Renaissance and Reformation 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Châteaux
Castles
Knox
scottish reformer
Haj
Pilgrimage to Mecca
Fall of rome
1450
Newton
English mathematician and physicist
Raphael
(1483-1520) Italian Renaissance painter; he painted frescos, his most famous being The School of Athens.
Joan of arc
inspired the french
Purgatory
A temporary condition of suffering.
Donatello
Florentine Sculptor, used lifelike styles in sculpting, made statue of David
The biggest controversy between Lutherans and Catholics was over...
Indulgences
Muslim
Follower of Muhammad; someone who surrenders to god
Edward
English king allowed clergy to marry
predestination
a religious teaching that God determines who will gain salvation
Several areas of Europe remained Protestant despite the Catholic Reformation, partly because of religious beliefs but also to prevent _____ from going from their countries to the Church.
money
Henry VIII
Passes the act of supremacy
Classicism
high regard for classic antiquity; return to classics (Roman, Greek)
Napoleon Mistakes
continental system, peninsular war, and invasion of russia, 1. Continental system (isolate great Britain) (Spain and Portugal rebel against France) 2. Didn't go fight with troops against Spain and Portugal (Russia rebels Napoleon attacks) 3. Invading Russia
Michealangelo
Avoided an apprenticeship by working for Lorenzo d'Medici and avoided being forced to copy a master for years. In Rome in 1496, he made the Pietá, which was never outdone by his later works and was one of the greatest sculptures of the Renaissance. In Florence, by age 26, he was well-known and thus was commissioned to sculpt his David, which united Renaissance and Classical styles. He then went on to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, against his wishes, and finally built Saint Paul's Cathedral over the base of St. Paul's grave, which was one of the most "harmonious" - and large- domes in architecture.
excommunication
formal exclusion from membership or participation in a church
John Calvin
French theological thinker. Developed the Christian theology known as Calvinism. Attracted Protestant followers with his teachings.
printing press
Johann Gutenberg invented it to produce books quickly and cheaply
ghetto
where Jewish people were forced to live
Reformation
a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches
Avignon
France, where the capital moved under a French pope
Martin Luther
German theologian who led the Reformation
Gutenberg
1456 first printed book in Europe, Gutenburg bible, 50 years= 30,000 books
justification
humans are saved through faith alone, chief teaching of Protestant reformation
Elizabeth I
daughter of Ann Boleyn a protagmatist-heir after Mary
Secular
Dealing with the here and now (non-religious)
Counter-Reformation
the reaction of the Roman Catholic Church to the Reformation reaffirming the veneration of saints and the authority of the Pope (to which Protestants objected)
Medici family
Ruled Florence during the Renaissance, became wealthy from banking, spent a lot of money on art, controlled Florence for about 3 centuries
wat new techniques used by artist
perspective,shading,human anatomy
Jesuits
Members of the Society of Jesus, staunch Catholics. Led by Loyola.
Teresa of Avila
Nun who reformed the Carmelite order
Roman Inquisition
a powerful instrument of the Catholic reformation. A committee of six people with power over all - to arrest, imprison, & execute. Accepted hearsay evidence
Civic Virtue
the notion that democracy depended on the unselfish commitment of each citizen to the public good
Leonardo da Vinci
Italian painter and sculptor and engineer and scientist and architect
Indulgence
Release from all or part of the punishment for sin
Humanism is?
interest in what humans/the human race can acheive, study of humans and the human form
Peace of Augsburg
agreement that accepted the division of Christianity in Germany by allowing princes to choose if their state would be Catholic or Protestant
Capital
Property, as a source of income, is considered this.
Spanish Armada
the great fleet sent from Spain against England by Philip II in 1588
Decline of Spain, as they were defeated
"Twelve Articles"
list articulating the belief of the German peasants that Luther's call for a "priesthood of all believers" was a message of social egalitarianism
Council of Trent
meeting of Roman Catholic leaders called by Pope Paul III to rule on doctrines criticized by Protestant reformers
Francesco Petrarch
a poet and humanist who thought Germanic migrations caused a sharp cultural break of the Roman Empire and started the dark ages
Christine de Pizan
French woman who wrote books in defense of women
Elizabethan Age
The time when Elizabeth the First was queen of England
North vs. South Renaissance
Northern: Began in Flanders (Wealthy merchant families lived in modern Netherlands), people tired of paying so much for goods from Italy, England and France both had good monarchs that were unifying their countries, and artists were escaping the war in Italy. In this time, artists were more intrested in realism and their portraits looked very photographic. Often the paintings were of everyday life. The northern humanists based their social reform on christin ideals and an ethical way of life. Southern: began after the crusades ended. At this time, feudalsim and manorialsim were the accepted social systems and the people allowed the Catholic church to govern them. People began to question the church and this rebellious age began the reformation of the church. People began to paint and study clssical literature and revert to old (Latin and Greek) ways. Itlay was the main center for the renaissance becasue people were feeing to Italy to escape the crusades. Secularism and humanism views began to emerge.
excommunicated
to declare that a person or group no longer belongs to the church
Emporer Charles V
the emperor that put luther on trial for the 95 theses
Double-entry bookkeeping
To keep track of profits and losses by bankers.
What 4 churches did Protestants form?
Lutheran, Anglican, Presbyterian, and Calvinist
what was the catholic reformation?
time where they eliminated many abuses of the church
How did merchant-capitalists show individualism?
By amassing huge fortunes by taking economic risks.
The invention of the printing press
How did Luther's ideas spread so quickly?
Why was it difficult for Henry VIII to divorce Catherine of Aragon?
divorcing was not allowed with the religion and he asked the pope but the pope said no because he was friends with Catherine
Huguenots
French Calvinists
Bocaccio The Decameron
.
amish
simple living, no technology
Goa
Portuguese headquarters in India
da vinci
Leonardo da Vinci.
Massaccio
Painter. Painted Expulsion of Paradise
Galileo
renaissance astronomer who supported the heliocentric theory
Ignatius of Loyola
Founded the Jesuits
atmosphere perspective
how things are distance
Protestantism
Lutherans who protested papal authority, interperet bible for yourself
albrecht durer
German painter and engraver.
Protestant
referring to Christian religions that grew out of the Reformation
renaissance
movement between medieval and modern times
Renaissance, 1300s-1500s
Rebirth of Knowledge. Light Bulb
Humanism
Renaissance movement based on the values of the ancient Greeks and Romans, such as that individuals and human society were important
Anabaptism
sect of Protestantism that insisted baptism was only meaningful if administered to willing adults who understood its significance
Characteristic of Renaissance art
individualism and materialism
Popolo
urban underclass, wanted their own share of the wealth and political power- came into conflict with the old nobility and wealthy merchant class
polyphony
a style of musical composition employing two or more simultaneous but relatively independent melodic lines
Quattrocento
When the Renaissance burst into full flower. (1400's)
Antitrinitarians
Denied the ultimate authority of the scripture
Castiglione
Wrote The Courtier which was about education and manners and had a great influence. It said that an upper class, educated man should know many academic subjects and should be trained in music, dance, and art.
venice
italian city that after the crusade became rich through trade
city state
independent state consisting of a cityand surrounding land and villages
indulgences
In the Catholic Church, people could pay the church for forgiveness of sins
Luther believed that entrance to heaven was based on faith alone.
Ferdinand Magellan
Portuguese explorer who captained the expedition which completed the first circumnavigation of the globe in 1519 (he died halfway through)
Machiavelli
• Insisted that rulers must do whatever is necessary to stay in political power (regardless of morals) or serve your own purposes
• Theorized that "the end justifies the means"
• Wrote "The Prince" to explain how to attain/hold on to power
The Medicis
Wealthy Merchant family that took control of Florence government and later took control of the papacy.
Johann Gutenberg
Invented movable type which allowed books to be mass produced
Ottoman Turks
Captured Constantinople in 1453 and rename it Istanbul; as a result the Byzantine people flee to Italian City-States which becomes a catalyst for the expansion of language and art.
Luther's new ideas
2 Sacraments instead of 7
Transubstantiation: Christ already present in the sacrament
Celibacy of the clergy
William Shakespeare
Leading literary figure (English) of the time, he also transformed well-known stories into dramatic masterpieces and wrote plays that focused on human emotions.
How was printing beneficial and who invented the press?a. not beneficial; Franklinb. spread literature to large audiences; Johannes Guttenburgc. made literature unavailable to many; Johannes Guttenburg
b
flanders
a medieval country in W Europe, extending along the North Sea from the Strait of Dover to the Scheldt River: the corresponding modern regions include the provinces of East Flanders and West Flanders in W Belgium, and the adjacent parts of N France and SW
absolute monarch
a king or queen with complete authority over the government and people in a kingdom
Jan Hus
After Great Schism, he taught Bible had higher authority than pope, excommunicated and burned at stake.
Pico
wrote the Oration on The Diginty of Man: philopher of humanism, free will, acclamation of the unlimited potential of the individual came to symbolize the collective ideals of the Renaissance humanists
Protestant Reformation
a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches.
Christian Humanism
the belief that human freedom and individualism are intrinsic (natural) parts of, or are at least compatible with, Christian doctrine and practice. It started during the Italian Renaissance and spread throughout Europe.
Calvinism
a body of religious teachings based on the ideas of the reformer John Calvin.
Cardinal Bessarion
the first to undertake translating and transmitting Plato to the rest of Europe
95 Theses
Luther's document opposing the sale of indulgences
Who was Filipo Brunelleschi?
-self taught genious
-sponsored by medici
-took inspiration from classical architecture
-sparks architectural revolution
-commissioned to finish Dome of Santa Maria
-brunelleschi success=medici success
"new monarchies"
Historians' term for the monarchies in France, England, and Spain from 1450 to 1600. The centralization of royal power was increasing within more or less fixed territorial limits.
William Shakespear
English play writer who wrote HAMLET, ROMEO AND JUILET, and MCBEATH
What writer of the North mixed comedy with opinions on serious subjects?a. Moreb. Machivellic. Rubensd. Rabelais
d
Papal States
a region around Rome that was captured from the Lombards by Pepin the Short and given to the pope
Isabella d'Este
one of the leading women of the Italian Renaissance and a major cultural and political figure.
Robert Boyle
his work opened the way to modern chemistry
heliocentric
Based on the belief that the sun is the center of the universe
Catherine of Aragon
Spanish Catholic wife of Henry VIII who was unable to produce an heir; Henry's desire to divorce her led to conflict with the Papacy
Giovanni Boccaccio
Famous for his Decameron (play with 7 men and 3 women who escape the plague); started Roman idea of storytelling.
War of the Roses
Struggle for the English throne (1455-1485) between the house of York (white rose) and the house of Lancaster (red rose) ending with the accession of the Tudor monarch Henry VII.
Reform
to change a form by removal of faults of abuses to end evil to change for the better
Geoffrey Chaucer and "Canterbury Tales"
Important novel during the Elizabethan Renaissance
liberal arts
make up a college degree for a career of profession
Jan Van Eyck (famous for)
Perfecting technique of oil painting, landscapes and domestic life
What were features of art in Northern Europe?
-more religious work
-symbolism
-detail
John Tetzel
german monk hired by Pope Leo X to sell indulgences
Priesthood of all believers
is a Christian doctrine believed to be derived from several passages of the New Testament.
Peace of Lodi
Made in 1454, this ended a war among Milan, Florence, and Venice. Cosimo de Medici made a lasting peace by having an alliance between Milan, Naples, and Florence on one side, and Venice and the Papal States on the other. Lasted for 40 years, and represents one of earliest appearances in European history of a diplomatic balance of power for maintaining peace.
John Locke's "Natural RIghts"
- In nature, people are free and have certain natural
rights. Those rights are life, liberty(freedom) and property.
Locke believed government had responsibility to protect those rights.
What allowed the renaissance to begin in italy?
they had thriving cities, trade and their art
Why wasn't Italy open to the Reformation?
1) the Pope was in Rome & was Italian 2) Cath. church was source of $ for Italy 3) Italian Renaissance made Italy prosperous, esp. from art, which was church-sponsored 4) unlike Germany's liberal universities, Italian universities blocked out questioning of theological principles
hypothesis
an educated guess
macchiaveli
florentine humanist, political philosopher, and statesman; wrote a book called The Prince; had a violent view on politics
mary stuart
queen regnant of scotland
Michelangelo
Italian Renaissance artist that painted the Sistine Chapel ceiling and sculpted the statue of David.
Michaelangelo
Italian artist, sculptor, architect, engineer, literary scholar;
Pieta, Last Judgement, David, Drawings to prep Sistine Chapel; human figures- Greek forms
Patrons
Wealthy Italian merchants became important patrons of the art and insisted on the development of secular art forms that would represent them and their accumulated wealth to greatest effect
The Low Countries
Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg
Niccolo Machiavelli
Italian Renaissance writer, described government in the way it actually worked (ruthless). He wrote The Prince (the end justifies the mean).
Masaccio
painter; first Renaissance painter to show 3D nude figures; painted "Expulsion of Adam and Eve"
Shakespeare
he helps standardize the English language
english reformation.
religious leaders toying with protestant ideas, but the break with the catholic church because of king henry VIII
Francis Drake
English explorer famous for circumnavigating the globe and fighting the Spanish Armada
Arthur
Henry's older brother, originally in line for the throne, who died from Tuberculous
13 c. - 16 c.
The Renaissance
Luther
The founder of Protestantism whose religion, based on 95 Theses, rejected Catholic orthodoxy, the sale of indulgences, and papal authority.
patron
person who financially supports the arts
Who was Sofonisba Anguissola?a. wife of kingb. Italian noblewomanc. court painter to King Phillip II of Spain. d. both b&c
b&c
Urbanization
During the Renaissance, their was a trend of people moving to cities which is called...?
Counter/Catholic Reformation
Index of Prohibited Books, papal Inquisition executing heretics, formation of the Jesuits
City-states
different sections of land owned by the same country but ruled by different rulers
chiaroscuro
Italian word for an artistic technique developed and perfected in the Renaissance involving the use of light and shade to give objects in a painting an illusion of being three-dimensional.
Rembrandt
Dutch artist noted for his dramatic use of light
Thomas More
lord chancellor of England who described an ideal Christian community in Utopia
Thomas Cranmer
archbishop of Canterbury who procured an annulment for Henry VIII and later became his adviser; instituted Protestant reforms of the church during Edward's reign
Hedonism
an ethical system that evaluates the pursuit of pleasure as the highest good
nationalism
love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it
Lorenzo Valla
worked in the Vatican libraries, worked with different languages, discovering history. Ex. Donation of Constantine- gave half his empire to the papacy, not really written by Constantine by discovering the word fief which was not used til centuries later
Artisan
A worker in a skilled trade, craftsman
martyr
a person who willingly suffers death rather than renounce his or her religion.
Fugger family
significant patrons of art; esp Jacob; fortune from international banking
Italian Renaissance
time of transition from medieval to modern times characterized by intellectual and political expansion as well as the rebirth of culture
Charles V
Holy Roman Emperor who forced Martin Luther answer for his writings against the church
vassal
person who pledged loyalty to the lord in return for property
Christine de Pisan
Italian writer, talked about women's importance in society
Where were Calvinists most successful?
scotland
north netherlands
parts of Germany
John Wycliffe
This English reformer was at Oxford University where he translated the Bible into Anglo-Saxon, and spread new, radical teachings such as that Jesus is the head of the church, clergy should not be wealthy landowners, and the Bible is the final authority for Christian life.
Petrarch
father of the italian sonnet who wrote "Laura" poems
How did Bacon and Descartes differ in theri methods?a. didn't differb. aristotle; copernicusc. ptomely; Galileod.stress epxerimentation/observation; human reasoning
d
Divine comedy 3
Dante is guided through paradise by the famous medieval monk St.Bernard, there he meets Beatrice.
city states
the system of organization in Italy; a ruler ruled each city; divided Italy into many different sections leading to a diverse and often at odds country
Isabella d' Este
first lady of the Renaissance. Break away from traditional roles
Inquisition, 1500s-1600s
court for the Catholic Church to hunt down heretics (witches)
mary beard's argument
italian women of the higher class turned to the study of greek and roman literature and committed themselves alongside men to developing well-rounded personalities
Thirty-Nine Articles of Faith
defining statements of Anglican church doctrine
House of Medici
The most prominent banking family of the 14th and 15th centuries; expanded wealth and became money exchangers; dominated the politics of Florence until circa 1500.
Counter Reformation
response to the new sets created and their loss of power
Sir Thomas More
friend of Erasmus and english humanist who wanted social and economic reform. Wrote "Utopia."
Machiavelli The Prince
Used Cesare Borgia as a role model; after he became a hermit, he wrote of the things he saw as a confidant of major political people; "ends justify the means" "better to be feared than loved"
Jan van Eyck
Flemish painter who was a founder of the Flemish school of painting and who pioneered modern techniques of oil painting (1390-1441).
Catherine de Medici
Was the wife of Henry II (Valois). She acted as regent during the reign of her three weak and ineffective sons - Francis II (1559-60) Charles IX (1560-74) Henry III (1574-89). Ordered the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre.
Concordat of Bologna - 1516
ended the Third French Invasion and gave Frnech king the authority to appoint French members of the Catholic Church
Christian Humanism and the Northern Renaissance
philosophy characterized by a call for a return to simpler forms of religious piety and a rejection of the excessive ritualism of the Middle Ages
With the invention of the printing press, books for the masses were published and broadsides became available. Churches looked to provide education for their followers as new ideas were spread faster than ever before.
Why did education increase during the Renaissance and Reformation?
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