Renaissance Key Terms Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Scientists
Galileo
Copernicus
Countries
England, Italy
Giotto (1266-1337)
painter-perspective
soft toned instruments
cornett
Theology
study of religion
Liberal Arts
Renaissance supporters of the visual arts — architecture, painting, sculpture, classed as mechanical and manual arts — argued their inclusion to the liberal arts, among said advocates were Leon Battista Alberti, Leonardo da Vinci, and Giorgio Vasari. In Italy, and among Renaissance humanists, the academic matter was decided around 1500, yet it required another century in Spain and England.
Liberal Arts
Northern Renaissance
Preiesthood of all believers
?
Niccolo Machiavelli
Wrote The Prince
Botticelli
"The Birth of Venus"
mannerism
when artists distorted figures, exaggerated musculature, and heightened color to express emotion and drama more frequently
Lorenzo
"the Magnificent" Machiavelli wrote about him in the Prince
Democracy
people elect representatives to govern
Miguel de Cervantes
Wrote Don Quixote
Leonardo da Vinci
sculpture,painter,inventor-The Mona Lisa, The Last Supper
Michelangelo
(1475-1564) poet, painter, sculptor, and engineer. "Melancholy genius". (David, the Pieta, and the Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel)
Rise of Instrumental Music
In the 1500's
quattrocento
Italian, literally "four hundred"; it refers to the 1400s— the fifteenth century, especially in reference to Italian art of this time (the late Middle Ages and Early Renaissance).
Renaissance
("rebirth") period of renewed interest of art and learning in Europe
Drama
most dominant form of literature during Renaissance
Van Eyck
- created layerd oil paintings
Macbeth
______________ is a scottish general and the thane of Glamis who is led to wicked thoughts by the prophecies of the three witches, especially after their prophecy that he will be made thane of Cawdor comes true. He is a brave soldier and a powerful man, but he is not a virtuous one. he is easily tempted into murder to fulfill his ambitions to the throne, and once he commits his first crime and is crowned king of Scotland, he embarks on further atrocities with increasing ease. Ultimately, he proves himself better suited to the battlefield than to political intrigue, because he lacks the skills necessary to rule without being a tyrant. his response to every problem is violence and murder. Unlike Shakespeare's great villains, ____________ is never comfortable in his role as a criminal. he is unable to bear the psychological consequences of his atrocities.
Humanism
Focus on human potential and achievements
Patricians
Top of the townspeople. Banking, trading, industry help them dominate community.
Painting of italian renaissance
portraits, landscapes,cathedral walls
Savonarola
1452-1498 Franciscan friar in Florence who objected to many of the new attitudes in the Renaissance - saw them as satanical. Gained power in Florence in 1494 at a time of Medici weakness and used strict, puritanical rule. Overthrown in 1498 and burned at stake. Medici returned to power but great age of Florence had passed.
past
After the Black Death, Europeans began looking at WHAT to see how to improve their society.
michaelangelo buonarroti
High Ren. artist, engineer, sculptor, architect etc. Well known as the true genius of the high Ren. Conquered and glorified the human form, (especially hands). As seen in his sculpture of "David". Also brought in fused pagan myth. with Christianity, such as how he did the "The Creation of Adam"
audience
a gathering of spectators or listeners at a (usually public) performance
Griolamo Savonarola
predicted the French invasion; common people didn't share the worldy outlook of the commercial and intellectual elite
scholasticism
finding the balance between faith and reason
Sir walter raleigh
passionate about he colonizing america
Pizzaro
found Incan Empire= gold and treasure; Pacific coast along Peru
was the first Renaissance man
Leonardo da Vinci
Isabella of Castille
Devout catholic, first renaissance queen, spanish inquisitions, funded chris columbus, married Ferdinand of Aragon
Brunelleschi
architect who built dome on Cathedral of Florence
christian humanists
Used humanism to criticize the bible.
whos machiavelli
created a strong government in florence, created the Prince, "rather be feared than loved"
Wollstonecraft
English writer and early feminist who denied male supremacy and advocated equal education for women
golden age of polyphony
another name for renaissance
Benvenuto Cellini
bragged about his sins, rejected artistic and moral standardsMannerist sculptor, his statues and his Autobiography reflected the violent and corrupt society he lived in
Rota
occurs when two or more voices sing the same melody, entering at different times and repeating the melody until all stop together; canon
Louis XVI
King of France when revolution began. Weak King.
Martain Luther
A german monk who started the protestant reformation.
Puritan Lifestyle
Cromwell had king executed, first and last time a monarch was ever executed, water was polluted, life was boring, theaters were closed,wine was dilluted with water, holiday celebrations were banned
Richelieu
He was advisor of Louis XIII, treaties rarely having
war. Cardinal Richelieu, Machiavellian. He built
French academy. He had 3 sons.
Sonnet
a verse form consisting of 14 lines with a fixed rhyme scheme
Civic Humanism
humanism with the added belief that one must be an active and contributing member to one's society
Louis XI
Followed Charles VII as king of France, helped strengthen monarchy. He was not very nice and was known as "the Spider King"
pope paul IV
banned books considered dangerous to catholic faith
Petrach
A man sometimes called the father of Italian Renaissance humanism.
Industrial Revolution
going from man power to machine power
edict of worms
declared Martin Luther an outlaw within the empire and his works were to be burned and luther himself captured and delivered to the emperor
laura cereta
A radical feminist in her time (1469-1499) who had enough education to write about her ideas. She was Italian, and like Christine de Pisan, she furthered her education after her husband died and began publishing writing. Neither women nor men supported her, so she stopped writing after her father died. She did, however, help pave the way for other educated women.
jesuits
a member of a Roman Catholic religious order
Concordat of 1801
Napoleon made peace with the Catholic Church
Sistine Chapel's David
David was a colossal marble statue commissioned by the Florentine government in 1501 that took 3 years to complete. Michelangelo carved the statue out of a huge piece of marble. Standing at 14 feet, it was the largest sculpture in all of Rome during that time. It was also special in that it displayed human emotion and unique features. Before, in the Middle Ages, faces were basically anonymous. Michelangelo glorified the human body and human beings.
Edward
Henry's first son , became king at age 9
benefits of studying
What is Bacon's "Of Studies" content about?
Gravity
A force that keeps the planets in the orbits around the sun and that made an apple fall from a tree
Cosimo de Medici
Italian banker and leader of Florence, Italy
Powerful rulers during Renaissance
Charles I/V (Habsburg), Francis I, Henry VIII, Suleyman the Magnificent
Imagery
The use of language to evoke a picture or a concrete sensation of a person, thing, place, or experience
printing press
a machine, as a cylinder press or rotary press, for printing on paper or the like from type, plates, etc.
Pius II's Exercrabilis
A papal bull that condemned appeals to a council over the head of the pope heretical. This was a huge step in stopping the Conciliar movement. Popes did not want to work with councils. They didn't want the councils to have power, let alone power over the pope himself. Sacroscanta and Frequens were also reform decrees passed before that had failed to have a lasting effect in reforming the Church.
The Renaissance Starts In Italy
-the Renaissance began in Northen Italy around 1300 and later spread North
-It started in Italy becuase France and England were in a the 100s years war so they were preoccupied by war
-Italy had 3 advantages that fostered the Renaissance : thriving cities , a weatlhy merchant class , and the classical heritage of greece and rome
-italy grew threw out the midevial period in city-states instead of large kingdoms
-the black plague caused many people to die making there be less workers so wages went up making there me a bigger middle class in Italy , people started to spend there money
Christopher Columbus
thought he found India when he came to the Americas
The Act of Supremacy
gave Henry VIII (king) control over religious doctrine, clerical appointments, and disipline
Laurentius Valla (1407-1457).
But the true founder of the science of historical criticism was Laurentius Valla (1407-1457). His greatest achievement as a critic was the demonstration, on philological and historical grounds, of the unauthentic character of the celebrated Donation of Constantine. He also called in question the authority of Livy and proved the spurious character of the alleged -correspondence between Seneca and the Apostle Paul.
effects of catholic ref.
no more unity, more edu, womens status same, individual monarchs gain power
Conditions that make an event probable
Which of the following best describes the "precipitants" aspect of the causal triangle?
Creation story on the ceiling of the Sistine chapel
Michelangelo Buonarroti's most famous painting
Who were Albizzi + what did they try to do?
-Cosimo's rivals
-wipe out Medici (made a plan)
-imprisoned Cosimo in the topmost cell in the tower
-had the people accuse him guilty, so trialed for execution
-Cosimo survived bcuz he bribed guards
the influence of the Italian cities.
We have already seen how city life was more perfectly developed in Italy than in the other countries of Western Europe. In the air of the great Italian city-republics there was nourished a Strong, self-reliant, secular, myriad-sided life. It was a political, intellectual, and artistic life like that of the cities of ancient Greece. Florence, for example, became a second Athens, and in the eager air of that city individual talent and faculty were developed as of old in the atmosphere of the Attic capital. " In Florence," says Symonds, " had been produced such glorious human beings as the world has rarely seen. . . . The whole population formed an aristocracy of genius."
The Fresh Stimulus from the Side of Classical Antiquity. --
We have now reached the opening of the fourteenth century. Just at this time the intellectual progress of Europe received a tremendous impulse from the more perfect recovery of the inestimable treasures of the civilization of Graeco-Roman antiquity. So far-reaching and transforming was the influence of the old world of culture upon the nations of Western Europe that the Renaissance, viewed as the transition from the mediaeval to the modern age, may properly be regarded as beginning with its discovery, or rediscovery, and the appropriation of its riches by the Italian scholars. In the following sections we shall try to give some account of this Renaissance movement in its earlier stages and as it manifested itself in Italy.
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