Renaissance and Reformation Terms Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Renaissance
rebirth
Utopia
ideal place
Ignatius of Loyola
...
William Shakespeare
Wrote books
baroque
ornate,dramatic artistic style, sparked by the catholic reformation, which developed in europe in the 1550's
scientific method
step-by-step process of discovery
Excommunicated
kicked out of a religion
Puritanism
the beliefs and practices characteristic of Puritans (most of whom were Calvinists who wished to purify the Church of England of its Catholic aspects)
boroque
ornate, dramatic artistic style, sparked by the catholic reformation, which developed in europe in the 1550's
Four Noble Truths
Name of Buddha's teachings
Patron
a person who provides financial support for the arts
city-state
inderpendent state consisting of a city surrounding land and villages
Mary Tudor
English monarch who temporarily restored Catholicism in the mid-1500's
being kicked out to the church
Excommunicated
Elizabethan Settlement
Agreement where Elizabeth and Parliament required conformity to the Church of England but people were allowed to worship Protestantism and Catholocism privately.
galilo galilei
Italian scientist
built his own teloscope
Renaissance popes
-did little to combat secularism
-beautifies city of Rome, patronized artists and scholars, spent enthusiasm and money
Hanseatic League
Protected members from pirates, built lighthouses, and trained ship captains
Leonardo da Vinci
Renaissance artist, inventor and scientist who created Mona Lisa and Last Supper, ultimate example of Renaissance man
Michelangelo
Raised by the Medici family because they saw his talent; famous for paintings in Sistine Chapel and his states—Moses, La Pieta, David.
Erasmus
wrote "The Abbot and the Learned Woman" and "The Praise of Folly"
Protestant Reformation
Religious reform movement within the Latin Christian Church beginning in 1519. It resulted in the 'protesters' forming several new Christian denominations, including the Lutheran and Reformed Churches and the Church of England. (p. 446)
niccolo machiavelli
(1469-1527) Wrote The Prince which contained a secular method of ruling a country. "End justifies the means."
95 thesis
list of arguments against indulgences written by Martin Luther
Perspective
an artistic technique that creates the appearance of three dimensions on a flat surface.
Calais
The port city controlled by the English at the end of the Hundred Years' War.
Ignatius de Loyola
Founded the Jesuits. Believed salvation could be achieved by doing good deeds.
Castiglione
author of "The Courier" (1528), wrote definition of the ideal Renaissance man (knew several languages, familiar with classical literature, skilled in the arts)
Humanism
doctrine (belief) or attitude that is concerned primarily with human beings and their values, capacities,and achievements.
John Knox
Scottish theologian and Calvinist who founded Presbyterianism in Scotland and wrote a history of the Reformation in Scotland
Martin Luther
-Priest in the Holy Roman Empire
-angered by the popes taking poor peoples' money
-wrote 95 theses against the Pope and Catholicism
-began the "Lutheran" church
Justification by Faith
Martin Luther's concept that faith alone is enough to bring salvation.
peace of ausburg
an agreement that formally accepted the division of christianity in germany
Angela Merici
This woman who founded the Ursuline order of nuns, educated women and taught spiritual ideals of Catholic reformation
Anglican Church
the national church of England (and all other churches in other countries that share its beliefs), created by Henry VIII to legalize divorce
Desiderius Erasmus
The most influential of all Christian Humanists, believed that Christianity should be the guiding philosophy for the direction of daily life
didn't start the catholic reformation, but was present while it was going on
Pope Paul III
peace of augsburg
1555 agreement declaring thta the religion of each german state would be decided by its ruler
Predestination
belief that God had decided in advance who would be saved and who would be damned
Babylonian Captivity
Roman Catholic Church was shaken by this in the 1300's.
Wittenberg
city in which Luther nailed his ninety five these on the church door
The Catholic Church said the only way to salvation was through the _____.
Church
English Reformation
Started when Henry VIII wanted to divorce his wife, but was not allowed so converted all of England to Protestantism
standard of living
measure of the quality of life; affected by environment, health, home life, income, and working conditions; increased in Europe for peasants during the Renaissance
Fresco
a durable method of painting on a wall by using watercolors on wet plaster
John Wycliffe
thought the best way to solve the problem of the church was to translate all bibles into english (from latin). so that people actually knew what bible says, not believe others.
Medici Family
A merchant family that gained power by controlling political officials and became very wealthy.
What was English Queen Mary's goal?
restore England to Catholicism
act of supremacy
Declared the king (Henry VIII) the supreme head of the Church of England in 1534.
Cause of Protestant Reformation
Catholic Church strayed from spiritual roots, abused power, Martin Luther's 95 thesis
the Last Supper
A 15th century mural painting in Milan created by Leonardo da Vinci.
Pope Paul III
He promised to summon a council for reform if he was elected pope; Roman aristocrat, humanist, and astrologer; formed the Council of Trent
marie antoinette
queen of France (as wife of Louis XVI) who was unpopular
Cosimo de Medici
controled Florence was a member of a wealthy family who ran the city-state government
Diet of Worms
An assembly of the Estates of the Holy Roman Empire convened by Charles V. It was here that Martin Luther refused to recant his writings
The Creation of Adam, Pieta, Michelangelo
-God is creating man (Adam)
-Eve under God's arm
-red thing looks like womb
What caused Henry VIII to break with the Catholic Church?
The Pope denied his request for a divorce.
Renaissance meaning?
"Rebirth"
salvation
acceptance into heaven
civic humanism
active, participatory citizenship
machiavelli
Italian statesman, political philosopher, and author.
vernacular
native or every day language
Humanists
European scholars, writers, and teachers associated with the study of the humanities (grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history, languages, and moral philosophy), influential in the fifteenth century and later.
Bruegel
flemish painter, realistic detail, individual ppl, captured scenes of everyday peasant life, used rich colors with vivid details
Boccaccio
(1313-1375) Wrote the Decameron which tells about ambitious merchants, portrays a sensual, and worldly society.
quattrocento
period of italian art and literature
John Calvin
Calvinism, believed in predestination, set up theocracy
Christian Humanism
Norther Renaissance humanism; Rebirth of Catholic church
Phillip Melanchthon
author of the Augsburg Confession
Lutheranism
The religious doctrine that Martin Luther developed; it differed from Catholicismin the doctrine of salvation, which Luther believed could be achieved by faith alone, not by good works; Lutheranism was the first Protestant faith
Brunelleschi
An architect who boldly combined classical and Gothic architecture. He used geometry as the basis for his designs, focusing on spheres and planes. He built the dome on the cathedral in Florence, starting in 1420. He also is given credit for being the first to understand and use perspective, although it was immediately used more clearly in sculpture and painting.
Edward VI
attempt to institute genuine Protestant theology into the church that Henry had created
neo-classical
adopted from architecture of classical antiquity
Giotto
A wealthy merchant commissioned him to decorate the Arena Chapel with scenes from the bible. He used the art of Fresco painting and he brought his paintings to life. When he painted on a flat wall he created an illusion of depth. He painted Human figures that looked real and lifelike. his frescos began a revolution in art.
Johannes Gutenberg
Invented the printing press and printed copies of the Bible; from Mainz, Germany
Titian
best painter of the Venetian school; used vivid colors instead of the more subtle colors
virtu
The striving for excellence and being a virtuous person. Humanistic aspect of Renaissance.
william shakesphere
the greatest of all renaissance writers turned popular stories into great dramas
anabaptist
member of a protestant group that believed in baptizing only those persons who were old enough to decide to be christian and believed in the separation of church and state
Inquisition
a former tribunal of the Roman Catholic Church (1232-1820) created to discover and suppress heresy
Geneva
Swiss city where Calvin established a theocracy based on his teachings during the 1540s
Henry VIII
• Early 1500s-King of England
• Desire to annul marriage led to conflict with pope and England's break with Roman Catholic Church and embrace of Protestantism
• Established Church of England and named himself head of church and state (Act of Supremacy)
Cicero
called on upperclass Romans to work together to make Rome a better place and wanted the Romans to give more support to the Senate and to restore checks and balances on government
Constantinople
Emperor Constantine, AD 330 moved the capital from Rome to the Greek city Byzantium in the east, and renamed the city. This city became the capital of the Roman empire. It was strategically located for trade and defense purposes.
almanacs
Books that included info about weather and predictions for crops, included maps, calendars, and medical advice. They especially appealed to the commoners
Johan Gutenberg
invented printing press, first typed bible
What did Leonardo de Vinci famous for?a. the first airplaneb. Statuesc. Mona Lisa, sketches of flying machines, submarines
c
recant
to withdraw or disavow a statement, opinion, etc., esp. formally.
(John) Calvin
Wrote the Institutes of the Christian Relegion, in which he put forth the idea of predestination.
Cape of Good Hope
the southern tip of Africa
Frederick the Wise
kiddnapped Luther and protected him; believed in Luther
Jesuits
this group was founded by Ignatus of Loyola of Spain. They are also known as The Society of Jesus. They were successful in restoring Catholicism to parts of Germany and Eastern Europe.
dante and chaucer
two authors who made literature popular during the renaissance
King Louis VII
French king who protected Thomas Becket from Henry II
Pieter Brueghel
Flemish painter of the 1500s whose favorite subjects were the countryside and peasants.
What sparked the reformation?
-1500- N humanists question spirituality of church
-pope leo X tells John tetzel to sell indulgences to fund rebuilding st. peters basilica
papal inquisition
individuals who were deemed to be heretics were put to death
secular
of or pertaining to worldly things or to things that are not regarded as religious, spiritual, or sacred; temporal:
Johann Gutenberg
German printer who was the first in Europe to print using movable type and the first to use a press (1400-1468)
B. Castiglione
wrote about the ideal courtier in The Book of the Courtier
what did luther create to argu against indulgence?
95 theses.
Work Ethic
Calvinist emphasis on hard work as a sign of grace and membership in the Elect
urban society
A system in which cities are the center of political, economic, and social life.
Ignatius of Loyala
-Founded the Society of Jesus or Jesuits.
-Spanish knight raised in the crusading tradition.
Middle Ages
the period between the fall of the Roman Empire in the west (470) and the beginning of the European Renaissance in the 1400s. This period is also known as "Medieval."
T/F Calvinism teaches that salvation is gained through prayer.
F. Salvation thru faith
German Peasants' Revolt of 1525
Peasants wanted Luther's support; but Luther supported the German princes
pilgrimage
A journey to a shrine or a holy place (one type of penance you could avoid having to do by buying an indulgence)
*What sparked the Renaissance?
• Increased trade with Asia and other regions
• Growth of large and wealthy city-states in Italy
• Renewed interest in classical learning of ancient Greece and Rome
• Rise of rich merchants who were patrons of arts
• Increased desire for scientific and technological knowledge
• Desire to beautify cities
When was The Prince written?
-1513 (right before start of reformation)
What events brought about the Renaissance?
Crusades, corruption of middle ages
How does The Prince show Humanism?
-took influence from classical rulers like Hannibal
-agrees that feudalism wasn't good
Pope John XXIII
He was a pirate, but then he became a part of the medici family, and became a pope
Third French Invasion - 1515
led by Francis I, it was the last French invasion of the Italian states
What happened at the Diet of Worms and how did this effect Luther?
German princes from the holy roman empire met to tell Luther to abonden his views, after he denied, Charles V declared him an outlaw and illegal for anyone to give him food or shelter. He was excommunicated and broke away from the catholic church; making his own religion.
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