Renaissance 8 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Renaissance
Rebirth
Epithalamia
wedding songs
Protestant
against Church Lutheran
Protest
Ptolemy
Geocentric "Earth-centered" theory
Free thought/actions; naturalism; question the church
Humanism
materialism
people want more stuff
Albrecht Durer
knowledge in Geometry
woodcutter
scientific illustrator
marble
Michelangelo's sculptures were usually done with...
Pieter Bruegel
painted of peasants
Oil Paintings
Paited "A Peasant Feast"
raphael
created the schools of Athens
erasmus
poked fun at church officials
johann gutenberg
invented the printing press
"jacqueries"
massive insurrections of peasants. France, 1358. Rebellion of workers against price and wage controls imposed by govt. in wake of Black Death and labor shortages. "Jacque" was the somewhat derogatory term used to describe the French peasant. Some now even questioned the whole class structure in late medieval Europe.
Michelangelo
sculptor and artist; painted the Sistine Chapel's ceiling; sculpted the statue of David and Cieta; designed the dome for St. Peter's Cathedral in Vatican City
guild
an association in a particular trade
Machiavelli
from Florence, different from other humanists in that he didn't care about virtue, but practicality
Giotto
lamentation 1310, 3d bodies situated in real space, backs towards viewer.
Vivaldis?
Italian brothers, sail west through straits of Gibraltar.
Equivocate
to purposely mislead or deceive without technically doing so
great schism
severing of christian community, division of roman empire
Dante
wrtoe Divine Comedy; voyage through heaven, Hell. Purpose of man's life and reward and punishment in the afterlife: Individulism
Antiphonal
listening to sound from different sources.
jesuits
Members of the society of Jesus.
Latin Bible
First printed book (by Gutenberg)
James II
follows in his father's footsteps, eventually abdicates throne and goes to Scotland
Manor
land and property under a lord's control
italian renaissance
europeans who believed they witnesed rebirth of greek/roman worlds, lack of centralized power
Sir Thomas Moore
English statesman who wrote Utopia-everyone equal
Utopia
Book by Thomas Moore on perfect world
monarchy
government ruled by a king or queen
a lyrical poem that celebrated the pleasures of simple, rural life
Pastoral
MANTEGNA
carried on Masaccio's work; Padua and Mantua; historical depictions; murals about the legend of St. James
James VI
patronized Shakespeare and sponsored a new translation of the Bible
galley
then-warship propelled by oars and a sail
now-ship's kitchen
Ghibelline
during the Italian Ren these were pro-imperial (Holy Roman Emperor) faction in endemic warfare betw. city states.
Granada
The Muslim kingdom that Spain later conquered. In 1502, the Muslims were forced to convert to Christianity or be expelled or killed.
Lorenzo de Medici
padronism, paying artists to paint
aside
a brief comment from one character to another or to the audience
Loggia
a roofed arcade or gallery with open sides stretching along the front or side of a building
100 Year War
French vs. English fight for power
Hans Holbein
painted a portrait of King Henry VIII
copernicus
created a theory tat the earth orbits the sun and rotates on its axis
Ignatious Loyola
Founded the society of Jesus resisted the speed of Protstantism wrote SPIRITUAL EXCERCISES.
who was responsible for inventing the movable type printing press in europe?
johann gutenberg
ONE THING IS SPOKEN OR WRITTEN ABOUT AS IF IT WERE ANOTHER
METAPHOR
heresy
from the greek word meaning to choose, it is the rejection of the accepted doctrine of the group by a member of the same group
Henry VII:
1485-1509, First Tudor king of England after gaining throne by force. Brought England out of War of Roses, restored order and established strong monarchy. suspended livery and maintenance, encouraged trade, balanced budget, established Star Chamber for law & order.
John Donne
Who was the "playboy to preacher" who was a descendent of St. Thomas More, was a metaphysical poet, who abandoned and later wrote against Catholicism, and was a Protestant dean?
Urbino
location of court in "The Book of the Courtier"
Johannes Gutenberg
printed the first full edition of the bible; developed the printing press which started the printing revolution
Leonardos illegitimacy
because of this, he taught himself to write, read, and think, writes left and right handed
a krumphorn
beginning of the 15th century, a reed instrument. Like blowing over a soda bottle, sounded rispey.
laughed
leo offered to sell his ideas in times of crises, but was often _____ at the unbelievable ideas
Fresco
a durable method of painting on a wall by using watercolors on wet plaster
Humanist History
took a new view of history: scientific history (taking the roles God and miracles out of history)
vellum
a fine parchment made of the skin of a newly born lamb, calf, or goat, highly prized for writing
Pietro de Medici
was the youngest son of Cosimo de Medici
Pope Leo X
He labeled Martin Luther a heretic and excommunicated him.
what was literature about?
new ideas, new technology for books, more readers
School of Athens
a fresco by the artist, Raphael. It is a grandly conceived portrayal of the masters of Western philosophy. It is virtually a perfect example of Renaissance technique. It depicts Plato and Aristotle surrounded by the great scientists and philosopher of antiquity, who are portrayed with features of Raphael's famous contemporaries, including da Vinci and Michelangelo.
Name 4 major Italian city states
Milan, Florence, Genoa, Venice, Pisa, Romagna (Papal States)
1st thing Renaissance could not have taken form without!
Economic Growth and Spread of Wealth
How did Spain strengthen its royal authorities?
1. hermandades tamed the rebellious aristocracy
2. reconstruction of the royal council
3. made alliance with Spanish pope Alexander VI to have the right to appoint bishops
why was leonardo da vinci a renaissance man?
he was a painter, sculptor, inventor, and scientist.
Who were the Medici and how did they maintain control over Florence?
They were merchants and bankders who controlled Florence through their personal wealth and prestige as patrons of the arts
Zuccone
Donatello
Josquin Desprez
Motet
Galileo
Invented Telescope
1517
date the reformation
focus?
individual achievment/worldly concerns: individualism: humanism
architecture
reached new heights
S
stop spread of protestants
Humanism
Way of thinking and learning
Botticelli
painter, Primavera, Birth of Venus
leonardo da vinci
was an architect,engineer,painter,sculptor,and scientist
Henry
"the navigator", effectively started the age of exploration
Puritanism
Espoused rejection of Catholic ritual
sailors/ship builders
What were Venetians known for?
Petrarch
Father of humanism, claimed middle ages as dar Ages, famous poetry
Minor Guilds
Smaller associations [ex: bakers, tanners, etc]
Queen Elizabeth (Elizabethan Settlement)
Queen of England
Niccolo Macchiavelli
Important theorist, wrote "The Prince"
Main idea was "the end justifies the means"
indulgences
pardons for sins, could be bought
Tribute Money, from Brancacci Chapel Interior, Florence
Massacio
Secular-
concerned with worldly rather than spiritual matters
Nicholas of Cusa
1401-1464, Rhinelander, churchman whose mystical philosophy entered into the later development of mathematics and science.
wealthy
Florence was the first to grow _________
secularism
The belief in material things instead of religious things. This was a shift away from Medieval thinking.
individualism
another basic feature of the Italian renaissance stressing personality, uniqueness, genius, self-consciousness
Renaissance Developments
Why did the Reformation Succeed- Printing press and the move toward vernacular literate broadcasts Luther's message to a wider audience at greater speed previously known
Peter Paul Rubens
blended realistic tradition with classical themes and artistic freedom of the italian renaissance.
The Prince
book written by Niccolo Machiavelli; advised rulers how to obtain power and keep it
counter-reformation
major reform effort in the Catholic church; fostered a more spiritual outlook, clarified church doctrines, and pursued a campaign against Protestantism
Humanities
subjects that come from ancient rome such at rhetoric and poetry
Calvinism.
Predestination was one of the main doctrines of
Indulgence
Forgiveness; trying to be forgiven of sin
predestination
the belief that god has already predetermined from birth wether you are or aren't going to heaven
Mercator Map
shows directions accurately; sizes and distances are distorted
Brunelleschi
C: Ad. 1425.
Studied optical theory and applied it to paintings.
Drew optical geometrical grid lines on canvas to create proportion.
Ninety-five Theses
Luther nailed his list to Wittenburg
sailed around South America to Philippines
crew circumnavigated the globe
Ferdinand Magellan
Bocaccio, Decameron
his most famous work consisted of tales that were a social commentary ofn 14th century Italy. His goal was to impart wisdom of human character and behavior. He also wrote his most famous work in Italian.
Plebeians
in ancient Rome, member of the lower class, including farmers, artisans, merchants, and traders.
Wyclif and Lollards
Church Reforms; showed disgust against clerical corruption and said religious writers should use vernacular lang.
realism
: an artistic style dating from the Renaissance that attempts to visually represent people and objects as they exist naturally (the Mona Lisa)
humanists
roger ascham was a leader of these, focused on people and how to make life better and easier
Renaissance Architecture
3. Architecture
a. Focus on a scientific method for building
b. Brings back classical ideas of symmetry , using the arch way , build cities with many structs not all large , was many more permanent structures
c. Began to think about the idea of an ordered and planned city
Printing Press
invented by Johann Gutenberg in 1454; first book was Gutenberg Bible; changed private and public lives of Europeans; used for war declarations, battle accounts, treaties, propaganda; laid basis for formation of distinct political parties; enhanced literacy, people sought books on all subjects
republic
a state in which the supreme power rests in the body of citizens entitled to vote and is exercised by representatives chosen directly or indirectly by them
Niccolo Machiavelli
Italian writer and politician he wrote the book "The Prince"
Age of Discovery
this time period is charactarized by confrontation between ancient civilizations in Africa, Asia, the Americas, and Europe. Europe goes in search of the New World for two reasons: Wealth and spreading Christianity
Paintbrush
a brush used as an applicator to apply paint
life in Italy
Italy earlier than elsewhere lost its mediaeval characteristics and assumed those of the modern type. We may truly say that the Renaissance was cradled in the cities of mediaeval Italy. The Italians, to use again the words of Symonds, were " the firstborn among the sons of modern Europe."
Bocaccio The Decameron
A work that portrays an acquisitive, sensual, and worldly society through descriptions of merchants, friars, and husbands in a humorous way.
Church Fees
You have to pay to receive the sacraments.
Queen Elizabeth I
Queen of England that brought peace between Protestants and Catholics in England
Movable Printing Machine
books produce faster. Made in 1450. First book produce was the Bible by Johannes Gutenburg.
what is a therocracy
a government ruled by one person
Luis Milan 1500-1560
published "El Maestro" a collection of instrumenta music. 3 tempos-Algo Apriessa, Compas a Espacio, Compas Batido
mosaic rhyme
a type of multiple rhyme in which a single multisyllabic word is made to rhyme with two or more words
Sir walter raleigh
beheaded after 15 years in tower of london
Catherine of Aragon
16 December 1485 - 7 January 1536), also known as Katherine or Katharine, was Queen of England
Love gone awry
What type of love is "When my love swears that she is made of truth"?
Pope Alexander VI
A Borgia pope, who was known for his questionable behavior. He made a deal with Louis XII of France in order to the Papal States under the control of the Borgia family.
An interest of art and learning
The Renaissance was a rebirth of what?
Who controlled the trade of goods from east to west..what did they do
muslims and italians.. high prices
Christopher Marlowe's job while in college at Oxford
He spied on English Catholics for the Queen
Where is the gold used for the coin coming from?
-Trade from Africa (until 16th century)
-Africa + Americas (after 16th century)
Whats was the major shift from the middle ages to the renaissance?
went from focus on god to focus on art/literature, etc.
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