Respiratory System 4 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
 
 
The Intrapleural Space
The pressure inside the lungs (the Intrapulmonary Pressure or Intra-alveolar pressure) must be made lower than the atmospheric pressure.
The Intrapleural Space
Pg. 249
fish gill: internal or external
internal
Which obstructive disorder is characterized by the bronchiole “hyper responsiveness” (meaning certain agents such as allergens) thus stimulating bronchoconstriction?
Asthma
Which obstructive disorder is characterized by the bronchiole “hyper responsiveness” (meaning certain agents such as allergens) thus stimulating bronchoconstriction?
Pg. 252
NAME THAT BREATHING MEASUREmaximum breath in, forcibly exhale all air
vital capacity
when brain detects hydrogen ions
increases breathing
Vocal Cords
 
 
•False vocal cords (ventricular folds) found above vocal folds (true vocal cords)
•True vocal cords attach to arytenoid cartilages
Which respiratory structures have supporting rings of cartilage and which do not?
The Trachea and The Bronchi have supporting rings of Cartilage
The smaller Bronchioles have walls of only smooth muscle
Which respiratory structures have supporting rings of cartilage and which do not?
Pg. 248
Which Chemoreceptors are responsible for 70% to 80% of the increased ventilation that occurs when the high arterial PCO2 is sustained?
Central Chemoreceptors
Which Chemoreceptors are responsible for 70% to 80% of the increased ventilation that occurs when the high arterial PCO2 is sustained?
Pg. 258
What action maintains the homeostasis of blood PO2 and PCO2?
Breathing
What action maintains the homeostasis of blood PO2 and PCO2?
Pg. 257
True or False. The Central Chemoreceptors neurons in the medulla oblongata are different neurons from those in the rhythmicity center of the medulla oblongata.
True
True or False. The Central Chemoreceptors neurons in the medulla oblongata are different neurons from those in the rhythmicity center of the medulla oblongata.
Pg. 258
the bronchus divides how many times?
23 times
does oxygen normally dissolve well in blood
no
active exhalation
other thoracic muscles contract and cause rib cage to compress more than normal. more air expelled through lungs
repiration
physical process in which oxygen moves into internal environment and carbon dioxide moves out
Epiglottis
flap that prevents food from entering larnyx; suppoted by liganments that extend form hyoid bone
What 2 “restrictive disorders” can produce an abnormally low Vital Capacity?
Pulmonary Fibrosis
and
Emphysema
What 2 “restrictive disorders” can produce an abnormally low Vital Capacity?
Pg. 252
___________ refers to the net diffusion of oxygen into the blood, and the net diffusion of carbon dioxide from blood to air.
Gas Exchange
___________ refers to the net diffusion of oxygen into the blood, and the net diffusion of carbon dioxide from blood to air.
Pg. 248
How are asthma attacks usually treated?
They are usually treated with inhaled bronchodilators that stimulate adrenergic receptors such as Epinephrine.
How are asthma attacks usually treated?
Pg. 252
What does Hyperventilation cause in regards to H+ concentration and pH?
It causes a decrease in arterial PCO2, which produces a decreased H+ concentration and an increase in the arterial pH.
What does Hyperventilation cause in regards to H+ concentration and pH?
Pg. 258
What have experiments suggested that the arterial PO2 would have to fall below for breathing to be directly stimulated by the lowered O2 levels?
Experiments suggest that the arterial PO2 would have to fall below 70 mmHg for breathing to be directly stimulated by the lowered O2.
What have experiments suggested that the arterial PO2 would have to fall below for breathing to be directly stimulated by the lowered O2 levels?
Pg. 259
Where are the Central Chemoreceptors located?
They are located in the medulla oblongata
Where are the Central Chemoreceptors located?
Pg. 257
how many lobes does the left lungs have?
2
besides using specialized structures, how can larger animals increase diffustion of oxygen into blood?
by using transport pigments
how well do oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse across these respiratory membranes?
easily
Nasal Conchae
increase surface area of nasal cavity. project from lateral walls
What is the main muscle of ventilation?
The Diaphragm
What is the main muscle of ventilation?
Pg. 251
_________ results from changes in the thoracic volume.
Ventilation
_________ results from changes in the thoracic volume.
Pg. 249
What muscle(s) allow for inspiration?
The Diaphragm
and
The External Intercostal muscles
What muscle(s) allow for inspiration?
Pg. 251
What is breathing in response to lowered arterial PO2 known as?
Hypoxic Drive
What is breathing in response to lowered arterial PO2 known as?
Pg. 259
What is formed in the following equation?
CO2 + H2O ---> _____
H2CO3 (Carbonic Acid)
What is formed in the following equation?
CO2 + H2O ---> _____
Pg. 258
True or False. At high mountain altitudes the amount of oxygen available for diffusion into the pulmonary capillaries is less.
True
True or False. At high mountain altitudes the amount of oxygen available for diffusion into the pulmonary capillaries is less.
pg. 265
What is the condition of tetanic contractions produced by hyperventilation called?
Hypocalcemic Tetany
What is the condition of tetanic contractions produced by hyperventilation called?
Pg. 264
What is the name of the sensors involved in the negative feedback control of breathing and that also monitor the blood gasses in arterial blood?
Chemoreceptors
What is the name of the sensors involved in the negative feedback control of breathing and that also monitor the blood gasses in arterial blood?
Pg. 257
Carbon Dioxide composes 0.04 of the air, what is its calculated partial pressure at sea level?
0.0004 x 760 = 0.3
Carbon Dioxide composes 0.04 of the air, what is its calculated partial pressure at sea level?
Pg. 255
Describe how to exhale
-Diaphragm pushes up, chest cavity volume decreases
air consists of:
78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 0.04 % carbon dioxide and 0.96% other gases
30% of carbon dioxide binds to what to form carbamino hemoglobin
hemoglobin
What is the name of the air-filled mucosa-lined spaces in the skull?
The Paranasal Sinuses
What is the name of the air-filled mucosa-lined spaces in the skull?
Pg. 247
What is the name of the structure where gas exchange occurs?
The Alveoli
What is the name of the structure where gas exchange occurs?
Pg. 248
What are the physical properties of the lungs that act to resist distension (stretching) and reduce lung compliance?
The Lungs:
Elasticity
and
Surface Tension
What are the physical properties of the lungs that act to resist distension (stretching) and reduce lung compliance?
Pg. 250
What is the name of the classification for disorders that can cause an abnormally low FEV1 (Forced Expiratory Volume)?
Obstructive Disorders
What is the name of the classification for disorders that can cause an abnormally low FEV1 (Forced Expiratory Volume)?
Pg. 252
What happens to the PO2 of the exercising muscles during exercise?
The PO2 of the exercising muscles decreases
What happens to the PO2 of the exercising muscles during exercise?
Pg. 261
What 2 conditions of the blood stimulate chemoreceptors?
The pH
and
The PCO2
What 2 conditions of the blood stimulate chemoreceptors?
Pg. 257
What muscle do babies use to breathe when they are first born?
The Diaphragm
What muscle do babies use to breathe when they are first born?
Pg. 259
what is hyperventilation?
small breaths only fill and empty this empty space from the mouth through the trachea
fish gills, counter current flow
blood flows opposite direction of water over gill filaments, enhances uptake of oxygen
Where are the parasinuses found?
 
and
 
What are they for?
–found in ethmoid, sphenoid, frontal & maxillary
–lighten skull & resonate voice
What is the name of the membrane that lines the inside of the thoracic wall?
The Parietal Pleura
What is the name of the membrane that lines the inside of the thoracic wall?
Pg. 249
What structures does the Respiratory Zone consist of?
It consists of:
The Respiratory Bronchioles
The Alveoli and Alveolar Sacs
What structures does the Respiratory Zone consist of?
Pg. 248
What are the names of the cells that produce the substance that lowers surface tension and prevents the alveoli from collapsing and when does it begin to be produced?
Type II Alveolar Cells
It begins to be produced in late fetal life.
What are the names of the cells that produce the substance that lowers surface tension and prevents the alveoli from collapsing and when does it begin to be produced?
Pg. 250
What 2 conditions could cause Metabolic Acidosis?
1. Uncontrolled Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (due to the overproduction of acidic ketone bodies)
2. Excessive diarrhea (due to loss of bicarbonate from pancreatic juice that would otherwise be absorbed into the blood.
What 2 conditions could cause Metabolic Acidosis?
pg. 265
What condition of the arterial blood changes as the arterial PCO2 changes?
The arterial Blood pH
What condition of the arterial blood changes as the arterial PCO2 changes?
Pg. 258
About how much of the oxyhemoglobin’s oxygen is unloaded to the tissues for cell respiration?
About one-fifth of its oxygen
About how much of the oxyhemoglobin’s oxygen is unloaded to the tissues for cell respiration?
Pg. 259
What is the name of the condition that is produced from a decrease in arterial pH due hypoventilation?
Respiratory Acidosis
What is the name of the condition that is produced from a decrease in arterial pH due hypoventilation?
Pg. 263
What parts of the nose help filter bacteria, dust and other particles from entering the respiratory system?
Hair, mucus and cilia
what kind of animals can use the body surface as their respiratory surface
small flattened animals
What is the name of the sum of 2 or more volumes measured by a spirometer?
Capacity
What is the name of the sum of 2 or more volumes measured by a spirometer?
Pg. 251
What is the name of the flap of tissue that prevents food from passing into the Larynx?
The Epiglottis
What is the name of the flap of tissue that prevents food from passing into the Larynx?
Pg. 247
What are some of the respiratory adaptations of the Natives who live in high mountains?
1. Development of enlarged “Barrel Chests” to increase alveolar ventilation
2. Increased amounts of Red Blood Cells and Hemoglobin
3. Development of many new capillaries to increase gas diffusion in the tissues
What are some of the respiratory adaptations of the Natives who live in high mountains?
Pg. 265
What is it called when some of the H+ binds to hemoglobin causing hemoglobin to serve as a buffer and which results in its bond strength with oxygen becoming weaker?
The Bohr Effect
What is it called when some of the H+ binds to hemoglobin causing hemoglobin to serve as a buffer and which results in its bond strength with oxygen becoming weaker?
Pg. 261
What does each hemoglobin molecule consist of?
Each hemoglobin molecule consists of four polypeptide chains (2 alpha and 2 beta chains produced by different genes), which are bound to four iron-containing disc-shaped organic pigment molecules called “Hemes”.
What does each hemoglobin molecule consist of?
Pg. 260
what mush be maintained in order to keep lungs pushing against thoracic cavity
difference in intrapulmonary and intrapleural pressure
What glands drain into the nasal cavities?
The Lacrimal glands (Tear Glands) drain into the nasal cavities by way of the tear ducts.
What glands drain into the nasal cavities?
Pg. 246
What would happen in regards to loading and unloading reaction if the blood pH were to increase?
Hemoglobin would load with slightly more oxygen in the lungs, but would unload less as it travels through the systemic capillaries.
What would happen in regards to loading and unloading reaction if the blood pH were to increase?
Pg. 261
What would an asthmatic person’s FEV1 be approximately in contrast to another person of the same age that does not have asthma?
A person with asthma might have an FEV1 of approximately 60%, where as the non-asthmatic person of the same age has an FEV1 of about 80%.
What would an asthmatic person’s FEV1 be approximately in contrast to another person of the same age that does not have asthma?
Pg. 252
How and why does Shallow Water Blackout occur?
When a swimmer Hyperventilates at the side of the pool, the hyperventilation blows off CO2, which abnormally reduces the amount of free hydrogen ion (H+) in the blood, causing the pH to rise. The swimmer has now reduced the main stimulus for breathing. When the swimmer goes underwater and swims vigorously, reduction of available oxygen levels in the blood occur. A the Oxygen levels decrease, insufficient Oxygen for aerobic metabolism results, thereby reducing the levels of ATP in the brain which results in unconsciousness.
How and why does Shallow Water Blackout occur?
Pg. 259
What happens to the larynx when food is swallowed?
The Larynx moves upward against the Epiglottis
What happens to the larynx when food is swallowed?
Pg. 247
How many heme group are there per hemoglobin and how many Oxygen molecules can each hemoglobin molecule bind to?
There are four heme groups per hemoglobin
Each hemoglobin molecule can bond to four molecules of oxygen.
How many heme group are there per hemoglobin and how many Oxygen molecules can each hemoglobin molecule bind to?
Pg. 260
what three things must be done to air once it enters the body?
it must be warmed, filtered, and moistened
What does the compliance of the lungs refer to?
It refers to their ability to distend (stretch)
What does the compliance of the lungs refer to?
Pg. 250
Why is the amount of oxygen (or carbon dioxide) dissolved in the blood determined by partial pressures in the air within the alveoli?
Because the solubility of oxygen (or carbon dioxide) is a physical constant, and blood temperature is maintained relatively constant. Therefore the amount of oxygen (or carbon dioxide) dissolved in the blood is determined by their partial pressures in the air within the alveoli.
Why is the amount of oxygen (or carbon dioxide) dissolved in the blood determined by partial pressures in the air within the alveoli?
Pg. 256
what is the formula for ATP?
C6 H12 O6 + O2 --> CO2 + H2O + 36ATP
pyo-
pus
pleur
pleura
-ecstasies
dilation;stretching;widening
epiglott/o
epiglottis
aaa
aaa
SaO2
>95%
BS
breath sounds
-pnea
breathing (suffix)
bradypnea
slow breathing
SIDER-
combining formiron
Trachea
trache/o
wind pipe
anthracosis
black lung.
Superior
Towards the top
VTG
thoracic gas volume
trach(e)-, trachy-
Combining Formtrachea
ascites
accumulation of fluid
Hyperventilation
abnormally increased breathing
spir/o
breathe
 
ex. spir/o/meter - instrument for measuring breathing
Epistaxis
nosebleed (synonymous with rhinorrhagia)
bacter(i)-
combining form(small staff) bacterium
Respiration
includes four components;
ventilation, the movement of air into and out of the lungs;
gas exchange between the air in the lungs and the blood;
transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood;
gas exchange between the blood and the tissues
tracheitis
Inflammation of the trachea.
Larynx connects
pharynx and trachea
inspiration
taking air into the lungs
Asthma
Inflammation of the airways, bronchospasms and obstruction of airflow, inhibiting breathing; characterized by wheezing and coughing and shortness of breath
-spasm
sudden, involuntary muscle contraction (suffix)
Laryngoplegia
paralysis of the the larynx
hypoxemia
insufficient oxygen in the blood
rales
These are discontinuous nonmusical sounds heard primarily during inspiration. They are also called crackles.
Trachea located
anterior to the esophagus
adventitia
layer of trachea reinforced internally by 16 to 20 C shaped rings of hyaline cartilage
Innermost intercostal
Origen: ribs 1-11Insertion: inferior-laterally to immediate ribInnervation: Intercostal nerves arising from T2-T11 Function: depress ribs 1-11
hypoxia
inadequate O2 delivery to tissues because of: too few RBC's, abnormal or too little HB, blocked circulation, metabolic poisons, pulmonary disease, carbon monoxide
oro, laryngo
materials entering digestive pass through 2 of the pharynx
What connects respiratory bronchioles to alveoli?
-alveolar ducts
THORAX, THORAC-
combining formchest cavity, pleural cavity, thorax
thoracotomy
Major surgical incision of the chest
sputum
Matter ejected from the lungs, bronchi, and trachea through the mouth. The consistency of this matter can be a major factor in determining the pathology of a respiratory problem. It can be watery and clear, purulent (containing pus), viscous (thick), or bloody. Its color may also be significant: clear, yellow, green, brown, or combinations thereof.
division of respiratory system responsible for transporting air between the outside of the body and deep into the lungs
conducting division
inhalation
an act or instance of inhaling.
alveolar pores
connect adjacent alveoli and equalize lung pressure
CHLORIDE SHIFT
 IN THE PLASMA THERE IS NACL WHEN THE HCO3- LEAVES THE RBC, IT COMBINES WITH NA+ IN THE PLASMA TO CREATE SODIUM BICARBONATE LOSS OF A NEGATIVE CHARGE FROM INSIDE THE RBC CAUSES CHLORIDE FROM THE PLASMA TO ENTER THE RBC
Factors influencing pulmonary ventilation
airway resistancealveolar surface tensionlung compliance
What are the organs that conduct respiration?
-nose-pharynx-oropharynx-laryngopharynx-larynx
PNEUMONCONIOSIS
ABNORMAL CONDITION CAUSED BY DUST IN THE LUNGS, WITH CHRONIC INFLAMMATION, INFECTION, AND BRONCHITIS.
These represent the first structures in which the exchange of gases occur.
respiratory bronchioles
most important muscle next to the heart
diaphragm
Alveoli
small sacs that form the functional unit of the lungs
parietal
The pleura that lines the thoracic wall and diaphragm.
Pleura
Membranes that surround each lobe of the lung and separates the lung from the chest wall.
What is the structure through which air passes from the mouth to the trachea?
larynx
tonsillectomy
the operation of excising or removing one or both tonsils.
hypercapnia
high levels of blood CO2, and thus high levels of H+ ion
INTRAPLEURAL PRESSURE
PRESSURE WITHIN THE PLEURAL CAVITY. IT IS ALWAYS LOWER THAN BOTH ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE AND INTRAPULMONARY PRESSURE
What is the Bronchial tree passageway
Primary bronchi
Secondary bronchi
Tertiary bronchi
Bronchioles
Terminal bronchioles
Metered-Dose Inhaler (MDI)
A handheld device that delivers medication in droplet form so that it can be inhaled. A spacer can be used to assist those who struggle using a MDI.
An organ in the neck of mammals involved in protection of the trachea and sound production. Houses the vocal cords, and is situated just below where the tract of the pharynx splits into the trachea and the esophagus.
larynx
vital capacity
lung volume that represents the total volume of exchangeable air
tube that air travels through to get to the lungs
trachea
"Head" cold
Viral infection of nasal passage and pharynx
lower respiratory system
begins with the trachea and encompasses the lungs and bronchi.
true vocal cords (vocal folds) vibrate to produce sound as ____ rushes up from the _____?
air
lungs
Basic Pathway
Nose -> Pharynx -> Trachea -> Bronchi -> Lungs
obstructive disease
increases in TLC, FRC, and RV may occur as a result of obstructive disease. Increased airway resistance, such as bronchitis
Peak Flow Meter
A handheld device that the patient breathes into to measure lung capacity.
Pneumothorax
accumulation of of air or gas in the pleural space causing the lung to collapse
endotracheal intubation
Placement of a tube through the mouth into the pharynx, larynx, and trachea to establish an airway
Hemophilus influenzae
This is the second most common cause of bacterial pneumonia. The most serious strain of this is type b, which is usually called Hib pneumonia.
What do the coronary arteries do?
Feed the heart muscle
FUNCTIONAL RESIDUAL CAPACITY
AMOUNT OD AIR REMAINING IN THE LUNGS FOLLOWING EXHALATION DURING QUIET BREATHING.
AMOUNT (ML): 2300
The area of the respiratory system that includes the larynx and respiratory tree is called the
a. bronchi
b. upper respiratory tract
c. respiratory portion
d. lower respiratory tract
e. conducting portion
d. lower respiratory tract
What is tension?
The forces that must be overcome to expand the volume in a flexible container.
Structural changes r/t aging
dec. Elastic recoil, dec. Chest wall compliance, Inc. Anteroposterior diameter, dec. Functioning aveoli
What happens when you breath?
the diaphram and intercostal muscles contract and relax
What is nitrogen narcosis?
When you become drunk off of the nitrogen in your blood. This happens in deep sea divers.
Vestibular folds (false vocal cords)
these come together to prevent food and liquids from entering the larynx during swallowing and prevent air from leaving the lungs, as when a person holds their breath
The results of PFTs are used to
diagnose pulmonary disease, monitor disease progression, evaluate disability, and evaluate response to bronchodilators.
What does the aorta do?
Carries oxygenated blood out of heart. Leaves left ventricle and loops over the aortic arch
Why might you control your breathing when you are engaging in strenuous exercise but not control it when you are relaxing?
Because during strenuous exercise you need more oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange and in order to do so one must exert control over breathing patterns.
During the Heimlich maneuver where should your hands be placed?
Between the person's navel and the bottom of the rib cage.
The pulmonary circulation of the lung
transports blood to and from the gas exchange surfaces of the lungs
What are the names for the two types of vocal cords?
True and False vocal cords.
What is the primary role of the respiratory system?
To bring oxygen from the atmosphere into the body cells and to eliminate carbon dioxide produced by the body cells.
What is the role of the oropharynx in the respiratory system?
It is the location where the respiratory passage and digestive system come together. In the oropharynx are housed the palatine tonsils (to the sides) and the lingual tonsils (at the base of the tongue).
dys-
difficulty
diaphragmat
diaphragm
Steth/o
chest
thorac/o
chest
atel/o
incomplete
Pyrexia
fever
viscer/o
internal organs
cause unknown
ideopathic
BM
bowel movement
alveol/o
alveolus, air sac
tonsill/o
tonsil (combining form)
HPS
Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome
alve-
combining formhollow, cavity
npo
nothing by mouth
Glottis
Opening into larynx
Emphysema
Pollutants destroy tracheal epitheliaWaste products collect in alveoliAlveoli degenerateDecreased surface area Barrel chestReduced diaphragm contractionIncrease susceptibility to respiratory disease
orth/o
straight
 
ex. orth/o/pnea - straight breathing
bronchoplasty
surgical repair of bronchus
pneum(at)-
combining form(breath) air, gas
pneumothorax
air in the chest
Alveolar macrophages
Engulf foreign particles
What is an insoluble gas?
N2
An increased heart rate, vasoconstriction and an increased respiratory rate would be symptoms of respiratory____.
Acidosis
STRIDOR
STRAINED, HIGH-PITCHED, NOISY SOUND MADE OF INSPIRATION; ASSOCIATED WITH OBSTRUCTION OF THE LARYNX OR TRACHEA.
paresis
Combining Formslackening of strength, paralysis
pleurisy (pleuritis)
Inflammation of the pleura
adenoids
lymphatic tissue in nasopharynx; pharyngeal tonsils
Secondary bronchi in left lung
2
Pharynx
part of the upper respiratory tract
Scalenus posterior
Origen: transverse process of C5-C7Insertion: inferiorily to rib2Innervation: Spinal nerves C5-C8Function: elevate rib 2
a-, an-
without or absence of (prefix)
This separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity.
diaphragm
4. arytenoid cartilages
– paired; 
*small; 
*pyramid shaped; 
*located at the posterior, 
*superior border of cricoid cartilage; 
*attached to vocal folds.
Empyema
purulent pleural fluid with bacterial infection
consolidation
A pathologic process where normally aerated lung tissue is converted into a dense, airless mass.
rhinorrhea
discharge of mucus from the nose
Causes of laryngitis
Resp. Infection, Resp. Inhalant/irritant, excessive shouting, smoking
Corniculate and cuneiform
connect epiglottis to arytenoid cartilage
Upper Respiratory(Structual)
The Nose, Pharynx, and associated structures.
Trachea consists of:
Flexible mucosal tubeContracted smooth muscleslined with ciliated epithelia16-20 hyaline cartilage rings
Pulmonary embolism
Obstruction or occlusion of a pulmonary vessel by an embolus (foreign materal or blood clot)
exchange of gases b/t atmosphere & cells of body
respiration
Laryng/ovs.Pharyng/o
Larynx vs. PharynxPharynx: Serves as a food and air passageway. Air enters from the nasal cavities and passes through the pharynx to the larynx. Food enters the pharynx from the mouth and passes into the esophagus (also called the throat)Larynx: Location of the vocal cords. Air enters from the pharynx (also called the voice box)
Curved, scroll-like bones that project medially from the lateral wall of each nasal cavity.
Nasal conchae (turbinates)
What is Aspirations?
the inhalation of foriegn objects
Flail chest
a condition which multiple rib fractures cause instability in oart of the chest wall which the lung under the injured area contracts on inspiration and bulges out on expiration
the parynx _____, ____, and _____ sound quality?
resonates
amplifies
enhances
Coughing reflex attempts
to expel material from larynx
an/osmia
loss or impairment of the sense of smell, which usually occurs as a temporary condition
an-: without, not
Given the known values, oxgen will move from the ___________ and into the arterial blood and the from the arterial blood and into the ____________.
alveoli, tissues
Rhomboideus Minor
Origen: spinous process of C7 & T1Insertion: Inferior-laterally to scapulaInnervation: Brachial plexus C5Function: stabilized pectoral girdle
Each tertiary bronchus leads to one
a. septum
b. lobe
c. bronchopulmonary segment
d. lung
e. none of the above
c. bronchopulmonary segment
Adenoid
One of two masses of lymphoid tissue located at the back of the nose in the upper part of the throat that may obstruct normal breathing and make speech difficult when swollen. Often used in the plural.
patent
Open or unblocked, such as a patent airway
External Intercostals
when they contract, they elevate the ribs which results in an increase in anteroposterior and lateral diameters of the chest cavity; 
*responsible for 25% of the air entering lungs during normal quiet breathing.
pleural effusion
Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleural space
The _____ bronchus is more vertical and larger then the ______ bronchus
right, left
The capillaries in the lungs flow together and return to the heart in the ___________ ____________.
pulmonary veins
cough
to expel air from the lungs suddenly with a harsh noise, often involuntarily.
What other muscles become involved during forced inspiration?
Sternocleidomastoid, scalenes, and pectoralis minor all act to increase thoracic volume.
What drives ventilation
Change in air pressure between the atmosphere and the alveoli
What are alveolus?
-air filled pockets within the lungs where all gas exchange takes place-a capillary network surrounds each alveolus-surrounded by elastic fibers
Trachea: location
: Anterior to the esophagus; runs from the larynx inferiorly where it divides into the right and left primary bronchi (aka: main bronchi).
Diffusion
How O2 and CO2 are moved back and forth across the alveolar capillary membrane
Spiriva spiriva spiriva spiriva spiriva spiriva spiriva spiriva spiriva spiriva sipiriva spiriva
spiriva spiriva spiriva spiriva spiriva spiriva spiriva spiriva spiriva spiriva spiriva spiriva spiriva spiriva spiriva spiriva
secondary bronchus
serves as the airway to a specific lobe of the lung
What occurs in infant respiratory distress syndrome?
Too little surfactant, requires ventilation and surfactant replacement.
What are alveoli?
Microscopic air sacs in the lungs that help transfer oxygen to the blood.
Describe a pneumothorax.
An opening in the thoracic wall or lung that allows air into pleural cavity and causes pleural pressure to increase and become equal to atmospheric pressure, so... alveoli don't expand and lung collapses.
paranasal sinuses
Air pockets in the skull formed by the configuration of the facial bones.
The respiratory membrane is composed of:
the alveolar membrane, the capillary wall, and their fused basement membrane
Phagocytes of the respiratory system that originate from monocytes.
Dust cells
 
NOTE: Dust cells in smokers have lots of residual bodies; vaccules in them that do not digest.
What do the dust cells do?
they are macrophages that remove debris from the air from alveoli
Assessment of the nose
mucous mem should be pink and moist, with no evidence of edema (bogginess), exudate or bleeding
cartiaginous rings to plates of cartilage then none.pseudostratified columnar to columnar to cuboida. cilia becomes sparser.amount of smooth muscle around the bronchi and bronchioles increases.
changes over time from trachea to terminal bronchioles
Pneumoconiosis
"an abnormal condition of dust in the lungs".
 
A generic name for conditions where toxic particles become trapped in the lungs and cause symptoms and disability such a "black lung" or "miner's lung" disease. Terms specific to the particulate matter may be given such as asbestosis.
The pairs of passage ways through the nasal cavity are ______,______, and ______
Inferior meatus, middle meatus, superior meatus
How is the pressure outside the lungs related to the endothoracic pressure?
The pressure differences create a gradient which helps to control breathing.
Arterial oxygen saturation can be monitored continously using a pulse oximetry probe on the..
finger, toe, ear, or bridge of the nose.
What is the role of Bowman's glands in the nose?
Secretes a material which solubilizes odor molecules so that olfactory cells can sense them.
If a patient is a smoker, sputum is usually
clear to gray with occasional specks of brown
/ 286
Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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