related ideas or examples
interest
a fee that borrows pay for the use of someone else's money
People became interested in ancient writings and became more inquisitive and creative
How can the intellectual environment of the Renaissance be described (a sentence)?
1who was the humanist writer of the in praise of folly that was the most infuential writer of the northern renaissance?
1jan van eyck
The Printing Press and its Impact
Books became more available and more people learned how to read and write.
what were some examples of the city?
twisting streets, low buildings, good curb appeal, narrow buildings, housing above shops, and colorful buildings
Michelangelo David, Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel
A statue of David where David is portrayed as a man and looks contemplative. Sistine Chapel painted by Michelangelo between 1508 and 1512, at the commission of Pope Julius II, is one of the most renowned artworks of the High Renaissance.
In the 15th century, who began to support art?
individuals and oligarchs in order to glorify themselves and their families > individual portrait emerged
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