Respiratory Terminology Flashcards

Terms Definitions
through, across
slow respiration
Beclomethasone, prednisone
process of measuring
breathing out (exhalation)
Findings:*Decreased breath sounds*Dyspnea (SOB)*Tachycardia
pseudostratified columnar epithelium with goblet cellmucous and debris from nasal cavity swallowedopening of Eustachian (auditory) tubeway that passes through them to equalize air pressure between atmosphere and middle ear
Chronic obstructive lung disease
Diffuse pulmonary interstitial fibrosis cuased by inhaled asbestos fibers. Increased risk fo pleural mesothelioma and bronchogenic carcinoma. Long latency. Ferruginous bodies in lung (asbestos fibers coated with hemosiderin). Ivory-white pleural plaques.
Asbestosis and smoking greatly increase risk fo bronchogenic cancer (Smoking not additive with mesothelioma). Seen in shipbuilders and plumbers. 
Who Gets TB?
Inner-city neighborhoods
Foreign born
Health Care workers
Nutrition; respiratory infections; respiratory dev. In early life; Chronic exposure to cigarette smoke are some other risk factors that have ___ significant effects on respiratory function than smoking does?
Pneumoconioses (coal miner's silicosis, asbestosis)
What lines the nasal cavity?
cheyne-Stokes respiration
repeated breathing pattern characterized by fluctuation int he depth of respiration, first deeply ,then shallow, the not at all
Oxygen Consumption = Minute Ventilation i X (Fraction of O2 inhaled - Fraction of O2 exhaled)
allele associated with alpha1 antitrypsin deficiency?
HCO3; Acceptor of hydrogen ions
_______ is characterized by irreversible bronchoconstriction and includes emphysema and chronic bronchitis.
Theophylline inhibits PDE, decreases adenosine
Bronchiectasis: Chronic necrotizing infection of bronchi
Chronic Bronchitis
Percuss over the ____ spaces
Nares (nostrils) to Choanae
opening into pharynx
stimulate bronchial muscles to relax, thereby expanding air passages, resulting in increased air flow
Intrinsic asthma
nonimmune cause (aspirin/drugs, lung infection, cold, inhaled irritants, stress, & exercise), often onset in adulthood. Prognosis is worse than extrinsic asthma. often coexists with or has similarities to chronic bronchitis.
may not be distinguishable from bacterial bronchopneumonias, although localized infection or even poorly formed granulomas are possible. Severely neutropenic patients are at risk.
A 2-year-old child has croup.
Hemophilus influenzae
Arachnidonic acid products
Lipoxygenase pathway yields Leukotrienes (increase bronchial tone) (Zileuton, Zafirlukast, Montelukast inhibit)
LTB4 is a neutrophil chemotactic agent
LTC4, D4 and E4 function in bronchoconstriction, vasoconstriction, contraction of smooth muscle, and increases vascular permeability
PGI2 inhibits platelet aggregation and promotes vasodilation
Why use Streptomycin?
Streptomycin-first-choice drug if multidrug resistance is suspected-must be administered iv or i.m.
alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency leads to increased activity of what?
Involves destruction of the alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, and respiratory bronchioles. It is most prominent in the lower lobes and is seen with A-antitrypsin defiency
Mechanical Receptors
Stimulated by irritants, muscle stretching, and aveolar wall distortion.
Anion Gap
Reflection of normally unmeasured anions in the plasma; helpful in differential diagnosis of acidosis
trachea displacement for hemothorax
toward injured side
________ _________ constitutes 90-95% of all lung cancers. It is aggressive, locally invasive, and widely metastatic.
Bronchogenic Carcinoma
Staph AUREUS (gold/yellow), ANAEROBES
Pleural effusion: Transudate
to have an immunological reaction against a transplanted organ or grafted tissue
A sunken anterior abdominal wall, especially noted with diaphragmatic hernia
a chemical phenomenon in which an organic molecule splits into simpler substances
What prevents food and liquids from entering the larynx?
Squamous cell carcinoma
keratin pearl formation, cytoplasmic keratin, or at least intercellular bridges, (well, moderately, or poorly differentiated). About 90% of squamous cell carcinomas arise in segmental or larger bronchi. Chest X-ray often shows a large cavitary hilar mass, have both endobronchial and invasive growth into the peribronchial soft tissue, lung and adjacent lymph nodes.
Total Lung Capacity - Volume at maximal inspiration. Does not change much with age. TLC = RV + ERV + VT + IRV
Frequent agent of pneumonia in adults?
Streptococcus pneumonia-alpha-helmolytic-capsule makes it resistant to phagocytosis
Nasal Meatus
Series of groovelike passageways that sub divides nasal cavity (superior, middle, and inferior)
this drug is a 5-lipoxygenase pathway inhibitor that blocks conversion of arachidonic acid to leukotrienes
Aspiration PNA
Sequelae occurring from abnormal entry of secretions or substances into the lower airway
this drug is a leukotriene modifier
montelukast (Singulair)
tension pneumothorax
emergency, with each inspiration air trapped in pleural space, medialstinum shift
____ O2 delivery system delivers 60-75% O2 concentration and 6-11 L/min?
Partial Rebreather
Pink tinged mucoid sputum usually indicate there is a ____ ______.
lung tumor
The process of gas exchange b/w atmospheric air and the blood at the alveoli, and between the blood cells and the cells of the body.
Pulmonary vasoCOSTRICTION
Shifts blood away from poorly ventilated regions of lung to well-ventilated ones
Blocks conversion of arachidonic acid to LTs
Zafirlukast, Montelukast
What kind of percussional sound will emphysema have?
the treatment of disease by chemicals that have a specific toxic effect upon the disease-producing microorganisms or cancerous tissue
not entering or penetrating the body or disturbing body tissue, such as in a diagnostic procedure
chest shape in chronic lung disease
Barrel chest
Paranasal Sinuses and Nasal Cavity
resonating chambers for speech
Hypoxic Hypoxia
PO2 of arterial blood is low, Hypoxemia, i.e. COPD, Emphysema, high altitude.
Mycoplasma pneumonia
atypical pneumonia, is little or no sputum production and a modest WBC count elevation, Half of patients have cold agglutinins. It is oftendiagnosed empirically by a high cold agglutinin titer and by a response to erythromycin.
What is Intrinsic Asthma
Intrinsic Asthma␣ Viral respiratory infections, most common trigger.␣ Exercise, cold air, drugs (aspirin, tartrazine dye, bronchodilators), inhaled irritants or air pollution.␣ Usually no allergic or asthma family history.␣ Initiated by non-immune mechanisms.
MOA of Amphotericin B
Amphotericin B• Mechanism of Action– Fungicidal or fungistatic– Binds to ergosterol in mycosal membranes– Forms pores– Binds with lower affinity to cholesterol
Nose function
-Warm and moisten air-Filter and trap dust,etc.-Recieve olfactory stimuli-Modify sound
vital capacity = ?
TB: Clinical Manifestations
Cough that becomes white, frothy sputum
weight loss
low-grade fever
night sweats
this class of meds reduce symptoms by suppressing the inflammatory response
nursing interventions for pneumonia
increase fluid intake, antibiotics, C&DB w/ IS, positioning, suctioning, monitor O2
What O2 delivery system delivers 40-60% O2 concentration for short term usage and a minimum of 5 L/min?
Simple Face Mask
The collapse of the alveoli caused by hypoventilation, obstruction to the airways, or compression is called _______.
A ______ ______ refers to the obstruction of the pulmonary artery of one or more of its branches by a thrombus that originates somewhere in the venous system or on the right side of the heart
Pulmonary emboli
Where can pain from the diaphragm be referred?
8 x viscosity x length------------------------Pi x r^4
Oxygen content of blood
Autoimmune or lymphoproliferative disorders, i.e. Sjogren's syndrome. More cellular interstitial infiltrates with bluish giant cells and non-necrotizing granulomas.
Non-caseating granulomas in the lung?
either of the two lower chambers on each side of the heart that receive blood from the atria and in turn force it into the arteries.
a device or substance used for the analysis or detection of diseases or other medical conditions
Sternal Angle Location
where manubrium and sternum fuse (notch)
Regulation of blood pH
altered by changing blood carbon dioxide levels
Conversion of BTPS(Lung gas Volume, = body temp, baro press, saturated with water vapor) to STPD (Blood gas = Stand temp. press dry)
(273/310)(PB - 47)/760
Pathology of bronchiectasis
The airways are markedly and often irregularly dilated. If there is active infection and inflammation, there will be acute and chronic inflammation in the bronchial walls with loss of the respiratory mucosa, ulcers, and even necrosis. There will also be scarring of the wall, often with loss of the bronchial cartilage.
Airway Obstruction S/S
Conscious choking: If victim can speak on breath encourage them to cough. If not, then administer up to five abdominal thrusts.
Conscious to unconscious choking: place supine. Open the airway and do a finger sweep. Attempt to ventilate. Administer up to five abdominal thrusts, do a finger sweep. Continue until the airway is cleared.
Uncoscious choking: Establish unreponsiveness, activate 9-1-1. Open the airway, attempt to ventilate, reposition the head and re-ventilate. If unsuccessful, administer up to 5 abdominal thrusts, do a finger sweep. Continue up the foreign object is expelled.
How do you tx. Strep Throat
Strep Throat -Treatment-noncontagious on day 2 of tx-Penicllin (10d) is drug of choice
Nasal Cavity
A mucosa lined cavity on either side of the nasal septum that opens onto the face @external nares and into internal nares
air that moves into lung with each quiet inspiration?
tidal volume
Cardinal S & S of Pulmonary Disease
Dyspnea (SOB, DOE)
Chest pain
risk factors for pnuemonia
advanced age, smoker, URI, immobility, immunosuppression,malnutrition, dehydration, chronic disease,tracheal intubation
What is hypoxemia?
low levels of O2 in the blood
A patient's total lung capacity may be decreased due to ______ diseases such as atelactasis or pneumonia and ______ in COPD patients.
compliance, increased.
Diffuse alveolar damage --> Increased alveolar capillary permeability --> Protein-rich leakage into alveoli
Initial damage sources: ARD
In a patient with lobar pneumonia, what kind of breath sounds would characterize the majority of those heard in the fields with pneumonia involvement?
Bronchial or bronchovesicular.
Posterior 7th rib location
inferior angle of scapula (bottom point of scapula), below this is either the 7th rib or 7th intercostal space
Bronchiectasis: inhaled steroids
• CF– Neither benefit nor harm• Non-CF– Reduced sputum– Improved lung function– Reduced markers of inflammation
How should pyrazinamide associated polyarthralgia be managed? How should pyrazinamide associated gout be managed?
• Hyperuricemia is a common adverse effect of pyrazinamide therapy; the incidence is probably reduced by concurrent rifampin therapy. Clinical gout is seen only rarely. Polyarthralgias are encountered fairly commonly but are not related to the hyperuricemia.
Current Situation on H5N1?
Avian Influenza A (H5N1)- most have occurred in ppl who have had direct contact w/ infected poultury, or ingestion, or contact w/ contaminated surfaces or water (direct intranalsa or conjunctival contact).-most cases-->previously healthy children and young adults3-5 days after exposure=fever, respiratory symptoms, lymphopenia, diarrhea, then severe respiratory disease (ARDS)-Diarrhea, acute encephalitis, but no respiratory symptoms in some childre-time course about two weeks, -severity of disease though to be due to its tissue tropism-ubiquitous protease throughout the body to enter cell
What is the Eitology of Epiglottitis?
Epiglottitis-Etiology: H. spp. S. aureus-cases have declined after Hib-vaccine
When performing fremitus on a patient's back you notice increased vibrations over a portion of his right lung but decreased resonance in that part. What does he have?
lobar pneumonia in right lung
Three important concepts of Hypercapnic failure
PaCO2 higher then normal

body unable to compensate for acidemia

pH at level where further increase could lead to severe acid-base imbalance
these meds are the preferred tx as daily long-term control asthma meds
inhaled corticosteroids (ICS)
Influenza immunizations provide protection against?
Against the most serious viruses but not against all types of respiratory infections
INH (Isoniazid) is used to treat TB. People on this drug should avoid foods with _______ and ______. For example, tuna, aged cheese, red wine, soy sauce, yeast extracts.
tyramine & histamine
CO poisoning
CO binds to Hb 200x more strongly than O2
1. Smooth muscle hypertrophy2. Replacement of Clara cells with goblet cells3. Small airway goblet cell metaplasia
T/F: COPD involves equal obstruction during inspiration and exhalation.
What are the functions of the nasal cavity?
Conditions (cleans) the air
Aminoglycosides: use and toxicity
Tobramycin, Gentamicin. Bind 30S. Used for severe gram - infections. Nephro and ototoxicity
base of the lung
lower portion of the lung; from the Greek basis, foundation. Basilar means pertaining to the base.
What is the significance of Mannose binding Lectin?
MBL (Mannose Binding Lectin)-importnat in first-line defense aganist viruses-pts w/ SARs more likely to have MBL gene haplotype w/ low or deficient levels of MBL
What is the Bohr effect?
In tissues, increased H+ ions shifts dissociation curve to right for better O2 unloading
Causes of Acute Bronchitis
Common causes are viral, but can be caused by bacteria also
Why might you have trouble reinserting a tracheostomy tube that has fallen out?
they might have a luggie
The clinical manifestations of TB include what?
Progressive fatigue, Low grade fever, Weigt loss (patient has anorexia and waste away), night sweats, irregular menses, cough with mucopurulent drainage that is yellow or green, hemoptysis, and dull aching chest pain.
What is the definition of hypopnea?
Reduction of airflow (not complete occlusion) accompanied by O2 desaturation of 4% or more.
Hemoptysis for several weeks results in a workup for a 70 year old man, a non-smoker, that reveals a 6 cm left perihilar cavitary mass by chest CT scan. Sputum cytologic examination reveals atypical cells present consistent with squamous cell carcinoma. A
This is a large, unresectable cancer with a poor prognosis because distant nodes are involved. The second most common cause for lung cancer is probably radon gas (if passive smoking is included with smoking as a risk).
What is a Ghon Focus?
Ghon Focus--> area of caseous necrosis where the TB organism first implants in the lung, usually mid chest
What is residual volume?
the volume of air in Lungs you will never ever be able to exhale
How does the chest wall and musculoskeletal structures change as you get older?
Ribs & vertebrae become osteoporotic, the costal cartilage becomes calcified & the respiratory muscles become weaker. This means diminished respiratory efficiency & leads to the use of accessory muscles—particularly the diaphragm, so they become increasi
Veins and lymphatics drain along BORDERS of bronchopulmonary segment
Which bronchus is more likely to contain a foreign body?
Ask patient to inspire/expire when doing PA and lateral films? What distance away?
Standing up, inspire to full capacity, six feet away.
The mechanism of hypoxia in pulmonary edema is...
V/Q mismatch. Alveolar edema causes hypoxemia chiefly because of blood flow to unventilated units. V/Q mismatch
functional residual capacity = ?
RV + ERV (volume in lungs after normal expiration)
Obstructive sleep apnea is caused by ___-airway obstruction by the ____ or ____.
Obstructive sleep apnea is caused by upper-airway obstruction by the soft palat or tongue
A mast-cell stabilizer, used in asthmatic children.
What drugs were covered in this block concerning smoking cessation and how do they work?
Which of the following does NOT apply to the alveoli at the base of the lungs? A. They are less elastic than the alveoli at the apex. B. The pleural pressure is lower. C. At FRC they aere les inflated than the alveoli at the apex. D. They are clos
The elastic properties of lung tissue are the same at the base as the apex. A
How long does it take for Chlamydia to fully replicate?
Chlamydia life cycle takes 48-72 hrs
Immunizations do not offer immediate protection because?
Because there is a 2-3 week delay in developing an antibody response
Pulmonary TB cough is productive, restrictive lung dzes like UIP and asbestosis employ dry coughs.
T/F: If a TB regimen is not improving a pt's dz course, then consider adding another drug like streptomycin.
What is the cause of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome?
baby born < 35 weeks does not make adequate surfactant --> alveolar collapse (Tx artificial surfactant)
Zone 1 (apex): Alveolar pressure #1*PA > Pa > Pv
Zone 2: Alveolar pressure #2*Pa > PA > Pv
To which of the following is alveolar PCO2 directly proportional?
Rate of CO2 production and rate of O2 consumption. PCO2 is inversely proportional to alveolar ventilation
DLCO goes down due to loss of total alveolar surface area in contact with the pulmonary microvasculature.
At what age does lung tissue atrophy (and thus most PFT volumes) begin?
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