Reproductive System Flashcards

Terms Definitions
crypt/o
hidden
terat/o
monster
amni/o
amnion
-gravida
pregnant
chori/o
chorion
GYN
gynecology
PSA
Prostate-Specific Antigen
test/o
testis, testicles
zo/o
animal life
-salpinx
uterine tube
IUD
intrauterine device
BPH
benign prostatic hyperplasia
DUB
dysfunctional uterine bleeding
-pexy
fixation, put in place
seminiferous tubules
the sperm-forming factories
LEEP
loop electrocautery excision procedure
TURP
transurethral resection of the prostate
corpora cavernosa
the paired dorsal cylinders
Para 2-0-1-2
woman's reproductive history; 2-fullterm, 0 preterm, 1 abortion, 2 living children
__________________ is defined as twisting of the spermatic cord.
testicular torsion
an ovulated egge
enters the pelvic cavity
testes
primary reproductive organ of the male
this sloughing-off process is known as
menstruation/menses
__________________ occurs when the placental lining has separated from the uterus of the mother.
abruptio placentae
prostate gland
encircles the urethra just inferior tot he bladder; secretes a milky fluid into the urethra which activates sperm
the labia minora
enclose 2 smaller hair-free folds
interstitial cells
produce testosterone; lies between the seminiferous tubules
This type of pregnancy is characterized by the fertilized ovum being implanted anywhere but the uterine wall.
ectopic pregnancy
A _________________ is defined as finger palpation through the anal canal and rectum to examine the prostate gland.
digital rectal examination
ectopic pregnancy
when the fertilized egg is implanted in a uterine tube or on the abdominal viscera
scrotum
paired testes; temp is 94F or 34C; lower than body tem b.c producing viable sperm
the distal ends of the tubes are funnel-shaped & have fingerlike projections called ___
fimbriae
PID (pelivic inflammatory disease)
inflammations of the pelivc viscera
rete testis
when the seminiferous tubules of each lobe converge to empty the sperm into another set of tubules; located at the mediastinum of the testis
what do they produce
viscous alkaline secretion containing fructose & other substances that nurish the sperm passing through the tract or promote the fertilizating sperm passing throught the tract or promote the fertilizing capability of sperm in some way
when a developing egg has reached the appropriate stage of maturity, it is ejected from teh ovary in an event called
ovulation
The surgical removal of the uterus is called a ________________________.
hysterectomy
A procedure whereby the physician widens the cervix and scrapes the endometrium of the uterus is called ________________________.
dilation and curettage
vasectomy
a small incision made in each side of the scrotum & each ductus deferens is cut through or cauterized (sperm is still produced bu they can no longer reach the body exterior causes sterilization)
the labia majora
runs inferiorly & posteriorly from the mons pubis; it is 2 elongated, pigmented, hair-covered skin folds which are homologous tot he scrotum of the male
the purpose of the reproductive system is to
perpetuate the species
the uterosacral ligaments
course posteriorly to the sacrum also help attach the uterus tot he body wall
the vaginal opening is partially closed by a thin fold of mucous membrane called the ____ & is flanked by the pea-sized, mucus-secreting ____
hymen; greater vestibular glands
The pituitary gland secretes what two hormones after the onset of menstruation?
FSH and LH
A sac of clear fluid in the scrotum is called a/an _____________________.
hydrocele
the penis is
part of the external genitalia of the male along w. the scrotal sac, is the copulatory organ of the male
the ruptured follicle is then converted to a second type of endocrine gland called a
corpus luteum, which secretes progesterone (& some estrogens)
seminal fluid is
the liquid medium in which sperm leave the body
what are round ligaments
fibrous cords that run from the uterus to the labia majora
the alveoli of each lobule pass the milk into a number of ___ which join to form an expanded storage chamber the ____ as they approach the nipple
lactiferous ducts; lactiferous sinus
what does it consits of
a shaft, which terminates in an enlarged tip, the glans penis
what is the broad ligament
the fold that encloses the uterine tubes & uterus & secures them to the lateral body walls
within each lobe are smaller chambers called
lobules; they contain teh glandular albeoli that produce milk during lactaion
the ovaries are supported posteriorly by
a fold of the broad ligament the mesovarium
what are the 3 layers of the uterine wall
the endometrium, myometrium & serosa
Testosterone
FSH
What is the male sex cell?
Sperm
What is the female sex cell?
Egg
allele
Different forms of the same gene
what neutralizes the acidic substances from the acidic urine left over in the urethra - for a male
alkalines
DNA
long chain molecules that make up chromosomes
How many chromosomes does an egg have?
23
How many chromosomes does a sperm have?
23
how many cenimeters must the cervix dilate to signal pushing and delivering of a baby?
10
what is breech position?
baby is feet first
what is a developing baby called between weeks 4 to 40?
fetus
How long is the menstrual cycle?
About 28 days.
LH
A hormone that is secreted from the anterior pituatary that does something that i don't know.
where are sperm produced?
seminiferous tubules in the testis
what is another name for dizygotic twins?
fraternal twins
What is heredity?
The process of inheriting genes from parents
what are the gaps in the baby's skull called?
fontanelles
Pathway of sperm
Testes -> Vas deferens -> urethra -> out of the body
Recessive alleles
The gene that is hidden by a dominant gene if it is presend.
how are fraternal twins created?
2 different eggs that were fertalized
Pathway of the egg
Ovary -> Fallopian tubes -> uterus -> out of the body if the egg is not fertilized
how long do the sperm have to fertalize an egg cell before they die?
12 to 48 hours
What occurs during the menstrual cycle?
The lining of the uterus gets thicker, and an egg is released. If the egg is not fertilized, then she will start her "period" and shed the lining of the uterus.
What is 98% of the amniotic fluid made of? and what is the other 2% made of?
watersalts and cells from the baby
climacteric
menopause
uter(o)
uterus
orchid/o
testis
-ium
membrane (suffix)
sperm(o), spermat(o)
sperm
balan/o
glans penis
pen/o
Penis (root word)
Primary Organ (male)
testes
-osis
condition / disease (suffix)
Steroids
Formed From: Cholesterol
Examples: Estrogen, testosterone, aldosterone, and cortisol
Priapism
a continuous, painful erection
 
 
Pheno-
Phenotype
Pheno- appearance, to show

Phenotype: physical appearance of an individual.
internal female genitalia (5)
ovary
uterine tube
uterus
vagina
special glands
What cells secrete inhibin
Sertoli cells
Peptides
Formed From: Amnio Acids
Examples: antidiuretic hormone, oxytocin, thyrotropin-releasing hormone 
What do Leydig cells produce?
testosterone
Endometrium
-inner layer of the uterus
Prostato-
Prostatomegaly
Prostato- to stand before

Prostatomegaly: enlargement of the prostate gland.
gonads (male and female)
testes / ovaries
How many chromosomes do primary spermatocytes have
46
*Uterine tubes provide ________ for developing ________.
*nutrients*pre-embryo
Menstruation
Female cycle of producing and expelling unfertilized ovum.
Pregnancy and Childbirth - Ovulation, what happens if sperm are present?
fertilization
Anal triangle
posterior triangle within the perineum;
contains the anal opening
Chorion
thin, outermost membrane that encloses the embryo
balano-
balanoposthitis
balano- acorn (refers to glans penis)

balanoposthitis: inflammation of the penis and sheath
Finger like progressions in the infundibulum are called the....
Fimbriae.
atretic
the congenital absence, or the pathological closure, of an opening, passage, or cavity.
What process do secondary spematocytes undergo
meiosis 2
1/3 of the circulating testosterone in the male body is bound to what?
Albumin
epididymis
an elongated structure running up the posterolateral aspect of the testis and capping its superior aspect; forms the first portion of the duct system and provides site for maturation of sperm.
Thyroid-Stimulating hormone
Controls the secretion of hormones from the thyroid gland
Polycystic Ovaries
Enlarged ovaries with multiple cysts and associated with Stein-Leventhal syndrome.
During the 6th week, how many primordial germ cells migrate into each gondal ridge?
300-1300
What is scar tissue in fallopian tube
PID
small amounts of menstral flow during a shortened menstral period
Hypermenorrhea
Whatregion of the uterine tube does fertilization occur?
Ampulla
Production of sperm and testosterone are regulated by hormones produced by the _______.
pituitary gland
bartholin glands
either of two small, oval, mucus-secreting glands, one on each side of the base of the vagina.
pituitary gland
a small, somewhat cherry-shaped double structure attached by a stalk to the base of the brain and constituting the master endocrine gland affecting all hormonal functions in the body, consisting of an anterior region
The seminiferous tubules contain what two cells necessary for spermatogenesis?
spermatogonia (stem cells)sustentacular cells (sustain and promote development of sperm)
penis
part of the external genitalia of the male along w/the scrotal sac; the copulatory organ of the male; designed to deliver sperm to the female reproductive tract
Bicornate Uterus
Common anomaly of having one vagina, one cervix, one body, but two fundi.
What is the condition of a persistent processus vaginalis, large enough to only permit passage of peritoneal fluid?
hydrocele
Interstitial Cells...
found btwn the seminiferous tubules of the testis, they produce testosterone and estrogen.
Seminal Vesicles
-glands that secrete a substance to nourish sperm-forms 60% of semen
endometrial layers and function
basal layer - stays consistent

functional layer - grows, sloughs off, etc
cowpers gland
either of two small glands that secrete a mucous substance into the male urethra.
Differences in cat/human
Cats have spiny, retractable penises. 0.0 Sex is not pleasureable for cats. :[ Sad.
What phase of the ovarian cycle builds up follicular fluid and causes rupture of the tertiary follicle, releasing the egg?
Follicular phaseduh...
Gene
- section of DNA on a chromosome that codes for specific enzyme
Pregnancy and Childbirth - Fertilization, what happens when sperm penetrates the descending ovum?
fertilization or conception occurs, creating a new life
What does excessive stimulation of the fetal adrenal cortex lead to? What can this cause?
androgen productionmasculinization of the female genitales
External and Internal spermatic fascia
external and internal connective tissue layers the surround the spermatic cord
What are the stages of spermatiogenesis?
Spermatogonium, primary spermatocyte, secondary spermatocyte, spermatotid, spermatozoom
Where is the seminal vesicle located
posterior (backside) portion of bladder
Diagnostic Procedures Related to Pregnancy and Childbirth - first trimester screening
noninvasive blood test combined with ultrasound as early as 11 weeks to detect Down syndrome.
In females, the unfused urogenital folds form what? males?
labia minoraspongy urethra (penis body)
functions of the male reproductive system are ? 3 things
produce sperm
sustaining and transfer sperm to females.
prdouce male sex hormones
fallopian tube
one of a pair of long, slender ducts in the female abdomen that transport ova from the ovary to the uterus and, in fertilization, transport sperm cells from the uterus to the released ova; the oviduct of higher mammals.
What, in sequence, is the hormonal regulation of ovarian activity?
1. Hypothalamus releases GnRH2. Pituitary (adenohypophosis)releases FSH and LH
Name the structures of the female reproductive system.
Ovaries, fimbrae, fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix, vagina
Prostate Cancer Treatment - What is a transurethral resection of the prostate? Also known as?
transurethral prostatectomy, removal of all or part of the prostate through the urethra
Pathology of the Male Reproductive System - Penis, impotence, also known as?
erectile dysfunction, the inability to achieve or maintain a penile erection
True or False. Testicular development lags slightly behind ovarian development.
False, ovarian dev is behind testicular dev
What structures support the uterus?
Muscles of the pelvic floor, round ligaments, transverse cervical ligaments, uterosacral ligaments.
What is the ovarian cycle
a monthly series of events that is concerned with the formation of a secondary oocyte
What are the affects of male climacteric?
Testosterone levels drop and LH/FSH levels rise.Gradual reduction in sexual activity ..yeah, right...
Pathology of the Female Reproductive System - Uterus, uterine prolapse, also known as?
pelvic floor hernia, the uterus sags from its normal position and moves part way or all the way into the vagina
Describe the need for steroids in development of the female genitalia.
little steroid production by the fetal ovary and it isn't neccesary for development of female tubular structures or female external genitalia
What are the accessory sex organs for a female?
Uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, clitoris, and mamillary glands
The reproductive system in both males and females include:
Gonads (testes, ovaries) - Ducts - Accessory glands and organs - External Genitalia
Pregnancy and Childbirth - Gestation, quickening, when does it happen?
the first movement of the fetus felt in the uterus, between the 16th to 20th week of pregnancy
The prostate gland helps in what?
The buffer the pH of vaginal entrance to pH 6
What are the functions of seminal fluid(5)
It provides a medium for the transport of sperm cells, It contains nutrients, It contains antimicrobial agents, It neutralizes the acids in the urethra of the male and the vagina, It contains chemicals that activate the sperm for entry into the ova
Diagnostic Procedures of the Male Reproductive System - prostatic-specific antigen
Known as the P-S-A testl, a screen for prostate cancer, measures the amount of P-S-A that is present in the bloodstream
What is the main nutrient found in semen and what is it used for
fructose which the sperm use for ATP production
What stage are the eggs in when they are ovulated
they have begun meiosis 2 but are stuck at metaphase 2
prepuce
foreskin
galact(o)
milk
mast/o
breast
-rrhagia
hemorrhage (suffix)
colporrhagia
vaginal hemorrhage
men/o
menses, menstruation
scrot/o
scrotum (root word)
LMP
Last Menstrual Period
gonad/o
gonads, sex glands
colp/o, vagin/o
vagina (root word)
Blastocyte
Embryonic cell (fertilized egg)
Spermatozoan
a mature sperm cell
geno-
genetic
genotype
geno- offspring

genetic: pertaining to origins (genes)

genotype: sum of genetic makeup
parturition (def)
def: synonym for childbirth
What do developing follicles produce
estrogens
Circumcision
Surgical removal of the foreskin.
Ovaries
female reproductive organs;
site of oogenesis
inflammation of the fallopian tubes
Endometriosis
The prepuce covers what?
The clitoris.
neonatal period
first 6 weeks of pregnancy
What is oogenesis
the production of eggs
implantationin uterine tubes= _______ ________(Bad)
*ectopic pregnancy
Glans Penis
The head of the penis
Menstruation, menstrual phase
1-5 days, your period
Inhibin
a hormone secreted by the sustentacular cells of the seminiferous tubules; inhibits FSH secretion from the anterior pituitary
Papanicolaou Test
"Pap smear"-exfolative biopsy to detect the presences of cervical cancer
Amniotic sac
innermost membrane surrounding the embryo
Phallo-
Phallic
Phallo- penis

Phallic: pertaining to the penis
epithelial channels in mediastinum testes
rete testes
placenta (def)
def: provides nourishment to the fetus
What does luteinizing hormone cause Leydig cells to do
secrete testosterone
Sperm move up through ___________ cords and around to posterior portion of ________ prior to _________ vesicles.
*spermatic*bladder*seminal vesicles
Female Erection
- clitoral erection and widespread sexual arousal result from stimulation of female genitalia
amniocentesis
Test of amniotic fluid obtained by insertion of a needle into the amnion
Name the female and male structures that are derived from the ureteric bud.
f-ureterm-ureter
Starting with the seminiferous tubules, describe the route taken by the sperm to the seminal vesicles.
Seminiferous tubules--tubuli recti--rete testes--efferent ductules--epididymis--vas deferens--seminal vesicles
Androgen-binding protein
a protein secreted into the seminiferous tubules by the sustentacular cells;
carries hormones created in the testis to the epididymis
ovariectomy
surgical removal of one or both ovaries
Vas Deferens
long, narrow continuation of the epididymis
What is copulation another word for?
Sex. intercorse.
______ provides the sperm cell with energy.
Fructose
acrosome
an organelle covering the head of animal sperm and containing enzymes that digest the egg cell coating, thus permitting the sperm to enter the egg.
hymen (def)
def: covers the entrance to the vagina
Testes secrete male sex hormones called
androgens (principally testosterone)
Pregnancy and Childbirth - The Amniotic Sac, what does it form?
The amniotic cavity
What do the embryonic sertoli cells produce?
anti-Mullerian hormoe
Process vaginallis
an outpocketing of the peritoneum that precedes the descent of the testes
Spermatic cord
a structure conssisting of the ductus deferens, the testicular artery and venous plexus, lymphatic vessels, nerves, fibrous remnant of the process vaginallis
Pruritus Vulvae
sever itching of the external female genitalia
efferent ductule histology
some cuboidal (secretory), some columnar (have motile cilia!)
menstrual
of or pertaining to menstruation or to the menses.
Glands secreting into vas deferens
Prostate gland - alkaline substancesSeminal vescicle - high fructoseBulbourethral gland - lubricating mucus
Which layer in the uterus builds up in preparation for implantation of a fertilized egg?
endometrium
Uterine Fibroids
Benign tumors of muscle and fat on uterus.
Pathology of Pregnancy and Childbirth - Pregnancy, preeclampsia, also known as?
pregnancy-induced hypertension, or toxemia, a pregnancy complication characterized by hypertension, edema, and proteinuria
Prostate Cancer Treatment - prostatectomy, used for what two problems?
cancer or an enlarged prostate
What is the reproductive capablity of someone who is XXX? XXY?
XXX-produce normal offspringXXY-spermatogenesis is not functional
Leydig cells produce what?
testosterone which governs the growth, form, and functions of the male reproductive tract.
Sperm are produced in ________ in _______.
seminiferous tubules; testes
Fallopian tubes (function)
Transports oocytes to uterus. Site of fertilization
What two hormones are involved in the changes of the uterine lining in preparation of implantation of a fertilized egg?
Estrogen and Progesterone
 
 
 
 
Think: Egg Plant
Briefly describe the menstrual cycle.
Follicular phase: 9-14 days, ovum develops in ovary and endometrium in uterus thickens.Luteal phase: 7-12 days, ovum travels down fallopian tube. Conception may occur.Menstrual phase: 5-7 days, If no fertilization occurs then the uterine tissue and the ovum are discharged.
Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases - gonorrhea, symptoms? spread?
painful urination, abnormal discharge from the penis or vagina, can spread to other body structures
What forms the deep inguinal ring?
opening in the transversalis fascia
What is the name for the opening of the vagina?
Vaginal orrifice
What is a zygote
a single diploid cell that arises from the union of a sperm and an egg
What is the main hormone during the luteal phase?
Progesterone, which continues preparing the uterus for implantation
Hypospadias
literally "below the fleshy spike". A condition in which the external urinary meatus (opening) opens anywhere below the tip of the penis rather than at the tip.
 
(lol)
Structures of the Male Reproductive System - External Male Genitalia - perineum
region between thighs extending from the scrotum to the anus
Diagnostic Procedures of the Female Reproductive System - colposcopy
direct visual examination of the tissues of the cervix and vagina using a binocular magnifier called a colposcope
What does the superior part of the vagina form from? lower portion?
-uterovginal primordium (Mullerian ducts)-sinuvaginal bulbs
What does the testes do?
Sperm production and the secretion of male androgens, aka testosterone.
What is the definition of seminal fluid?
A distinct ionic and nutritive glandular secretion
What do the sinovaginal bulbs develop from? What do they form?
dev from sinusal tubercleform distal 1/5 of vagina
A graffian follicle is also known as ... (hint--2 names)
Vesicular follicle or mature follicle.
What is the most important content of seminal fluid and why?
fructose - for movement of spermatozoa
what is the function of an accessory sex gland?
produce compounds to protect and transport gametes (Prostate gland, bulbourethral gland, etc.)
What are the three phases of male sexual function:
1. Arousal - erection2. Emission and ejaculation3. Detumescence
Pregnancy and Childbirth - The Mother, primipara, also referred to as?
a mother who has borne one viable child, Para I
What is the function of the vasa recta?
carries both water and solutes out of the medulla in order to maintain the concentration gradient of the medulla
Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA)
PSA is a marker protein for prostate cell secretions which can be detected with a lab test. A rising PSA may be an early sign of prostate cancer, although there may be other causes including false positive tests.
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