Renaissance ID terms Flashcards

Terms Definitions
acute
severe
1530
Counter-Reformation begins
titan
Venus Of Urbino
Raphael
"School of Athens"
Sympathetic
Showing kind feelings
Fresco
Painting on wet plaster
Realism
Renaissance art technique (R______)
"renaissance man"
span of talents
Italy
Where did the Renaissance begin?
Campin
Merode Alterpiece 1425 disguised symbolism (compare to van eyck's arnolfi wedding)
moral
related to what is right.
pope leo x
giovanni de medici
credo
pope barcelli mass, palestrina's accomodation of council of trent
Lollards
the followers of John Wycliffe
Jacob Burckhardt
Modern concept of the Renaissance
Cervantes
"Don Quixote" (crazy, mad knight; makes fun of ideas of chivalry---act honorably?)
Michelangelo
Created marble sculptures, such as, the "David" and "Pieta" He also painted the ceiling of the Sistene Chapel in Rome.
Brunelleschi
built San Lorenzo Cathedral - environment suited to fit human, not divine needs
Patrons
a person who supports artists, especially financially
Catholic Reformation
(Counter Reformation) the Reformation after start of Protestant Reformation that sought to keep Catholics remaining loyal, had to clean up their act
savonarola
flagellants + bonfire against lorenzo cuz non religious stuff was sin
Mary
Daughter of Catherine of Aragon, restored Pope
Humanities
subjects like history, literature, and philosophy that become more popular during the Renaissance
Rabelais
french writer; pokes fun at serious subjects such as education, religion and politics
Reformation
an effort to change the Catholic Church, which resulted in starting new religious sects
The Monglos encouraged trade and protected the
Silk Road
1495
The Last Supper, Leonardo da Vinci, Fresco, Santa Maria della Grazie, Milan
Renaissance
a French word meaning "rebirth"; a period of renewed interest in classical culture in Europe.
Cosimo de Medici
(1389-1464) wealthiest Florentine and natural statesman. He internally controlled Florence; behind the scenes. He kept concilors loyal to him in the Signoria. Was head of Office of Public Debt and a patron of the Florentine Platonic Academy.
Diet of Worms
Martin Luther is excommunicated; refused to apologize for theses
Humanists
People who specialize in studying the grammar, history, poetry, and rhetoric. Taught life should be meaningful. Displayed a critical approach to learning.
Leonardo da Vinci:
(1452-1519) Leonardo represents a transitional figure in the shift to High Renaissance. He carried on the fifteenth century experimental transition by studying everything and even dissecting human bodies to more clearly see how nature worked. Leanardo stressed the need to advance beyond such realism and initiated the High Renaissance's preoccupation with the idealization or nature.
Francois Rabelais
Gargantua and Pantagruel -- attacked clerical education and monastic orders; championed secluar learning.
Albrecht
He was famous for producing woodcuts and engravings. Many of his works portrayed religious subjects, classical myths or religious landscapes.
movable type
invented by Gutenberg, Fust, and Schöffer; made easily movable individual letters, which were easy to type with
Commune
sworn associates of free men seeking complete political and economic independence from local nobles; wanted self-government
Perspective
the appearance of things relative to one another as determined by their distance from the viewer
Francis I
French king who invited Leonardo da Vinci to retire in France and hired Italian artists and architects to rebuild and decorate his castle at Fontainebleau.
bard
a minstrel or poet who writes poetry praising a noble or king
Secular
when people are more interested in the world than religion and getting into heaven
Annul
to set aside (Henry wanted to set aside his marriage)
Anglican Church
the national church of England (and all other churches in other countries that share its beliefs); has its see in Canterbury and the sovereign as its temporal head
Patron
A person who supports the arts or other activities by supplying money for them.
Jan Hus
Emphasis on raising money for St. Peters.
renaissance and humanism
means rebirth of Greco-Roman Cuoture; movement that focused on worldly(secular) subjects
Sandro Botticelli
Painter of Birth of Venus. The painting is a good example of humanism as the subject is Venus, the Roman goddess of love
criticisms of the reformation
moral, economic, political, and religious
Erasmus
Dutch author of The Praise of Folly (ridiculed religious ignorance, superstition, and practices)
Moriscos
Moslems in Spain who had converted to Christianity - 1501. Their conversion was often questioned. They were persecuted and often came before the Inquisition. Finally, Moriscos were expelled from Spain in 1609. Loss to the economy of Spain.
Spanish Inquisition
Brutal campaign led by Roman Catholic Church from 1481 to 1834 to punish nonbelievers including Jews and Muslims
Martin Luther
a priest; made his own religion called Lutherism
money crop
focus on one product to make more money
Medici Family
made their money in banking and trade, supported an academy for scholars
Lorenzo Medici
the ruler of Florence who was a supporter of the arts
engraving
art form in which an artist etches a design on a metal plate with acid and then uses the plate to make multiple prints
Cosimo de' Medici
In 1434 he took control of Florence
Jan van Eyck
-one of the most important Flemish painters
-portrayals of town people and religious scenes realisticly
Characteristics of Renaissance art
revival of classical Greek art combined with interest in humanism and concern of the individual
Middle Passage
This was the journey of the slave ships across the Atlantic from Africa to the Americas.
Renaissance came to refer to
the rebirth of classical thought, philosophy, art, architecture, learning, and law. Also represented a flowering and celebration of science and reason. Incorporated a strong sense of individualism. Deeply religious
Portugese vs. Spanish Exploration? Church Involved?
P= Merchants, main goal = trade
S=spread Catholicism/colonization, and gold.
Bocaccio- The Decameron
Most famous work of Bocaccio that was a book compiled of 100 wordly tales about italian life during the 14th century. Observed the ways of human behavior and commented on human charcter through the telling of stories that focused on the misbehavior of people.
The great schism
The time when France had a pope and Italy had a Pope, they used all their time, focus, and resources to fight/kill each other.
who was the founder of the order of jesuits?
ignatius of loyola.
Trade (port cities), specialization, locations (heart of ancient rome-classics)
Why was Italy the heart of the Renaissance?
In the beginning of Protestantism, why were many dissatisfied with the church?
Luther revealed the truth about the bad things in the Catholic church that were concealed. He also wanted the common person to be able to interpret the Bible for themselves.
accomplishing a goal on earth rather than in afterlife
What did people focus on in the Renaissance?
It is special because it depicts the three Medici's as the three wise men and it is also a self portrait of Botticelli on the far right.
What is so special in the Adoration of the Magi by Botticelli?
Davinci
Monalisa
Michael Angelo
Italian
Abba Abba
Italian
heliocentrism
sun centered universe
Sixtus IV
MAJOR nepotist
disseminating
circulating; broadcasting; spreading (information)
Edward Tudor
Jane Seyemour's son
Flanders
artistic center in Europe
assay
to examine or analyze:
The Prince
written by Niccoló Machiavelli
Gutenburg
Invented the printing press
*first paper used was parchment
Hubris
arrogant presumption or pride; false-pride
Baccacio
THE DECAMERON---Setting during th eblack plague where characters that told the story were on mountain top villas. IT POKED fun of medeival mindset as OUT OF DATE---glorified modern Renaissnance ways of life...
vernacular
of language native or indigenous
Boccaccio
1313-1375 Contemp. with Petrarch & also a Florentine. Best known for his Decameron - collection of witty & often bawdy tales told over period of ten days by a group of ten young people fleeing Florence because of plague. Was encouraged by Petrarch, studied ancient manuscripts & learned Greek for this. Considered an early humanist also.
Calculus
Branch of Mathmatics dicovered by Newton.
2 popular play genres
comedy & tragedy
Humanism
An intellectual movement toward the secular world.
Crusades
Holy wars fought between Christians and Muslims over control of Jeruselum
gutenberg
invented the printing press printed out the first bible in Latin
Albrecht Durer
Painter and printmaker from Nurnberg, Germany. He lived from 1471 to 1528. He lived in Germany for his whole life. Well known for his works such as Knight, Saint Jerome in his Study, and his self-portraits. He is widely considered the greatest German artist of the Renaissance.
Dante Alighieri
Medieval Italian poet wrote Inferno and Divine Comedy. Dealt the influence of the afterlife.
William Shakespeare
English poet and dramatist considered one of the greatest English writers of the renaissance(1564-1616)
Leonardo da Vinci
1452-1529, italian painter, sculptor, architect, musician, engineer, mathematician, and scientist
Italy and England
Where did the renaissance begin?
Versailles 1
to show the glory of France
Castiglione
Wrote The Courtier which was about education and manners and had a great influence. It said that an upper class, educated man should know many academic subjects and should be trained in music, dance, and art.
Christian Humanism
the resulting combination of humanist and religious ideas
1 explorer from renaissance
chris columbus and cortez
high renisaissance
artist scientists study of natural world
pavane
slow, gliding dance in duple meter performed by couples holding hands.
Giovanni Gabriel
The most important composer of the late renaissance. Church music director of St. Marks church in Venice. He loved to write music for instruments, he wrote for choirs of instruments, including brass instruments
thomas more
He was a English humanist that contributed to the world today by revealing the complexities of man. He wrote Utopia, a book that represented a revolutionary view of society. (p.437)
Charles V/I
Ruler of Austria, Netherlands, Spain & its possessions and elected HRE. Most powerful ruler of his day. Then acquired Hungary and Bohemia - afraid of Turks who were pushing westwards. Also under constant challenge from Valois kings of France and faced with upheaval of Reformation (religious upset) Many feared that Euro faced with Universal Monarchy i.e. a dominating, all-powerful ruler. THIS CONCEPT OF UNIVERSAL MONARCHY WILL BE A REPEATING THEME IN EURO HISTORY.
Petrarch
Petrarch was the first person to call the Middle Ages "dark" since it was robbed of intellectual depth. He is the father of the Italian Renaissance. He played a huge role in the revival of classics and is considered one of Europe's greatest sonnet writers. He did more than anyone to foster the development of Renaissance humanism. He had a deep interest in the classics.
Sonnet 75
by: Edmund Spencer
This man is proving how he will keep and his lovers love alive, and he says thru this poem that people will read about our love100 years from now
Indulgence
An official pardon given by the pope in return for money
Sir Walter Raleigh
English explorer who gained new territories for England
Oliver Cromwell
(3J)
1. becomes the dictator of England
2. Cavaliers
3. Leaders of parliament
4. All forms of frivolity ends - no dancing, singing, poetry, or art
5. Religious fanatic
6. All religious freedom is denied to Catholics and Angelicans
7. Dies in 1658
8. He was in power for 11 Years
Henry VII
start of the Tudor dynasty, defeated Richard and married Elizabeth of York, ending War of Roses
mason
a person who builds or works with brick or stone
Moat
a body of water surrounding outer wall of castle
Gargantua and Pantagruel
by Rabelais about 2 giantsencouraged educational reform, and valued human nature's inherent goodnesschallenged the abuses of the church, condemned hypocrisy
Meister Eckhart
Germany, d. 1327. One of series of mystics in Germany in 14th C - Expressed the belief that the individual could, in perfect solitude, commune with God. No need to be part of flock/congregation or under shepherd/priest. Mysticism was a movement found in parts of the north even before the spread of Renaissance Christian Humanism.
Palazzo del Signori
Plaza that's the center of markets, trade, and exchange
Sonnet 30
by: Edmund Spencer
The man is in love with this wome...he is fire towards her but she is an ice cube towards him...but how does his fire not melt her ice cube? (why does she not love him back?)
Albrect Durer
German Painter. Went to study art in 1494 in Italy. Woodcuts, engravins, religous sujbects, landscapes, potraits
Cardinal Richelieu
built the power of France under Louis XIII, weaked nobles by stripping them of their title
Council of Trent
1) Church interpretation was final. 2) Need faith and good works for salvation. 3) Bible and Church were equal authorities. 4) Indulgences were valid expressions of faith, but don't sell them.
Compass Rose
A tool on a map showing cardinal (N,E,S,W) and intermediate (NE,SE,NW,SW) directions.
Imitation of Christ
By Thomas a Kempis - see above.
Anne Bolyne
was Queen of England as the second wife of King Henry VIII. She was also Marquess of Pembroke in her own right. Henry's marriage to Anne, and her subsequent execution, made her a key figure in the political and religious upheaval that was the start of the English Reformation. The daughter of Sir Thomas Boleyn and his wife, Lady Elizabeth Howard, Anne was of more noble birth than either Jane Seymour or Catherine Parr, two of Henry VIII's later wives, but less than her predecessor, Catherine of Aragon. She was educated in Europe, largely as a lady-in-waiting to Queen Claude of France. She returned to England in 1522.

In 1525, Henry VIII became enamoured of Anne and began his pursuit of her. Anne resisted the King's attempts to seduce her and refused to become his mistress, as her sister, Mary Boleyn, had done. It soon became the one absorbing object of the King's desires to secure an annulment from his wife, Catherine of Aragon, so he could marry Anne. When it became clear that Pope Clement VII was unlikely to give Henry an annulment, the breaking of the power of the Roman Catholic Church in England began.
Anne Bolyne
Protestant reformation
Wars of the Roses
1455-1485 in England btween House of Lancaster(Red) and House of York(White). HVI(Lanc) - Ed.IV(York) -EdV(Murdered in Tower) - Richard III-Battle of Bos. - Henry VII. Left Eng. in state of civil turmoil after 100 yrs. war v. France.
Effect of Renaissance Art on Society
private art collections, powerful Middle Class families
theology, law, poetry, philosophy
four walls in the stanza della dignatura
who had an influence on the pope
Zwingly (preist from switzerland)
Benefitted from the Peace of Lodi
Which characteristic of a major Italian city-state is most associated with Milan?
Late Renaissance and Mannerism
1. detail that break away from the rules
2. Michelangelo Buonarroti - High Renaissance Farnese Palace he inserted balcony over main entrance and added 3rd level in courtyard. S. Lorenzo in Florence - interiors have false window elements and complex doors. Michaelangelo's fmaous Medici tombs stand at either side of the space - give a strongly mannerist character tot he space.
3. Romano - Palazzo del Te at Mantua (fresco paintings) -Sala di Giganti - room of the giants
4. Palladio Renaissance classicism but not in mannerist style.
3. Political Revolution
1. Still a wolrd of Monary , there was experimentations with democracy but failed , will see the first people thinking of democracy as a possibility
How / Why did the Renaissance spread?
increased trade of goods and ideas between European nations
merchant traveling
spread of universities
printinig press
writing in vernacular
Why did Portugal increase its slave trade so dramatically in the 1440's.
They needed masses of UNSKILLED LABOR to work on Portuguese SUGAR PLANTATIONS.
One event of Marco Polos journey to China
He was made a government official in China
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