AP US Government 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
interest group
...
constitution
a plan of government
standing committee
a permanent congressional committee
Connecticut Compromise
constitutional convention proposal that created a House proportionate to population and a Senate in which all states were represented equally
gerrymandering
Drawing congressional district lines in a bizarre or unusual shape to make it easy for a candidate of one party to win elections in that district.
Unalienable rights
fundamental rights belonging to people, which cannot be taken away. The phrase "unalienable rights" was used in the Declaration of Independence (1776).
collective bargaining
Bargaining between representatives of labor unions and management to determine acceptable working conditions.
Seniority
The system under which committee chairs are awarded to members who have the longest continuous service on the committee.
Interested money
Financial contributions by individuals or groups in the hope of influencing the outcome of the election and subsequently influencing policy.
Dealignment
Weakening of partisan preferences that points to a rejection of both major parties and a rise in the number of Independents.
common law
judge-made body of rules/principles not grounded in specific statues
Central Intelligence Agency
U.S. espionage and information-gathering agency. The CIA operates overseas, monitoring the activities of U.S. enemies and potential enemies.
retrospective voting
voting theory that suggests that individuals who feel that they are better off as a result of certain policies are likely to support candidates who pledge
to continue those policies, and those who feel worse off are inclined to support
opposition candidates.
realignment
The major regrouping of support within political parties. The New Deal was a source of this for Democrat support, and the Reagan election did the same for Republicans.
Massachusetts Constitution
A state constitution with clear separation of powers but considered to have produced too weak a government.
joint committees
Congressional committees on a few subject-matter areas with membership drawn from both houses.
recall election
process through which voters can shorten an office holder's term
Citizen
member of the political community to whom certain rights and obligations are attached
municipalities
Another word for cities or municipal corporations.
seniority rule
a legislative practice that assigns the chair of a committee or subcommittee to the member of the majority party with the longest continuous service on the committee
Representative democracy
representatives elected by the people make the laws
Regulation
Efforts by government to alter the free operation of the market to achieve social goals such as protecting workers and the environment.
informational benefits
The educational benefits people derive from belonging to an interest group and learning more about the issues they care about.
Entitlements
those benefits guaranteed by law paid to individuals by the federal government, such as Social Security.
Brown v. Board of Education
school segregation unconstitutional--violates 1rth amendment guarantee of equal protection under the law
Spoils system
Firing of public office-holders to replace offices with those loyal to the newly elected party
"Our federalism"
Championed by Ronald Reagan, presumes that the power of the federal government is limited in favor of the broad powers reserved to the states.
City Council
The legislature in a city government
constitutional government
Form of government in which government power is vested in the people and is defined and limited by law.
Patronage
One of the key inducements used by political machines. A patronage job, promotion, or contract is one that is given for political reasons rather that for merit or competence alone
Rules committee
Determines the rules of debate for bills in the House of Representatives-also known as the calender committee
party DE-alignment
when voters move away from both parties.
Unitary government
system of government in which all authority is placed in a central government. Countries with unitary governments, such as Great Britain and France, have regional and local governments which derive their power from the central government.
issue advocacy
Promoting a particular position or an issue paid for by interest groups or individuals but not candidates. Much _____ ________ is often electioneering for or against a candidate, and until 2004 had not been subject to any regulation.
Right to privacy
protection and preservation of one's right to be let alone
blanket primaries
all voters could vote for any candidate, regardless of party
Asian Americans
The fastest growing minority group in the United States is
Implied powers
A power derived from an enumerated power and the necessary and proper clause. These powers are not stated specifically but are considered to be reasonably implied through the exercise of delegated powers
Civil Division
a division of the Department of Justice. The Civil Division deals with most of the civil cases in which the United States is a party, i.e., all civil cases which are not under the jurisdiction of any other division of the Department of Justice.
Committee Chairs
The most important influencers of the congressional agenda. They play dominant roles in scheduling hearings, hiring staff, appointing subcommittees, and managing committee bills when they are brought before the full house.
power
the ability of one person to make another act in accordance with the first person's intention
monetary policy
Economic policy in which money is controlled through the Federal Reserve.
Pluralism
A theory of government that holds that open, multiple, and competing groups can check the asserted power by any one group.
means-testing
Basing benefits from a policy on a person's wealth so that poor people get more benefits than rich people.
District courts
The 91 federal courts of original jurisdiction. They are the only federal courts in which trial are held and in which juries may be impaneled.
electoral college
the electoral system used in electing the president and vice president, in which voters vote for electors pledged to cast their ballots for a particular parties candidates
President's Cabinet
group of people whom advise the president
In US v. Lopez the Supreme Court decided that Congress had abused its powers in using the ___ clause?
commerce
safe districts
Districts in which incumbents win by margins of 55 percent or more.
Independent expenditure
The Supreme Court has ruled that individuals, groups, and parties can spend unlimited amounts in campaigns for or against candidates as long as they operate independently from the candidates. When an individual, group, or party does so, they are making an independent expenditure.
Civil Liberties
The guarantees of the safety of persons, opinions, and property from the arbitrary acts of government, including freedom of speech and freedom of religion
South Dakota v. Dole
(1987)
 
 In 1984, Congress enacted legislation ordering the Secretary of Transportation to withhold five percent of federal highway funds from states that did not adopt a 21-year-old minimum drinking age. South Dakota, a state that permitted persons 19 years of age to purchase alcohol, challenged the law. The Court held that Congress, acting indirectly to encourage uniformity in states' drinking ages, was within constitutional bounds. It addressed other, perennial issues such as spending power, the relative authority of the federal government and that of the states, and the line between inducement and encouragement. It related to questions of how or whether Congress may financially reward behavior it deemed beneficial, or withhold such rewards in the face of behavior it wanted to discourage.
 
 
antibiotic
any of a large group of chemical substances, as penicillin or streptomycin, produced by various microorganisms and fungi, having the capacity in dilute solutions to inhibit the growth of or to destroy bacteria and other microorganisms, used chiefly in the
poll taxes
Small taxes levied on the right to vote that often fell due at a time of year when poor African-American sharecroppers had the least cash on hand. This method was used by most Southern states to exclude African Americans from voting. Poll taxes were declared void by the Twenty-fourth Amendment in 1964.
Judicial Activism
belief that the Supreme Court has the right or obligation to perform judicial review.
unitary system
a political system in which all power is derived from the central government
sampling error
the level of confidence involved in a sample result—the level is dependent on the size of the sample
Line item veto
power of most governors (and President Clinton for only a few years) to delete or reduce funding in a bill on a line by line basis
Amicus curiae
a written brief which is submitted to the Supreme Court by a third party, either an individual or organization. An amicus curiae allows the opinions of the third party, with regards to the case at hand, to be considered by the court. "Amicus curiae" means "friend of the court" in Latin.
seventeenth amendment
direct of election of senators by the people
amendment
A revision or change to a bill, law, or constitution.
Dual Federalism
A system of government in which both the states and the national government remain supreme within their own spheres, each responsible for some policies.
referendum
The practice of submitting a law to a popular vote at election time. The law may be proposed by a voter's initiative or by the legislature.
justiciable dispute
A dispute growing out of an actual case or controversy and that is capable of settlement by legal methods.
Under this writ, the police have to show cause why a person is being detained or immediately release the person.
habeas corpus.
equal access act
passed in 1984, allows public high schools receiving federal funds to permit student religious groups to hold meeting in the school
Regressive Tax
A tax for which the percentage of income paid in taxes decreases as income increases
unanimous consent decree
Agreement passed by the Senate that establishes the rules under which a bill will be debated, amended, and voted upon.
Civic Duty
The feeling that one ought to do one's share in community affairs, irrespective of concrete rewards.
secretary of state
Head of the Department of State and key foreign policy adviser to the president.
Who Votes - Union Membership
Unions are resources to encourage their members to vote.
Dred Scott v. Sanford
A ruling that declared that Negroes could not be federal citizens.
Unitary Governments
A way of organizing a nation so that all power resides in the central government. Most national governments today are unitary governments.
Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)
Supreme Court case in which Court ruled that a defendant in a felony trial must be provided a lawyer for free if she cannot afford one.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Law that made racial discrimination in public places illegal and forbade many forms of job discrimination. It created the EEOC to monitor itself, provided for the withholding of federal grants to nonconformers, strengthened voting rights legislation, and authorized lawsuits that advanced desegregation.
Political culture refers to...
the overall set of values shared in society.
compelling public interest test
a process for deciding whether a given statute that limits and controls a personal right or differentiates between one person and the next due to "a suspect classification" is actually constitutional. To be a justifiable statute, a compelling (or undeniable) interest must be embodied in that law and only furthered by that law.
General agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
agreement wherein new trade barriers would be avoided by member nations, existing tariffs would be eliminated, and protective tariffs would be used only for emergency situations.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas
Supreme Court case that ended segregation and declared "separate but equal" to be unconstitutional.
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