AP US History Flashcards

Terms Definitions
"scabs"
Strikebreakers
sui dynasty founder
wendi
socialism
Socialists advocated government protection of workers from exploitation by property owners and government ownership of industries. This ideology led to the founding of socialist or labor parties in the late 1800s. (709)
ali was
authority of ottoman
World Bank
created to reconstruct Europe
TVA
The Tennessee Valley Authority federation was created in 1933 in order to provide navigation, flood control, electricity generation, fertilizer manufacturing, and economic development in the Tennessee Valley, a region particularly impacted by the Great Depression
Phoenicians
Semitic-speaking Canaanites living on the coast of modern Lebanon and Syria in the first millennium B.C.E. From major cities such as Tyre and Sidon, Phoenician merchants and sailors explored the Mediterranean, and engaged in widespread commerce. (103)
coalesce
to blend or come together:
Mehmed the Conquerer Conquered what city?
Constantinople
Iconociasm
726 CE. The iconoclastic controversy was the bitter battle over the use of images, or icons, in Christian worship as a response to the Arab invasions. An Iconoclast is an "image breaker" or a person who rejects the veneration of icons because its idolatrous.
al Qaeda
Islamist terrorist organization that launched a series of attacks against U.S.
White
Dominions Colonies in which European settlers made up the overwhelming majority of the population; small numbers of native inhabitants were typically reduced by disease and wars of conquest; typical of British holdings in North America and Australia with growing independence in the 19th century.
Jamestown
The first permanent English settlement in North America, found in East Virginia
Mary Wollstonecraft
Enlightenment feminist thinker in England; argued that new political rights should extend to women
Mayflower
boat (headed by Captain Myles Standish) which carried the English Separatists from Holland to America (Plymouth Bay)
Wobblies
Nickname for the International Workers of the World labor union, headed by Daniel Haywood
Neolithic
New Stone Age (10,000-4000 B.C.E.), which was marked by the discovery and mastery of agriculture.
clipper ship
Large, fast, streamlined sailing vessel, often American built, of the mid-to-late nineteenth century rigged with vast canvas sails hung from tall masts. (p. 666)
Portsmouth Treaty
(TR) , 1905, Roosevelt and representatives from Russia and Japan work out treaty, Japan takes over Korea, Roosevelt wins Nobel Peace Prize
ayan
the wealthy landed elite that emerged the early decades of abbasid rule
Thomas Jefferson
opposed Bank of the U.S., Anti-Federalist, strict constructionist, wanted to give more rights to states (weaker central government)
Monsoon
a seasonal wind pattern crossing the Indian subcontinent and southeast Asia that blows warm, moist air from the southwest during the summer, bringing heavy rains, and cold, dry air from the northeast during the winter
Salutary Neglect
British policy of avoiding strict enforcement of parliamentary laws, meant to keep the American colonies obedient to Great Britain. Allowed the enforcement of trade laws to be lenient. Since the imperial authority did not assert power, the colonists were left to govern themselves. Became accustomed to the idea of self-control. Resulted in the emergence of an identity separate from Great Britain.
resolution
In government, a formal statement of policy or judgement by a legislature, but requiring no statute
surtax
A special tax, usually involving a raised rate on an already existing tax.
Quitrents
Nominal taxes collected by the crown in crown colonies, or by the proprietor(s) of proprietary colonies.
Wilmot Proviso
When President Polk submitted his Appropriations Bill of 1846 requesting Congress' approval of the $2 million indemnity to be paid to Mexico under the Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo, Pennsylvania Representative David Wilmot attached a rider which would have barred slavery from the territory acquired. The South hated the Wilmot Proviso and a new Appropriations Bill was introduced in 1847 without the Proviso. It provoked one of the first debates on slavery at the federal level, and the principles of the Proviso became the core of the Free Soil, and later the Republican, Party.
Ashikaga Shogunate
The second of Japan's military governments headed by a shogun (a military ruler). Sometimes called the Muromachi Shogunate. (p. 365)
Virginia company founded james town 1607 kind of company called
joint stock
Himsa
The Janes principal of non-violence to other living things or their souls...
tories
a person who supported the British cause in the American Revolution; a loyalist
Mississippi Culture
A loose collection of communities dispersed along the Mississippi River from Louisiana to illinois that shared similer technologies and beliefs.
Gospel of Wealth
Carnegie's belief that philanthropy, as by building beneficial institutions, should be practiced among the wealthy of society.
Robert Livingston
Robert Livingston bought New Orleans and all the French territory west of the Mississippi River from Napoleon for 15 million dollars. He was only supposed to negotiate for a small part of New Orleans for 10 million so Jefferson was upset when he heard about Livingston's deal.
liquidation
the process of realizing upon assets and of discharging liabilities in concluding the affairs of a business, estate, etc.
Pan-Americanism
the idea that the United States and Latin America should work together to support peace and increase trade
labor union
An organization of workers in a particular industry or trade, created to defend the interests of members through strikes or negotiations with employers. (p. 709)
andrew johnson
A Southerner form Tennessee, as V.P. when Lincoln was killed, he became president. He opposed radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts over his veto. The first U.S. president to be impeached, he survived the Senate removal by only one vote. He was a very weak president.
Chinese FiveYear Plan
a series of economic development initiatives. The economy was shaped by the Chinese Communist Party through the plenary sessions of the Central Committee and national congresses
Jati
One of the many sub-castes in the Hindu caste system
Korean War
war between Communist North Korea and Democratic South Korea, resulted in a "tie" (no loses or gains)
Anasazi
Important culture of what is now the southwest (1000-1300 C.E.). Centered on Chaco Canyon in New Mexico and Mesa Verde in Colorado, the Anasazi culture built multistory residences and worshipped in subterranean buildings called kivas.
Abu Bakr
(632-634 C.E.) The first caliph; one of Muhammad's earliest followers and closest friends
John Locke
Locke was a British political theorist who wrote the Fundamental Constitution for the Carolinas colony, but it was never put into effect. The constitution would have set up a feudalistic government headed by an aristocracy which owned most of the land.
The Convention
the governing body by the French Republic from 1792-95; members were elected through universal male suffrage and became divided along political lines; Declared the end of the monarchy; brought Louis XVI to trial and executed him and his wife
cult of domesticity
glorifying womens role in the house.
Mycenae
Site of a fortified palace complex in southern Greece that controlled a Late Bronze Age kingdom. In Homer's epic poems Mycenae was the base of King Agamemnon, who commanded the Greeks besieging Troy.
mass deportation
Removal of entire peoples used as terror tactic by Assyrian and Persian Empires. (95)
Sons of Liberty
A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept. After the repeal of the Stamp Act, many of the local chapters formed the Committees of Correspondence which continued to promote opposition to British policies towards the colonies. The Sons leaders included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere.
Trung Sisters
What sisters from Vietnam led first century CE revolt against Han incasions and became national heros?
American work force
workers were the poor, often immigrants and both women and children
 
strikes used to change working conditions
Paolo Toscanelli
wrote "go west to go east" letter
Reform movements
Movements supported by a group of people to change society for the better regarding moral, religious, and social issues.
manumission
A grant of legal freedom to an individual slave. (p. 505)
Anne Hutchinson, Antinomianism
She preached the idea that God communicated directly to individuals of through the church elders. She was forced to leave Massachusetts in 1637. Her followers (the Antinomianists) founded the colony of New Hampshire in 1639.
(William R.) Shafter
American general who led the invading force in Cuba, with the intent of driving out admiral Cervera. He was so fat and gouty that he had to be carried on a door. His troops were not remotely prepared for the Cuban climate.
Oneida Community
NY 1848 - practiced free love, birth control, selection of parents to produce superior offspring
Colonal Rall
A Hessian at Princeton who wanted to meet Washington
Domino Theory
theory that if 1 country 'falls' to communism, many other countries will then fall too
Federalists and Democratic-Republicans
The first two political parties. Many of the Democratic-Republicans had earlier been members of the Antifederalists, which had never organized into a formal political party.
Treaty of Nanking
Treaty that concluded the Opium War. It awarded Britain a large indemnity from the Qing Empire, denied the Qing government tariff control over some of its own borders, opened additional ports of residence to Britons, and ceded Hong Kong to Britain. (685)
Chan Buddhism
The most popular school of Buddhism in China was
bubonic plague
Also called the Black Death was a deadly disease that spread through Europe and killed one out of every three people
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe, this was a highly anti-slavery novel that inflamed public opinion in both the North and the South only a few years before the Civil War. It very negatively portrayed and critiqued slavery 4: 1825-1865
Washington's Neutrality Proclamation of 1793
isolationist policy issued on his leaving
 
neutrality in European conflicts
 
warned america against intervening on either side
120. Proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east
The Carolinas
Founded in 1670 and named for Charles I, king of England, Carolina became prosperous from the production of rice and indigo. Its first settlement, Charleston, was the leading city of the South at the time of the American Revolution. Smaller farmers predominated in the settlement of the northern part of Carolina and in 1712 this region officially separated, creating two colonies, North and South Carolina.
compromise of 1877
hayes given election of 1876 if u.s. troops would pull out of south
745. Charles Schwab (1862-1939)
Founder and president of the U.S. Steel Corporation. First president of the American Iron and Steel Institute in 1901, he was also involved in the stock market.
Martin Luther King Jr
U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. Nobel Peace Prize (1964)
Spread of epidemic disease
ie. small pox blankets, natives with european diseases
Nomadic, foraging societies from Australia
Didn't take up agriculture; exchanged surplus food & small items during migrations, peoples of north coast had limited trade with those of New Guinea
Monroe Doctrine
The Monroe Doctrine is a policy of the United States introduced on December 2, 1823. It stated that further efforts by European countries to colonize land or interfere with states in the Americas would be viewed as acts of aggression requiring U.S. intervention (however, the wording referred to the entire Western Hemisphere, which actually includes much of Europe and Africa). The doctrine was introduced by President Monroe when he was enraged at the actions being executed around him. The Monroe Doctrine asserted that the Americas were not to be further colonized by European countries but that the United States would neither interfere with existing European colonies nor meddle in the internal concerns of European countries. The Doctrine was issued at a time when many Latin American countries were on the verge of becoming independent from the Spanish Empire. The United States, reflecting concerns raised by Great Britain, ultimately hoped to avoid having any European power take over Spain's colonies. The US President, James Monroe, first stated the doctrine during his seventh annual State of the Union Address to Congress. It became a defining moment in the foreign policy of the United States and one of its longest-standing tenets, and would be invoked by many U.S. statesmen and several U.S. presidents, including Theodore Roosevelt, Calvin Coolidge, Herbert Hoover, John F. Kennedy, Ronald Reagan and others.
166. Paul Revere, William Dawes
They rode through the countryside warning local militias of the approach of the British troops prior to the Battles of Lexington and Concord, although Revere was detained by the British shortly after setting out, and never completed his portion of the planned ride. Thanks to the advance warning, the militias were able to take the British by surprise.
Election of 1800
TJ won by majority of 73 electoral votes to 65, election fell onto TJ because Burr turned NY to TJ by narrowest of margins, Republic passed major test when power peacefully transferred from conservative federalists to more liberal TJ
1201. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
A federal agency which insures bank deposits, created by the Glass-Strengall Banking Reform Act of 1933.
Jay's Treaty
1794 - It was signed in the hopes of settling the growing conflicts between the U.S. and Britain. It dealt with the Northwest posts and trade on the Mississippi River. It was unpopular with most Americans because it did not punish Britain for the attacks on neutral American ships. It was particularly unpopular with France, because the U.S. also accepted the British restrictions on the rights of neutrals.
Pennsylvania, Maryland, Rhode Island - founders established churches
Pennsylvania: Founded by William Penn, a Quaker, to provide protection for Quakers. Maryland: Formed as a colony where Catholics would be free from persecution. Rhode Island: Formed to provide a haven for all persecuted religions, including all Christian denominations and Jews.
the Mukden incident
• 1931 Japanese blew up a piece of their Manchurian Railroad in China and blamed it on China which was the cause of another war "Mukden Incident"
what was the impact of the crusades on the christian west
technology, learning, military techniques
366. Treaty negotiators: John Quincy Adams, Albert Gallatin, Henry Clay
These three were among the American delegation which negotiated the Treaty of Ghent.
Long Term Causes of the French Revolution
social and economic gap between the classes, unfairness in tax system, fustrated ambitions of the growing middle class for its social advancement,influence of the ideas of enlightenment, and the political ineptitude
400. John Quincy Adams as Sec. of State: Florida, Monroe Doctrine
He served under president Monroe. In 1819, he drew up the Adams-Onis Treaty in which Spain gave the U.S. Florida in exchange for the U.S. dropping its claims to Texas. The Monroe Doctrine was mostly Adams' work.
Cordwaining
Shoe-making
Imported arsenals were
Outdated
206 BCE-220 CE
Han Dynasty
Charter
document granting special privileges.
Chola
Southern Indian Hindu kingdom (850-1267), a tightly centralized state that dominated sea trade
gold
Ghana received horses, cloth, manufactured goods and salt in exchange of *what*?
New Nationalism
Theodore Roosevelt's progressive platform in the election of 1912; building on his presidentical "Square Deal", he called for a strong federal government to maintain economic competition and social justice but to accept trusts as an economic fact of life
allah
supreme god in strictly monotheistic islam
Which empire normally displayed the greatest degree of toleration towards its subject people?
Persian
Rene Descartes
French nativist philosopher; proponent of dualism; argued that "threads" within the body control movement, and that some behaviors occur without thought
Epicurians
Which of the Hellenistic philosophies viewed pleasure as the greatest good?
Daoism
philosophical system developed by of Lao-tzu and Chuang-tzu advocating a simple honest life and noninterference with the course of natural events
Fulani
Pastoral people of western Sudan; adopted purifying Sufi variant of Islam; under Usuman Dan Fodio in 1804, launched revolt against Hausa kingdoms; established state centered on Sokoto.
14th Amendments
All freed slaves become citizens
assumption
Economic policy of Alexander Hamilton where the central government would assume the debts of all the states. It would tie the states closer to the federal government.
Emotionalism
New ingredient added into religion during the First Great Awakening
chinampas
Raised fields constructed along lake shores in Mesoamerica to increase agricultural yields. (p. 301)
Amtrak*
(RN), first major attempt to re establish adequate railroad passenger service
cotton
The plant that produces fibers from which cotton textiles are woven. Native to India, cotton spread throughout Asia and then to the New World. It has been a major cash crop in various places, including early Islamic Iran, Yi Korea, Egypt, & US (363)
Phillip IV
French king who formed the Estates-General and collected taxes regulary
Reconstruction Acts
(March 1867-March 1868) Divided South into five military districts, each governed by a general. Required southern states to guarantee black suffrage, and disfranchised many former Confederates. Southern states required to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment as a condition of their readmission to the Union.
Oneida Colony
practiced free love, birth control, and eugenics. Had "complex marriage" where every woman was married to every man. Shared work equally and supported their enterprise by making steel traps, silk thread and silver plate tableware.
Primary Election
Elections in which voters determine party nominees.
Napoleon
Military Genius of France, who later became a dictator and eventually overthrown. He sold the west land (Louisiana) to the United States for a very cheap price doubling the land of America.
Impressment
British seamen often deserted to join the American merchant marines. The British would board American vessels in order to retrieve the deserters, and often seized any sailor who could not prove that he was an American citizen and not British.
Panama Invasion
The first non-Soviet related invasion of the US due to a drug line in Panama
Scientific Revolution
The intellectual movement in Europe, initially associated with planetary motion and other aspects of physics, that by the seventeenth century had laid the groundwork for modern science. (p. 466)
Hemingway
a farewell to arms, greatest well known writer
Charles I
English king who dismissed Parliament in 1629, but recalled it in 1640; later beheaded by Parliament (1649)
Henry David Thoreau
transcendentalist who believed that people should work for self-realization by not conforming to society and responding to instincts instead.
Independent Treasury
When: 1840's Where: United States Significance: The Independent Treasury was a system proposed by Martin Van Buren to help separate the bank and state. Can Buren wanted to take Federal money out of state banks and put that money into the hands of a federal agency. This all came after the "panic" kicked in., This was President Van Buren's plan to fic the government's financial crisis. Under this system, the government would place its funds in an independent treasury. at Washington and in subtreasuries in other cities. No private banks would have the government's money or name to use as a basis for speculation; the government banks would be separate.
Temperance Societies
Groups formed from the religous revival of the Second Great Awakening that tried to bring about the end of drinking. They remained powerful from the 1790s to 1919, when the 18th Amendment prohibited alcohol.
Christopher Columbus
______ was an Italian seafarer commissioned by the Spanish monarchs to establish a western trade route to the Orient. He discovered the New World in 1492 and opened the Western Hemisphere to exploration and settlement from Europe.
venerate
to regard or treat with reverence; revere.
Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson
Lee's chief lieutenant and premier cavalry officer
Saddam Husain
President of Iraq since 1979. Waged war on Iran in 1980-1988. In 1990 he ordered an invasion of Kuwait but was defeated by United States and its allies in the Gulf War (1991). (p. 860)
"Seward's Folly"
The nickname given to Alaska by Johnson's Secretary of States's critics.
Homo erectus
Hominids who are believed to have walked completely upright like modern people do, called "Upright Man".
Judeo-Christian
in the shared tradition of Judaism and Christianity, or combining their common beliefs
Boris Yeltsin
President of the Russian Republic in 1991. Helped end the USSR and force Gorbachev to resign.
George Dewey
Leader of the invasion on the Philippines
Songhay Empire
successor to Mali empire, fusion of Islam, pagan, took over Niger valley, dominant in area until Muslims with muskets
1941
Date: Pearl Harbor, entry of US into WWII
Muscovy Company
chartered in 1555; the first major joint stock company; an English joint-stock company the monopolized trade routes to Russia until 1698
Encomienda System
system in Spanish America that gave settlers the right to tax local Indians or to demand their labor in exchange for protecting them and teaching them skills.
Arabella Sermon
made to give comfort, "God would rather men dispense goodness"
sub-Saharan Africa
Portion of the African continent lying south of the Sahara. (p. 216)
Social Gospel
Movement led by Washington Gladden - taught religion and human dignity would help the middle class over come problems of industrialization
Space Race
The Space Race was a mid-to-late twentieth century competition between the Soviet Union (USSR) and the United States (US) for supremacy in outer space exploration. Between 1957 and 1975, Cold War rivalry between the two nations focused on attaining firsts in space exploration, which were seen as necessary for national security and symbolic of technological and ideological superiority. The Space Race involved pioneering efforts to launch artificial satellites, sub-orbital and orbital human spaceflight around the Earth, and piloted voyages to the Moon. It effectively began with the Soviet launch of the Sputnik 1 artificial satellite on 4 October 1957, and concluded with the co-operative Apollo-Soyuz Test Project human spaceflight mission in July 1975. The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project came to symbolize détente, a partial easing of strained relations between the USSR and the US. The Space Race had its origins in the missile-based arms race that occurred just after the end of the World War II, when both the Soviet Union and the United States captured advanced German rocket technology and personnel.
Political Bosses
Groups of corrupt men who provided services to the poor in exchange for thier votes. Often used illegal means.
If Daniel Webster was the expounding father, who was the molding father?
John Marshall
Dominion of New England
After revocation of Massachusetts' charter, a plan to create a Dominion of New England for all colonies from New England south through New Jersey was put forth. The Dominion's governor was named by royal authority and had no assembly. It lasted until the Glorious Revolution suspended James II's authority.
Council of Nicea
determines Jesus is human and divine. Aryans said he wasn't.
Declaration of Independence
Written by Thomas Jefferson in 1776; the document
expressed the ideas of John Locke and the Enlightenment, represented the idealism of the
American rebels, and influenced other revolutions.
thomas macdonough
a commander of an American fleet on Lake Champlain that fought near Plattsburgh on floating slaughterhouses; the Americans were nearly defeated, but his nifty techniques forced the British to retreat; this heroic naval battle saved New York from conquest, New England from disaffection, and the Union from dissolution
September 11, 2001
terrorist attacks on the united states that killed thousands of people
Oliver Kelley
Led the Grange, was a shrewd and energetic Minnesota farmer then working as a clerk in Washington
Stephen Austin (-)
In 1822, Austin founded the first settlement of Americans in Texas. In 1833 he was sent by the colonists to negotiate with the Mexican government for Texan indedendence and was imprisoned in Mexico until 1835, when he returned to Texas and became the commander of the settlers' army in the Texas Revolution.
New Economic Policy
Policy proclaimed by Vladimir Lenin in 1924 to encourage the revival of the Soviet economy by allowing small private enterprises. Joseph Stalin ended the N.E.P. in 1928 and replaced it with a series of Five-Year Plans. (See also Lenin, Vladimir.) (p. 766)
Boston Associates
They were a group of Boston families who joined to form one of the earliest and most powerful joint-capital ventures. They eventually came to dominate the textile industry, the railroad, insurance, and banking business' in all of Massachusetts.
Dawes Act
An act that removed Indian land from tribal possesion, redivided it, and distributed it among individual Indian families. Designed to break tribal mentalities and promote individualism.
Social Security Act
1935, one of the most significant economic measures of the 20th century, Francis Perkins, first woman to sit in presidential cabinet, FDR's Secretary of Labor, pensions system for the elderly, unemployment insurance (if you're out of work you'll be paid for 6 months), aid to dependent children
Corporate Consolidation
Refers to the explosive growth of big business during the Machine Age; the government remained unsure as to how to enforce regulations, and the courts of the era were extremely pro-business, so business does as business will do and grew. 
articles of confederation
written agreement ratified in 1781 by 13 orginal states
the first constitution of the us
 
Authorized President Jackson to appropriate $500,000 to cover the expenses of removing Native Americans from the East.
Indian Removal Act of 1830
Molasses Act
A British law passed in 1773 to change a trade pattern in the American colonies by taxing molasses imported into colonies not ruled by Britain. Americans responded to this attempt to damage their international trade by bribing and smuggling. Their protest of this and other laws led to revolution.
1035. Department of Labor
Originally started in 1903 as the Department of Commerce and Labor, it was combined with the Bureau of Corporations in 1913 to create the Department of Labor
US Entry into WWII
US stops trading with Japan, Japan attacks Pearl Harbor, US Declares War on Japan, Germany Declares War on US
Vedic Age
A period in the history of India; It was a period of transition from nomadic pastoralism to settled village communities, with cattle the major form of wealth.
Old Kingdom
2700 BC - 2200 BC. Upper and Lower Egypt kept separate kingdoms, but later built unified government. Developed basic features of its civilization. BUILT THE PYRAMIDS: an eternal resting place for their god-kings.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Treaty that ended the Mexican War, granting the U.S. control of Texas, New Mexico, and California in exchange for $15 million
Bank of the United States
Hamilton's plan to solve Revolutionary debt, Assumption highly controversial, pushed his plan through Congress, based on loose interpreteation of Constitution
hilary was the first First Lady to hold an elective office. What office was she elected to an when?
NY senator (2000)
1157. The Jazz Singer
1927 - The first movie with sound, this "talkie" was about the life of famous jazz singer, Al Jolson.
Harper's Ferry
Raid led by John Brown in 1859 in an attempt to start a slave revolt. Caused Brown to become almost a martyr to the North, which only heightened North-South tensions.
san juan hill
taken by the rough riders. it was a calvary charge in cuba. second in imortance only to the battle of manila bay.
What are some reasons for Japanese militarism?
overpopulation, scarcity of natural resources, desire to control pacific rim
Orders of Council & Milan Decree
1st one British punished Americans who traded directly w/ France, 2nd one French punished Americans who traded with Britain
907. Serman Silver Purchase Act
1890 - Directed the Treasury to buy even larger amounts of silver that the Bland-Allison Act and at inflated prices. The introduction of large quantities of overvalued silver into the ecomony lead to a run on the ferderal gold reserves, leading to the Panic of 1893. Repealed in 1893.
King George's War (War of Austrian Succession) 1744-48
War between Prussia and Austria, then French and English join as their allies
839. Land grant colleges: A&M, A&T, A&I
These were colleges built on the land designated by the Morril Act of 1862.
Solon
...
modernization
to make modern
Benjamin Harrison
1889-1893, 23rd President
anti-slavery poet
John Greenleaf Whittier
Samuel Morse
Invented telegraph in 1844
Sumerians
invented cuneiform alphabet; used different pictures to represent various objects; but later shifted to the use of geometric shapes to signify sounds; as many as 2,000 symbols; later reduced to about 300; writing & reading remained complex skills; art developed steadily as statues & painted frescoes were used to adorn the temples of gods; science aided a complex agricultural society; people sought to learn more about the movement of the sun & stars; founding-astronomy; employed a system of numbers based on units of 10, 60, & 360; it is still used to calculate circles & hours; charted major constellations that have been current for 5,000 years;
mayan mathematicians invented the concept of _____, which is essential for positional notation and the manipulation of large numbers.
zero
ma'at
the Egyptian concept of truth, justice, and cosmic order, represented by a goddess, often portrayed with a feather upon her head
Crusades
(1095-1291), Christian Europe aim to reclaim Jerusalem and aid they Byzantines; 1st success and the rest a failure; weakens the Byzantines; opens up trade
Unionism
labor union organizing method through which all workers in the same industry are organized into the same union
Austronesian
a large language family widely dispersed throughout the islands of Southeast Asia and the Pacific, with a few members spoken on continental Asia.
T'ang Dynasty
Chinese dynasty (618-907 CE); collapsed as local warlords gained power
Henry Ford
He manufactured a gasoline-powered automobile and improved the assembly line for mass production
Armenia
One of the earliest Christian kingdoms, situated in eastern Anatolia and the western Caucasus and occupied by speakers of the Armenian language. (p. 221)
temperance
restraint or moderation, especially in regards to alcohol or food
Pilgrims
_________ were English Separatists who established Plymouth Plantation in 1620 and drafted the Mayflower Compact.
James Madison
Young, profound student of government, he made contributions to the Constitution so notable that he was dubbed "Father of the Constitution". Also contributed to The Federalist, and was also the 4th president. Since he wrote the majority of the document. Madison is the most significant drafter of the constitution. His writings in The Federalist remain the most penetrating commentary ever written on the Constitution
dissenters
those who objected to the established church doctrines
lateen sail
a triangular fore-and-aft sail used especially in the Mediterranean
Washington's first cabinet
hamilton (secratry of treasury), jefferson (Secratary of state), henry knox (secretary of war)
location of Washington's surprise attacks
Trenton, New Jersey.
revolution
an overthrow or repudiation and the thorough replacement of an established government or political system by the people governed.
19th Amendment
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1920) prohibited government from denying any citizen the right to vote based on sex
Francisco Pizarro
Spanish conquerer who defeated the Incan Empire of Peru from 1535-1540
Celts
Peoples sharing a common language and culture that originated in Central Europe in the first half of the first millennium B.C.E.. After 500 B.C.E. they spread as far as Anatolia in the east, Spain and the British Isles in the west. Conquered by Romans and displaced by Germans and other groups, today they are found in some corners of the British Isles.
Ataturk
also known as Mustafa Kemal; "Father of the Turks" who helped to create Republic of Turkey and wanted to modernize (westernize) Turkey as well as separate religion and government
Acheh Sultanate
Muslim kingdom in northern Sumatra. Main center of Islamic expansion in Southeast Asia in the early seventeenth century, it declined after the Dutch seized Malacca from Portugal in 1641. (p. 541)
mediation
The attempt to resolve a dispute through the intervention or counsel of a third party.
Assumption Bill
(1790) Alexander Hamilton's bill that took on the debts of states still in debt. This angered states that had already paid their debts off. Part of Hamilton's economic plan to create a powerful, national economic power. Only agreed to by moving the country's capital to the Potomac River (VA)
The term prehistory refers to the period before...
writing
Food Surplus
Food Surplus = specialization of labor
1496. "Flexible Response"
Kennedy abandoned Eisenhower's theory of massive nuclear war in favor of a military that could respond flexibly to any situation at any time, in different ways.
ARCHIBALD COX
Fired in the Saturday Night Massacre
oasis
Something serving as a refuge, relief, or pleasant change from what is usual, annoying, difficult, etc.: A small fertile or green area in a desert region, usually having a spring or well.
Rush-Bagot Treaty
1817 agreement between US and Britain to remove armed fleets from the Great lakes
Simon Bolivar
The most important military leader in the struggle for independence in South America. Born in Venezuela, he led military forces there and in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. (p. 623)
Augustus Caesar
first emperor of Rome; defeated Mark Antony and Cleopatra
William Mckinley
was the twenty-fifth President of the United States, and the last veteran of the Civil War to be elected
Boston Massacre
The first bloodshed of the Amercan Revolution, as British guards at the Boston Customs House opened fire on a crowd killing five americans
Boston Tea Party
December 16, 1773, a hundred Bostonians boarded the docked British East India Company tea ships and dumped the tea into the harbor
charles coughling
catholic priest who used his popular radio program to criticize the new deal; he grew incrasingly anti-roosevelt and anti-semitic until the catholic church pulled him off the air
solidarity
Polish trade union created in 1980 to protest working conditions and political repression. It began the nationalist opposition to communist rule that led in 1989 to the fall of communism in eastern Europe. (p. 863).
Industrial Revolution
The transformation of the economy, the environment, and living conditions, occurring first in England in the eighteenth century, that resulted from the use of steam engines, the mechanization of manufacturing in factories, transit, and communications
upanishads
A group of writings sacred in Hinduism concerning the relations of humans, God, and the universe.
bataan death march
Japanese forced about 60,000 of americans and philippines to march 100 miles with little food and water, most died or were killed on the way
Civil Rights Act
guaranteed blacks the same treatment as whites in certain public places
Homo sapiens
the humanoid species that emerged as most successful at the end of the Paleolithic period.
Huey Long
nicknamed The Kingfish, served as the 40th Governor of Louisiana from 1928-1932 and as a U.S. Senator from 1932 to 1935. A Democrat, he was noted for his radical populist policies. Though a backer of Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1932 presidential election, Long split with Roosevelt in June 1933 and allegedly planned to mount his own presidential bid for 1936.
capitalist
a person who invests capital in a business (especially a large business)
Railroads
Redefined land travel in the US. First built in the 1830s and proceded slowly due to differneces in rail width. By 1853, New York and Chicago were linked by rail, and a dense network of railroads grew in the North.
Asante
African kingdom on the Gold Coast that expanded rapidly after 1680. Asante participated in the Atlantic economy, trading gold, slaves, and ivory. It resisted British imperial ambitions for a quarter century before being absorbed into Britain's Gold Coast colony in 1902.
What system of survival preceeded agriculture?
hunting and gathering
"Black Forties"
The time in Ireland when the potato crop failed resulting in about 2 million people to parish causing people to flee the land. The Black Forties is the reason why there is such a large Irish population in today's society as about a million in a half immigrated to America during this time adding the Irish to a short group of cultures to have experienced Diaspora.
Freedom of the Seas
Principle that neutral nations have the right to trade without interference even during wartime.
Benefice
In medieval Europe, a grant of land or other privilege to a vassal
Revolution of 1828
Election where Andrew Jackson won the presidency for the common man and caused a deep distrust of the wealthy elite in Washington.
Marquis de Lafayette
wealthy young French nobleman who was made a general in the colonial army at age nineteen; helped to further secure aid from France for the colonists
What are hadiths?
WritingsM that help to determine the proper behavior
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
A pioneer in the women's suffrage movement, she helped organize the first women's rights convention in Seneca Falls, New York in 1848. She later helped edit the militant feminist magazine Revolution from 1868 - 1870.
Yuan Empire
Empire created in China and Siberia by Khubilai Khan. (p. 349)
Bartholomeu Dias
Rounded the tip of South America (Cape Cod).
Akbar the Great
Emperor of India during Mughal Empire; responsible for its expansion, stability and increased trade
Civilian Conservation Corps
New Deal program that hired unemployed men to work on natural conservation projects
Erie Canal
Built in 1825 and linked the Great Lakes region to New York. As a result, the Northeast soon became the center of commerce in the US. The Erie Canal spawned thousands of other canals across the nation, but by 1850, the growth of railroads had ended the canal age.
pg. 857
SI
 
 
Benjamin Spock
Dr. Benjamin Spock wrote The common sense book of baby and child care in 1945, this represented the increase in stress many felt as they were separated from many friends as they moved around in the post ww2 era. Book also represented separation from family that could have informed the readers of how to take care of the children but couldn't because they weren't within each others vicinities
Wrote "The Influence of Seapower upon History" argued that control of the sea was the key to world dominance.
Alfred T. Mahan
Lord De La Warr
New governor of Jamestown who arrived in 1610, immediately imposing a military regime in Jamestown and declaring war against the Powhatan Confederacy. Employed "Irish tactics" in which his troops burned houses and cornfields.
2. William Bradford
A Pilgrim, the second governor of the Plymouth colony, 1621-1657. He developed private land ownership and helped colonists get out of debt. He helped the colony survive droughts, crop failures, and Indian attacks.
Taxpayer Relief Act 1997
(WJC) Pres and Republicans agree to balanced federal budget, provide first federal tax, expanded coverage to uninsured children, helped with 70 billion, but failed with SS and Medicare
Dred Scott
slave who sued for his freedom on the basis of long term residence, Supreme Court ruled slaves were property and they could be taken into any territory; Missouri Comp was unconstitutional.
New England Confederation
1643 - Formed to provide for the defense of the four New England colonies, and also acted as a court in disputes between colonies
Brown vs. board of Edu
desecrated schools! Took back ruling of Plessy vs. Fergusion

Embargo Act of 1807
 This law stopped all trade between America and any other country.
economies of scale
refers to the cost advantages that a business obtains due to expansion
967. Roosevelt's Big Stick Diplomacy
Roosevelt said, "walk softly and carry a big stick." In international affairs, ask first but bring along a big army to help convince them. Threaten to use force, act as international policemen. It was his foreign policy in Latin America.
national debt, state debt, foreign debt
the us national debt included domestric debt owed to soldiers and others who had not yet been paid for their revolutionary war services, plus foreign debt to otehr countries which had helped the us. the federal government also assumed al the debts uncurred by the states during the war. hamilton paid them off
Tariff of Abominations
1828 - Also known as the Tariff of 1828, it increased the tariff on imported manufactured goods. The tariff protected the North but harmed the South; South said that it was economically discriminatory and unconstitutional, because it violated states' rights. It passed because New England favored high tariffs.
Martin Van Buren's Party*
VP - Richard M. Johnson SS - John Forsyth
1434. Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. (1929-1968)
An Atlanta-born Baptist minister, he earned a Ph.D. at Boston University. The leader of the Civil Rights Movement and President of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, he was assassinated outside his hotel room.
Federalist control of courts and judges, midnight judges
On his last day in office, President Adams appointed a large number of Federalist judges to the federal courts in an effort to maintain Federalist control of the government. (The Federalists had lost the presidency and much of Congress to the Republicans.) These newly-appointed Federalist judges were called midnight judges because John Adams had stayed up until midnight signing the appointments.
Location of the capitol: Washington D C , circumstances surrounding it
The South was angry that the whole country was assuming state debts incurred primarily in the North, and that slaves were not being counted as full persons for purposes of assigning the number of representatives that each state would have in the House. As part of the Compromise Plan adopted at the Constitutional Convention, it was agreed that the nation's capitol would be located in the South.
Constantine
...
Civil Service
government workers
Vietnam War
US vs. Vietnam
Slavery
Slavery, lifetime inheritable servitude, was adopted in England's mainland colonies after 1650. The English colonists enslaved only black Africans.
polytheism
the worship of many gods
Qin
1st unified imperial Chinese dynasty
NAACP
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, founded in 1909 to work for racial equality.
Sixteenth Amendment
This constitutional amendment instated in 1913 the income tax, which had been struck down out of the Wilson-Gorman Tariff Act.
nok
culture featuring highly developed art style in forests of central nigeria
Neal S. Dow
"Father of Prohibition",sponsored Maine Law of 1851 which prohibited making and sale of liquor
Chappaquiddick
1969 automobile accident that happened on an island in which a young woman assistant was drowned when Kennedy's car plunged off a bridge
Bedouins
Nomadic Arabs who originally inhabited desert areas of the Middle East and northern Africa and later began to move to other parts of the region
hegemony
dominance, especially of one political body over another
Viet Cong
Communist guerrillas in South Vietnam
popular culture
Entertainment spread by mass communications and enjoying wide appeal. (p. 897)
Watt
Scottish engineer and inventor whose improvements in the steam engine led to its wide use in industry (1736-1819)
Samuel De Champlain
Father of New France
Caroline
This was an American steamer carrying supplies across the Niagara river when it was attacked by a determined British force. It caught fire and nearly plummeted over Niagara Falls. The incident nearly forced war between the two nations again, thankfully neither country acted pre-maturely and three years later the incident was undetermined and tensions eased.
Saybrook Platform
It organized town churches into country associations which sent delegates to the annual
assembly which governed the colony of Connecticut.
Twenty-One Demands
(1915), instrument by which Japan secured temporary hegemony over China. Japan used its declaration of war against Germany (Aug., 1914) as grounds for invading Kiaochow, the German leasehold in Shandong prov., China. Disregarding the Chinese request to withdraw, Japan secretly presented (1915) President Yüan Shih-kai with an ultimatum comprising 21 demands divided into five sections.
Sparta
one of the two main city-states; militaristic society, austere, disciplined
Byzantine Empire
Historians' name for the eastern portion of the Roman Empire from the fourth century onward, taken from 'Byzantion,' an early name for Constantinople, the Byzantine capital city. The empire fell to the Ottomans in 1453.
Hanseatic League
organization of cities in N. Germany/Scandinavia for the purpose of establishing a commercial alliance
Berlin Conference
Conference that German chancellor Otto von Bismarck called to set rules for the partition of Africa. It led to the creation of the Congo Free State under King Leopold II of Belgium.
Aryans
nomads from Europe and Asia who migrated to India and finally settled; vedas from this time suggest beginning of caste system
Sandinistas
Members of a leftist coalition that overthrew the Nicaraguan dictatorship of Anastasia Somoza in 1979 and attempted to install a socialist economy. The United States financed armed opposition by the Contras. The Sandinistas lost national elections in 1990
amulet
Small charm meant to protect the bearer from evil. Found frequently in archaeological excavations in Mesopotamia and Egypt, amulets reflect the religious practices of the common people. (p. 37)
Pontiac
Ottawa chief who organized the Indians against the English Colonists
the mesopotamian style of writing was known as
cuneiform
Caliphate System
religious leader and the political leader one in the same
AL GORE
Bill Clinton’s VP; governor of Texas
province
an administrative division or unit of a country.
Mayflower Compact
Pilgrims didn't have the king's o.k. to establish a gov, they drew up an agreement that established 1st standard for written laws
House of Burgesses
the first elected legislative assembly in the New World established in the Colony of Virginia in 1619, representative colony set up by England to make laws and levy taxes but England could veto its legislative acts.
Holy Roman Empire
loose federation of mostly German states and principalities, headed by an emperor elected by the princes. Lasted from 962-1806.
Julius Caesar
dictator of Rome;worked with pompey as a generals
Social Security
a federal program of disability and retirement benefits that covers most working people
Diocletian
A.D 284 he became emperor - he introduced reforms (changes)
Humphrey Gilbert
promoter of the first English attempt at colonization in Newfoundland
Eugene Debs
Same birthday as ME. Was convicted under the Espionage Act and was a prominent member of the Socialist party.
Guerrilla
a member of a band of irregular soldiers that uses guerrilla warfare, harassing the enemy by surprise raids, sabotaging communication and supply lines, etc.
Ziggurat
a huge mud-brick temple built by the ancient Sumerians
Orthodoxy in Europe
penetrated southeast europe and russia because of ST. CYRIL. VLADMIR, the prnce of russia, converted to orthodoxy, leading russia to become culturally different from the majority of europe overtime.
American System
an economic regime pioneered by Henry Clay which created a high tariff to support internal improvements such as road-building. This approach was intended to allow the United States to grow and prosper by themselves This would eventually help America industrialize and become an economic power.
Plains Indians
Posed a serious threat to western settlers because, unlike the Eastern Indians from early colonial days, the Plains Indians possessed rifles and horses.
Wounded Knee
In 1890, after killing Sitting Bull, the 7th Cavalry rounded up Sioux at this place in South Dakota and 300 Natives were murdered and only a baby survived.
818. Social Darwinism
Applied Darwin's theory of natural selection and "survival of the fittest" to human society -- the poor are poor because they are not as fit to survive. Used as an argument against social reforms to help the poor.
Bronze
Material made from copper and tin used for weapons and agricultural tools.
Ulysses Grant
The general who became commander of all the Union armies in 1864
California Gold
The discovery of Gold in the newly acquired land of California causing a rush of thousands of Americans to move out west in hopes of becoming rich. This rush of people caused an outburst of crime and many killings in the San Francisco area.
Gold Coast
Region of the Atlantic coast of West Africa occupied by modern Ghana; named for its gold exports to Europe from the 1470s onward. (p. 428)
Jefferson day dinner
Dinner for democratic party and its candidates Feb and march
sacred texts
texts that a religion believes to be sacred or of central importance.
Fredrick the Great
Was ruler of Purussia. He centralized the government and put it under his control. He devoted his life to the Prussia army
Helot
a peasant forced to stay on the land they worked
Bourgeois
A term for the middle class. A social class characterized by their ownership of capital and their related culture. They derive social and economic power from employment, education, and wealth, as opposed to the inherited power of aristocratic family of titled land owners granted feudal privileges.
the incas
located in the andes mtns in peru. they also controlled lots of territory along the south american coastline. majority of labor was human. were polythesitic, centered around their sun god. had a strong sense of morals - punishment for bad and reward for good. everything was owned by the ruler, who was thought to have descended from the sun god. they were very skilled builders - they are famous for the construction of the temple od the sun and machu picchu. they also created a record keeping system (knots in string) calld quipu.
Bicameral Legislature
a lawmaking body made up of two chambers or parts
Underwood Tariff (1913)
Brought the first significant drop in tariff rates since the civil war, from 40% to 27%. It was the first tariff to adopt a graduated income tax, which offset losses in revenue.
137. Internal taxes
Taxes which arose out of activities that occurred "internally" within the colonies. The Stamp Act was considered an internal tax, because it taxed the colonists on legal transactions they undertook locally. Many colonists and Englishmen felt that Parliament did not have the authority to levy internal taxes on the colonies.
Charles V/ imperial fragmentation 
didnt attempt major expansion or legacy; rather energized lutheran movement/ lack of administration= IMPERIAL FRAGMENTATION- faced many foreign challenges, prospect f holy roman empire struck fear in france and ottoman
Brain Trust
FDR relied on this group of advisors for advice on economic matters; they were a group of university professors, including Rexford Tugwell, Raymond Moley, and Adolph A. Berle, Jr.
mughal empire
A period of Muslim rule of India from the 1500's to the 1700's.
muhammad ibn qasim
led more than 10000 horse and camel mounted warriors into sind to avenge assault on arab shipping
Iron Curtain
(HT) , Term used by Churchill in 1946 to describe the growing East-West divide in postwar Europe between communist and democratic nations
Four-Line and Eight-Line poems
The 2 most popular forms of poetry
Judiciary Act of 1801
Passed by the lame-duck Federalists in Congress in 1801 after the election of Democratic-Republican president Thomas Jefferson, this act was a blend of needed judicial reform and partisan politics. The law added six new circuit courts and added 16 new judgeships, along with their support staffs, for outgoing Federalist president John Adams to fill. These judgeships were criticized as "midnight appointments."
Theories of representative government in legislatures: virtual representation, actual representation
Virtual representation means that a representative is not elected by his constituents, but he resembles them in his political beliefs and goals. Actual representation mean that a representative is elected by his constituents. The colonies only had virtual representation in the British government.
Ferdinand Magellan-
In 1519, his crew began a voyage and eventually ended up becoming the first to circumnavigate the world, even though he died in the Philippines. The sole surviving ship returned to Europe in 1522.
Indian Ocean Maritime System
In premodern times, a network of seaports, trade routes, and maritime culture linking countries on the rim of the Indian Ocean from Africa to Indonesia. (p. 207)
551. Cyrus McCormic, mechanical reaper
McCormic built the reaping machine in 1831, and it make farming more efficient. Part of the industrial revolution, it allowed farmers to substantially increase the acreage that could be worked by a single family, and also made corporate farming possible.
No Child Left Behind Act
Federal law enacted in January 2002 that introduced new accountability measures for elementary and secondary schools in all states that wish to receive federal aid.
National Women Suffrage Association
1869
Formed by Stanton and Susan B. Anthony to win women the right to vote.
House of Lords and House of Commons
The two parts of Parliament
What was the House of Un-American Activities?
they were an investigative committee that looked into the House of Representatives to try and find communist spies. Them and Hollywood blacklist-famous case=Alger Hiss
1006. 16th, 17th, 18th and 19th Amendments
1913 - 16th Amendment authorized Congress to levy an income tax. 1913 - 17th Amendment gave the power to elect senators to the people. Senators had previously been appointed by the legislatures of their states. 1919 - 18th Amendment prohibited the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages. 1920 - 19th Amendment gave women the right to vote.
Reoccupation of Texas and reannexation of Oregon
Texas was annexed by Polk in 1845. Oregon was explored by Lewis and Clark from 1804 to 1806 and American fur traders set up there, but during the War of 1812, the British essentially took control of Oregon and held it jointly with the U.S. The land was returned to the U.S. with the Oregon Treaty of 1846, supported by Polk.
what was the result of the civil wars following the deaht of al-Rashid
candidates for the throne recognized the need to build up personal armies, often of slave soldiers
Harihara
...
Shang
first dynasty; 1600-1100 BCE
Buddha
Indian prince named Siddhartha Gautama, who renounced wealth and social position and became enlightened
1533
Date: Pizarro Toppled the Incas
monetary
relating to or involving money
Declaratory Act
reaffirmed British superiority after Stamp Act repealed
Mao Zedong
Communist leader in revolutionary China; advocated rural reform and role of peasantry in Nationalist revolution; influenced by Li Dazhao; led Communist reaction against Guomindang purges in 1920s, culminating in Long March of 1934; seized control of all of mainland China by 1949; initiated Great Leap Forward in 1958.
Plantation
A large scale agricultural enterprise growing commercial crops and usually employing coerced or slave labor.
Covert Action
undercover intervention in foreign government by the CIA, Eisenhower liked
syncretism
attempt to merge disparate traditions or practices and combine them with another tradition. (religion also)
Toni Morrison
Nobel Prize-winning American author, editor, and professor. Her novels are known for their epic themes, vivid dialogue, and richly detailed black characters; among the best known are her novels The Bluest Eye, Song of Solomon, and Beloved, which won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 1988. In 2001 she was named one of the "30 Most Powerful Women in America" by Ladies' Home Journal.
Shinto
A Japanese religion whose followers believe that all things in the natural world are filled with divine spirits
serf
In medieval Europe, an agricultural laborer legally bound to a lord's property and obligated to perform set services for the lord. In Russia some serfs worked as artisans and in factories; serfdom was not abolished there until 1861. (pp. 254, 553)
Lili'uokalani
queen of the Hawaiian islands (1838-1917)
al-Razi
Persian Sunni Muslim Theologian and Philosopher
"All Mexico"
The wish of some Americans, particularly Eastern Democrats, to annex all of Mexico into the United Sates. They believe this would not only be beneficial through the gaining of more land, but it would also result in security of the region. This is a great example of Manifest Destiny. Also it brought up great controversy because annexing all of Mexico into the Union would mean giving citizenship to millions of Mexicans.
Johannes Gutenberg
introduced moveable type to western Europe in 15th century; credited with greatly expanded availability of printed books and pamphlets.
Cubist Movement
20th Century art style; best represented by Spanish artist Pablo Picasso; rendered familiar objects as geometrical shapes
955. Walter Reed
Discovered that the mosquito transmitted yellow fever and developed a cure. Yellow fever was the leading cause of death of American troops in the Spanish-American War.
George Whitefield
Anglican minister who helped spread great awakening.
Meriwether Lewis
Leader of the famous expedition lasting from 1803-1806. Documented many facts about nature while on journey. Was in the army at one point, that's how he met Clark. Died from suicide, most likely caused by depression.
Ming Dynasty
dynasty that emerged after mongol rulers had been driven out. Isolated china from foreign trade. Daily life: Women not valued, increased nutrition led to expanded families, plays and dramas incorporated Chinese History to help unify national Chinese Culture. Great Wall Revolts Mongols
city-states
a sovereign state consisting of an independent city and its surrounding territory
Shi'a
Branch of Islam believing that God vests leadership of the community in a descendant of Muhammad's son-in-law Ali. Mainly found in Iran and a small part of Iraq. It is the state religion of Iran. A member of this group is called a Shi'ite.
cottage industries
Weaving, sewing, carving, and other small-scale industries that can be done in the home. The laborers, frequently women, are usually independent. (p. 353)
Roosevelt Corollary
Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force.
Shays Rebellion
this conflict in Massachusetts caused many to criticize the Articles of Confederation and admit the weak central government was not working; uprising led by Daniel Shays in an effort to prevent courts from foreclosing on the farms of those who could not pay the taxes
they mayan calendar interwove a solar year of 365 days and a ceremonial calendar of _____ days
260
reformation
a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches
Calvinism
a- was a protestant denomination which believed in predestination, and started in england in 1534b- calvinists migrated to the new world as puritans
The Association
Called for a TOTAL BOYCOTT (non-importation, non-exportation, non-consumption)
messiah
the promised and expected deliverer of the Jewish people.
John Jay
responsible for Jay's Treaty; sent by Washington to make a treaty with GB to work out issues -treaty was divisive and he because a very hated political figure
John Smith
Helped found and govern Jamestown. His leadership and strict discipline helped the Virginia colony get through the difficult first winter.
Geoffrey Chaucer
poet whose many works show the influence of Dante. Wrote in vernacular language. Author of the Canterbury Tales.
In 476 C.E. the Germanic leader Odivasor brought an end to the end of the western empire when he overthrew what roman emperor?
Romulus Augustulus
Mercantilism
an economic system (Europe in 18th C) to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests
Poor Richard's Almanack
book that had pithy, homespun sayings
House of Burgess
first representative in America in Virginia
black jack pershing
United States general who commanded the American forces in Europe during World War I (1860-1948)
Botany Bay
Place that the British first colonized in Australia
Deists
one who believe that god exists but plays a passive role in life: powerful god created the world, gave it natural laws by which to operate, and then let it run by itself. (C.183)
Timothy Pickering
MA senator who sought Hamilton's help to lead the Federalists in breaking away from the Union (after Jeff became pres)
American Protective Association
An organization created by nativists in 1887 that campaigned for laws to restrict immigration
Lodge Reservations
In response to the Treaty of Versailles, Senator Lodge penned fourteen reservations to the proposed post-war agreements. Heavily influenced by Wilson's Fourteen Points, the Treaty called for the creation of a League of Nations in which the promise of mutual security would prevent another major world war. Differing from his Democratic contemporary, Woodrow Wilson, Henry Cabot Lodge held that the United States should take a cautionary approach towards international arbitration after the Great War.
Theodore Herzl
Austrian journalist and founder of the Zionist movement urging the creation of a Jewish national homeland in Palestine. (p. 760)
778. Collective bargaining
Discussions held between workers and their employers over wages, hours, and conditions.
The Haitan Revoltion
Haitans demanded the same protection of their natural rights given by the new French constitution and Declaration of the Rights of Man. When Napolean insisted that Saint Domingue remain a dependent sugar producing colony of France, Toussaint L'Ouverture and others rebelled. By 1804, Haiti was the second independent nation-state in the Atlantic world.
Woodrow Wilson
Leader of the Progressive movement and created the 14 Points which would be the basis for the treaty to end WWI
National Banking System
Authorized by Congress in 1863 to establish a standard bank currency. Banks that joined the system could buy bonds and issue paper money. First significant step toward a national bank.
Francisco Pancho Villa
A popular leader during the Mexican Revolution. An outlaw in his youth, when the revolution started, he formed a cavalry army in the north of Mexico and fought for the rights of the landless in collaboration with Emiliano Zapata. (819)
The Morrill Land Grant Act
To encourage education, Northern states received 30,000 acres of public land to be used for education for every congress member.
Mauryan Empire
first state to unify most of the Indian subcontinent, grew wealthy from taxes on agriculture, iron mining, and control of trade routes
The Great Awakening
1730s - 1740s religious revival of Puritan faith- Jonathan Edwards
Seleucid Empire
The empire, comprising most of the old Achaemenid state, that was taken by a general of Alexander the Great was the
Jose Maria Morelos
Mexican priest and former student of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, he led the forces fighting for Mexican independence until he was captured and executed in 1814. (See also Hidalgo y Costilla, Miguel.) (p. 626)
Aaron Burr Conspiracy
Vp was dropped from cabinet in Jefferson's 2nd term. So, he joined an extremist federalist group that wanted Ne and Ny to secede from union. Hamilton exposed the conspiracy, so Burr challenged him to a duel and won. Burr went to Louisiana and started another group to secede LA From union. Burr was arrested and tried from treason, but was acquitted by Marshall b/c no evidence
harem
a secluded room in the back of houses and palaces where woman stayed (it was guarded by a eunuch)
Keating-Owen Child Labor Act
Prohibited the sale of interstate commerce goods produced by children
859. William Randolph Hearst
Newspaper publisher who adopted a sensationalist style. His reporting was partly responsible for igniting the Spanish-American War.
True or False: An executive treaty requires the approval of congress?
True or False: An executive agreement requires the approval of congress?
1. true
2. false
Fletcher v. Peck
An argument over the validiaty of contracts. Extended the jursidiction to state law and state court decisions, expanding the power of the Supreme Court
The Treaty of Tordesillas
signed between spain and portugal in 1494 to decide how to divide christopher columbus's discoveries of the New World
Li Shimin
One of the founders of the Tang Empire and its second emperor (r. 626-649). He led the expansion of the empire into Central Asia
Nineteenth Amendment
(WW) , granted women the right to vote in 1920 (Susan B Anthony started campaign)
Alexis de Tocqueville
Came from France to America in 1831. He observed democracy in government and society. His book (written in two parts in 1835 and 1840) discusses the advantages of democracy and consequences of the majority's unlimited power. First to raise topics of American practicality over theory, the industrial aristocracy, and the conflict between the masses and individuals.
French Revolution/ Washington's Administration
began in 1789 with some nonviolent restrictions on the king, but became more hostile in 1792 when France declared war on Austria. Seeking help from America, the French pointed to the Franco-American alliance of 1778. Not wanting to get involved for fear of damage to the trade business, Washington gave the Neutrality Proclomation, which made America neutral. This led to arguments between Americans and French. After fighting with the French over such things as the Jay Treaty, the Americans came to peace with France in 1800. The French Revolution was not a war within a country, but a war that affected the world.
The Black Hawk War
Many whites wanted the Inidians to move further West so they could have their land. During 1831-32, whites fought the Sauk-Fox Indian Tribes under the leader Black Hawk. This war is known for the harshness the whites displayed toward the Indians. Even when the N.A tried to surrender, the whites continued to fight and force them more west.
Emancipation Proclamation
freed all the slaves in the states in rebellion against the US.
Access to foreign markers, cultural features that emerged, trade connection
Why did Greece prosper through resource poor?
National Liberation Front in NLF
was a political organization and army in South Vietnam and Cambodia that fought the United States and South Vietnamese governments during the Vietnam War (1955-1975).
English Bill of Rights
a document drawn up by Parliament in 1689 to make clear the rights of the monarchy after the Glorious Revolution
Age of Salutary Neglect
1650 - 1750
This period describes the British treatment of the Colonies preceding the French and Indian War (Seven Year’ War, part of a broader war in Europe). Salutary neglect basically means that the colonists were largely left to their own devices, although England controlled trade and collected some taxes. England also turned a blind eye to many trade violations openly practiced in the colonies. The colonies, therefore, gained a large degree of autonomy.
Oceans of the world
In order of size, the Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, and the Arctic Ocean. The Pacific Ocean also being the deepest.
What happened as Islam spread?
It picked up knowledge from around the world and became a "repository" for knowledge during the European Dark Ages
1150. Immigration Acts, 1921, 1924, Quota System
1921 - First legislation passed which restricted the number of immigrants. Quota was 357,800, which let in only 2% of the number of people of that nationality that were allowed in in 1890. 1924 - Limited the number of immigrants to 150,000 per year.
early fur trade between indians and europeans in nothern woodlands
revealed thst both made discovers and modified their behavior to benifit fully
Sir Edmond Andros and the Dominion of New England
Governor of the Dominion of New England from 1686 until 1692, when the colonists rebelled and forced him to return to England.
jingoism
dd
Election of 1868
...
Interrogation
an instance of questioning
BOB DOLE
1996 Republican candidate
Wazir
Chief administrative official under the Abbasid caliphate; initially recruited from Persian provinces of empire.
Artha-sastra
characterized inter-state relations in ancient India
reparation
(usually plural) compensation exacted from a defeated nation by the victors
Scalawags
Southerners who moved North after Civil War
Sung Dynasty
969 AD - 1279 AD
Sodbusters
name given to great plains farmers
Tatars
Mongols; captured Russian cities and largely destroyed Kievan state
John Deere
Produced steel plow:broke through thick soil of the West.
joseph stalin
Communist statesman; leader of Bolshevik Party; became ruler of USSR after Lenin; assumed full military and political leadership.
Habsburg
A powerful European family that provided many Holy Roman Emperors, founded the Austrian (later Austro-Hungarian) Empire, and ruled sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Spain. (p. 449)
benito juarez
indian who led la reforma
fur trade
The first trading relationship between Europeans and Native Americans was in furs. The French worked much harder at maintaining a good relationship with the Native Americans than did the British. This was a reflection of the motivations for settlement: the French saw North America as a resource, the British saw it as an opportunity for expansion and settlement.
Jefferson Davis
President of the confederacy from Kentucky who was in favor of the expansion of slavery. "All we ask is to be left alone" The republicans still won control over congress. He was the rival of Lincoln.
humanism
focus on humankind as center of intellectual and artistic endeavor; method of study that emphasized the superiority of classical forms over medieval styles, in particular the study of ancient languages.
Great Society
President Johnson called his version of the Democratic reform program. In 1965, Congress passed many measures, including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education.
592. John C. Calhoun
Formerly Jackson's vice-president, later a South Carolina senator. He said the North should grant the South's demands and keep quiet about slavery to keep the peace. He was a spokesman for the South and states' rights.
Scholasticism
This emphasized reason as well as faith and the interpretation of Christian doctrine.
Mercantalism
The theory that a country's power depended mainly on its wealth. This theory was adopted by the Europeans in the 1500's during imperialism in the Americas. Colonies exist for Mum country
Taika Reforms
attempt to remake Japanese monarch into an absolute Chinese- style emperor...also tried to make a professional bureaucracy and peasant conscript army
Ferdinand Magellan
Portuguese navigator who led the Spanish expedition of 1519-1522 that was the first to sail around the world.
Napoleon Bonaparte
the military dictator who overthrew French Directory in 1799 and became emperor of the French in 1804; Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814; Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile; established the Napoleonic Code; dissolved the Holy Roman Empire
All-India Muslim League
Political organization founded in India in 1906 to defend the interests of India's Muslim minority. Led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah, it attempted to negotiate with the Indian National Congress. Demanded Pakistan (813)
mass production
The manufacture of many identical products by the division of labor into many small repetitive tasks. This method was introduced into the manufacture of pottery by Josiah Wedgwood and into the spinning of cotton thread by Richard Arkwright. (602)
The Pinckney Treaty
Spain granted U.S. navigation privledges on Mississippi River which would provide economic boost; ratified by Senate unanimously
Nullification
states could refuse to enforce the federal laws they deemed unconstitutional
consensus
agreement in the judgment or opinion reached by a group as a whole
 
 
 
 
17. Half-way Covenant
 
 
The Half-way Covenant applied to those members of the Puritan colonies who were the children of church members, but who hadn’t achieved grace themselves. The covenant allowed them to participate in some church affairs.
Hessians
The name for the German mercenaries which the British hired to fight
aristocracy
a class of persons holding exceptional rank and privileges, esp. the hereditary nobility.
Convention
in England, a meeting usually of the houses of Parliament to address an emergency In America- by 1780's had become the purest expession of the popular will, superior to the legislature as in the convention that drafted the Mass. Constitution of 1780 Constitutional Convention- summer 1787 Philedelphia delegates from all states except rhod island in order to revise the Articles of Confederation GW was president of Convention Main question of convention: Can you have a large powerful central gov. while simultaneously maintaining republicanism and liberty?
Leisler's Rebellion
period when revolters seize control of lower New York from 1689 to 1691. The uprising, which occurred in the midst of Britain's "Glorious Revolution," reflected colonial resentment against the policies of King James II. Royal authority was restored in 1691 by British troop
Harry Truman
He was the thirty-third President of the United States (1945-1953). As vice president, he succeeded Franklin D. Roosevelt, who died less than three months after he began his fourth term.
Who was Hatshepsut?
The first female pharaoh in Egypt
Trans-Appalachian Indians
The American invasion from the east deeply disrupted native groups and generally caused a sharp division within Indian nations between "ACCOMMODATIONISTS," who chose to adopt some Euro-American ways versus "TRADITIONALISTS," who called for native purity by rejecting contact with whites. Both sides were authentically Native American, but they each chose different routes to deal with a terrible situation.
james cook
English navigator who claimed the east coast of Australia for Britain and discovered several Pacific islands (1728-1779)
gupta
a dynasty of N India (a.d. 320-540) whose court was the center of classical Indian art and literature. annnnnd under which the arts flourished and a unified code of laws was promulgated.
hay-bunau-varilla treaty
1903 agreement between panama and us that gave us a 99 year lease to build a canal on a ten mile ide strip of land across panama isthmas
Pancho Villa
A popular leader during the Mexican Revolution of 1910. An outlaw in his youth, when the revolution started, he formed a cavalry army in the north of Mexico and fought for the rights of the landless in collaboration with Emiliano Zapata.
Chartist Movement
In 19th century Britain where members of the working class demanded reforms in Parliament and in elections, including suffrage for all MEN.
Indutrial Revolution
The shift from manufacturing things by hand to the use of machinery, along with the changes in social and economic life that this caused
Treaty of Greenville
This 1794treaty between the Americans and the Native Americans. In exchange for some goods, the Indians gave the United States territory in Ohio. Anthony Wayne was the American representative.
William Taft
Lawyer-judge from Ohio who formed a strong attachment for the Filipinos
Fort Sumter
Federal fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina; the confederate attack on the fort marked the start of the Civil War
Settler Colonies
colonies, such as those in South Africa, New Zealand, Algeria, Kenya, and Hawaii, where minority European populations lived among majority indigenous peoples
1506. Great Society
Platform for LBJ's campaign, it stressed the 5 P's: Peace, Prosperity, anti-Poverty, Prudence and Progress.
Reaganomics
late 20th century, a popular term used to refer to the economic policies of Ronald Reagan, which called for widespread tax cuts, decreased social spending, increased military spending, & the deregulation of domestic markets
Bear Flag Revolt
Bear flag of California during the Mexican American war revolt against Mexican authorities. The raising of the flag symbolized the new republic resulting in it becoming the state flag of California.
Five Year Plans
Plans that Joseph Stalin introduced to industrialize the Soviet Union rapidly, beginning in 1928. They set goals for the output of steel, electricity, machinery, and most other products and were enforced by the police powers of the state. (781)
Ex Parte Milligan (1866)
Milligan, a Indiana Copperhead, was arrested for helping slaves escape, but was put in front of a martial court
James A. Garfield
20th President of the United States. Successfully elected as the Republican compromise candidate in the 1880 election. Former major general during the Civil War, he was the second President to be assassinated.
umar
One of the 1st 4 caliphs. Friend of Muhammad. A merchant. Spread Islam to Syria, Egypt, and Persia; redesigned government; paid soldiers; held a census; made taxes more fair; built roads & canals; aided poor
First continental Congress
in Philadelphia; it was the American's response to the Intolerable Acts; considered ways of redressing colonial grievances; all colonies except Georgia sent 55 distinguished men in all; John Adams persuaded his colleagues toward revolution; they wrote a Declaration of Rights and appeals to British American colonies, the king, and British people; created the Association which called for a complete boycott of English goods; the Association(boycotted British goods); as time wore on, the petitions were rejected; created a pathway to revolution
Gibbons vs. Ogden
Gave control of interstate commerce to U.S. Congress (1824)
pueblo revolt
indians drove spanish out of santa fe, NM. greatest defeat by indians
The first person to circumvigate the earth
Sir Francis Drake
788. John Peter Altgeld
Governor of Illinois during the Haymarket riots, he pardoned three convicted bombers in 1893, believing them victims of the "malicious ferocity" of the courts.
According to principle 5 or 7 people gain from their ability to trade with one another?
principle 5
Russo-American Treaty
The Treaty that Russia agreed to give up her claims to the Oregon treaty
Lexington and Concord
british troops went to kill sam adams and john hancock. americans fought indian style and pushed them back.
Joint Committee on Reconstruction (Committee of Fifteen)
Six senators and nine representatives drafted the 14th Amendment and Reconstruction Acts. The purpose of the committee was to set the pace of Reconstruction. Most were radical Republicans.
Nixon's War on Inflation(RN),
(RN), 1971, no longer held long-held position against govt controls, now prices were frozen, dollar no longer valued as gold, it became floating dollar, federal jobs cuts
Henry David Thoreau, Walden (1817-1862), "On Civil Disobedience"
A transcendentalist and friend of Emerson. He lived alone on Walden Pond with only $8 a year from 1845-1847 and wrote about it in Walden. In his essay, "On Civil Disobedience," he inspired social and political reformers because he had refused to pay a poll tax in protest of slavery and the Mexican-American War, and had spent a night in jail. He was an extreme individualist and advised people to protest by not obeying laws (passive resistance).
Prince Henry Of Portugal
He conquered the Moroccan part of Cueta and sponsored voyages down the west coast of Africa
Indian Reorganization (Wheeler-Howard) Act
restored lands to tribal ownership and outlawed its future division.
The Constitution "Old Ironsides"
One of many American ships that had thicker sides, heavier firepower, and larger crews with a single gun. They were used in the war of 1812 and were very useful in helping the Americans dominate the see; something they could not accomplish on land. The "Old Ironsides" ships, the war of 1812 would have been disastrous for America because of inability to win battles on land. Although they lost the war, their dominance over Britain on the water was a terrific confidence booster for the newly formed navy.
Judiciary Act of 1789
In 1789 Congress passed this Act which created the federal-court system. The act managed to quiet popular apprehensions by establishing in each state a federal district court that operated according to local procedures.
Rock and Pillar Edicts
the moral laws of the Mauryan Empire detailing how to live a right and moral life which were carved on rocks and pillars throughout the empire
691. Compromise of 1877 provisions
Hayes promised to show concern for Southern interests and end Reconstruction in exchange for the Democrats accepting the fraudulent election results. He took Union troops out of the South.
William Penn originally intended his PA colony to be an...
exclusive refuge for his fellow Quakers
stimulated the development of the local economies and states
The Roman conquest of Gaul, Germany, Britain, and Spain
179. Somerset Case (in Great Britain)
A slave named James Somerset was purchased in Virginia, then taken to London by his master. In London, he tried to escape. Judge Mansfield ruled that a slave who escaped in England couldn’t be extradited to the colonies for trial.
Cathaginians, Lost Tribes of Isreal and Atlantis
All possiblities of who were the first people on America
One of the interpretations of the cro-magnon cave paintings is that they represent a variety of sympathetic magic, which is...
an effort to gain control over a subject by capturing its spirit
Holy inscriptions
hieroglyphics
Machu Picchu
Incan temples
When did Mohammed die?
632
cyrus mccormick
invents a harvester/ reaper
Assyrians/calvary
first to use in battle
postmodernism
Post-World War II intellectual movement and cultural attitude focusing on cultural pluralism and release from the confines and ideology of Western high culture. (p. 900)
 
 
 
 
9. Separatists, non-separatists
 
 
Non-separatists (which included the Puritans) believed that the Church of England could be purified through reforms. Separatists (which included the Pilgrims) believed that the Church of England could not be reformed, and so started their own congregations.
Mali
Empire created by indigenous Muslims in western Sudan of West Africa from the thirteenth to fifteenth century. It was famous for its role in the trans-Saharan gold trade. (See also Timbuktu.) (p. 375)
Mameluks
Muslim slave warriors; established a dynasty in Egypt; defeated the Mongols at Ain Jalut in 1260 and halted Mongol advance
Westernization
adoption of western ideas, technology, and culture. usually led to a modern society
Clarence Thomas
African American Associate Supreme Court Justice; appointed by Bush, Sr.; controversal confirmation hearings chaired by Joe Biden
newfangled
puzzlingly or worryingly new or different, especially because it seems gimmicky or overcomplicated
Ex: Martin Luther in 1517 nailed a list of 95 theses on the church, a list that distributed quickly an widely by aid of the new-fangled printing press. (C.180)
Silla
Korean kingdom in the Southeast; became a vassal of the Tang and paid tribute; ruled Korea from 668
Congregationalists
each church preached the same information, but each congregation should control its own affairs. The congregationalists then split into 2 groups called the Separitists
What European nation supported the Ottoman Empire in order to prevent other European powers from gaining access to the Mediterranean?
Britain
Shrewdly combined organizational and promotional skills to turn the cattle industry into a new money-maker.
Joseph McCoy
Treaty of Paris
1783 full American independence, territory west of Appalachian ceded to America, loyalists to be compensated for seized property, fishing rights off of Newfoundland
positivism
A philosophy developed by the French count of Saint-Simon. Positivists believed that social and economic problems could be solved by the application of the scientific method, leading to continuous progress. Popular in France and Latin America. (616)
lincolns plan
10% loyalty oath
republican form of gov.
confederate officers could not vote
suffrage for black troops
compensation
black education
Mecca
The holiest city of Islam; Muhammad's birthplace
commodities
economic goods or products before they are processed and/or given a brand name, such as a product of agriculture
McKinley
Republican, Gold Standard Act of 1900, Imperialist, Annexation of Hawaii, Assisinated
Hulegu
Which of the Mongol Emperors conquered the Abbasid Empire in Persia and attempted to expand to Syria, but failed?
constitutionalism
The theory developed in early modern England and spread elsewhere that royal power should be subject to legal and legislative checks.
Lazaro Cardenas
President of Mexico (1934-1940). He brought major changes to Mexican life by distributing millions of acres of land to the peasants, bringing representatives of workers and farmers into the inner circles of politics, and nationalizing the oil industry 820
Martin Luther
German theologian who led the Reformation- believed that salvation is granted on the basis of faith rather than deeds (1483-1546)
New Zion
Mormon religious community on the banks of the Great Salt Lake.
Charles Darwin
English naturalist. He studied the plants and animals of South America and the Pacific islands, and in his book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859) set forth his theory of evolution. (p. 715)
Navigation Acts
Laws that governed trade between England and its colonies. Colonists were required to ship certain products exclusively to England. These acts made colonists very angry because they were forbidden from trading with other countries.
Safavid Empire
Shi'ite Muslim dynasty that ruled Persia between 16th and 18th centuries
Credit Mobilier scandal
Involved Union Pacific insiders creating the Credit Mobilier construction company and hiring themselves at inflated prices.
Columbian Exchange
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages. (p. 472)
colonialism
Policy by which a nation administers a foreign territory and develops its resources for the benefit of the colonial power. (p. 731)
buddhism
the teaching of Buddha that life is permeated with suffering caused by desire, that suffering ceases when desire ceases, and that enlightenment obtained through right conduct and wisdom and meditation releases one from desire and suffering and rebirth
Battle Of Saratoga
American general Horatio Gates was victorious over British general Burgoyne
National/Cumberland Road
Started in 1811 and finished in 1852-Went from Cumberland, Maryland to Illinois
Plessy v. Ferguson
"Seperate but Equal" supreme court ruling upholding segregation.
In 604?
Prince Shotoku helped to write a Chinese style constitution, the so caled 17 Article Constitution
Ronald Reagan
first elected president in 1980 and elected again in 1984. He ran on a campaign based on the common man and "populist" ideas. He served as governor of California from 1966-1974, and he participated in the McCarthy Communist scare. Iran released hostages on his Inauguration Day in 1980. While president, he developed Reagannomics, the trickle down effect of government incentives. He cut out many welfare and public works programs. He used the Strategic Defense Initiative to avoid conflict. His meetings with Gorbachev were the first steps to ending the Cold War. He was also responsible for the Iran-contra Affair which bought hostages with guns.
Charles Martel
led the revolt against the advancing Muslim armies and in 732 defeated them at the Battle of Tours; founded the Carolingian Dynasty
Zen (Buddhism)
Known as Chan Buddhism in China; stressed meditation and the appreciation of natural and artistic beauty.
William Lloyd Garrison
* Most outspoken advocator for abolition
* A nonresistant pacifist, poor organizer, and called for Northern secession
* Wrote the militantly anti-slavery newspaper The Liberator
* Co-founded the American Anti-Slavery Society
Indian Removal Act
Passed in 1830, authorized Andrew Jackson to negotiate land-exchange treaties with tribes living east of the Mississippi. The treaties enacted under this act's provisions paved the way for the reluctant—and often forcible—emigration of tens of thousands of American Indians to the West.
Dynasty
a succession of rulers of a region from the same family
DeWitt Clinton
The aristocratic Governor of New York who was the leader of the "closed elite" the Bucktails criticized.
 
 
 
254. Sam Adams
 
 
 
 
He was opposed to the Constitution until the Bill of Rights was added, and then he supported it.
Little Rock
irst town that decided to integrate their school; brought in Little Rock 9 which were the top African American teenagers in the city; many parents protested this and formed a mob outside of the school
empire
a group of nations or peoples ruled over by an emperor, empress, or other powerful sovereign or government: usually a territory of greater extent than a kingdom, as the former British Empire, French Empire, Russian Empire, Byzantine Empire, or Roman Empir
Popular Sovereignty
the theory that all power must be derived from the people themselves 2)the concept that settlers of each territory would decide for themselves whether to allow slavery
Kabuki Theater
A for of Japanese theater developed in the 17th century that features colorful scenery and costumes and an exaggerated style of acting
533. Mexican Cession
Some of Mexico's territory was added to the U.S. after the Mexican War: Arizona, New Mexico, California, Utah, Nevada & Colorado. (Treaty of Guadelupe Hildago)
Bill of Rights
a statement of fundamental rights and privileges (especially the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution)
Which of the following was not one of the Reconstruction era constitutional amendments?
A) Twelfth
B) Thirteenth
C) Fourteenth
D) Fifteenth
E) All of the above were Reconstruction amendments.
a
victoriano huerta
He was a Mexican military officer and President of Mexico who was also leader of the violent revolution that took place in 1913. His rise to power caused many Mexicans to cross the border as well as angering the United States who saw him as a dictator.
"Hermit Kingdom"
The Kingdom of Axum was called this due the fact of it being by itself.
Tokugawa Bakufu System
a feudal regime of Japan established by Tokugawa Ieyasu and ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family. This period is known as the Edo period and gets its name from the capital city, Edo, which now is called Tokyo. The Tokugawa shogunate ruled from Edo Castle from 1603 until 1868, when it was abolished during the Meiji Restoration.
Shays' Rebellion
Uprising led by Daniel Shays in an effort to prevent courts from foreclosing on the farms of those who could not pay the taxes, this conflict in Massachusetts caused many to criticize the Articles of Confederation and admit the weak central government was not working. Led to conservative nationalists to insist on a stronger central government.
John Hancock
Nicknamed "King of the Smugglers" ; He was a wealthy Massachusetts merchant in 1776 who was important in persuading the American colonies to declare their independence from England. He was the ring leader in the plot to store gunpowder which resulted in the battles in Lexington and Concord. These battles began the American Revolution.
henry J. kaiser
He had supervised the constrution of Boulder Dam and reduced the prodution time to less than two weeks instead of 6 months and then to one ship a day
908. Bimetalism
Use of two metals, gold and silver, for currency as America did with the Bland-Allison Act and the Sherman Silver Purchase Act. Ended in 1900 with the enactment of the Gold Standard Act.
Origins of Writing
- Sumerians invented the first writing system called Cuniform- Egyptians used hieroglyphics- many languages from this time period are closely related
Demographic Transition
A change in the rates of population growth. Before the transition, both birth and death rates are high, resulting in a slowly growing population; then the death rate drops but the birth rate remains high, causing a population explosion. (867)
Tariff of 1832
(AJ) , This tariff was a protectionist tariff in the United States. It was passed as a reduced tariff to remedy the conflict created by the tariff of 1828, but it was still deemed unsatisfactory by southerners and other groups hurt by high tariff rates. Southern opposition to this tariff and its predecessor, the Tariff of Abominations, caused the Nullification Crisis involving South Carolina. The tariff was later lowered down to 35 percent, a reduction of 10 percent, to pacify these objections.
Empress of China
A merchant ship built in 1784 that became the first American ship to sail from the newly independent United States to China with Ginseng
Cyril and Methodious
Who were the creators of the cyrilic alphabet?
Declaration of the Rights of Man
Statement of fundamental political rights adopted by the French National Assembly at the beginning of the French Revolution. (p. 586)
The tetrarchs were
the four officials who ruled the roman empire under Diocletian's plan
Democratic Party (Andrew Jackson)
Furious at the Corrupt Bargain of 1824, Jackson put together a support network dedicated to attacking Adams and Clay. This support network went on to become the roots of the modern Democratic party.
Virginia Plan
a set of proposals for a new gvmn't, submitted to the Constitutional convention of 1787; included seperation of gvmn't into 3 branches, division of legislature into 2 houses, and proportional representation in legislature
First and Second Continental Congresses
'''First'''- Set up a boycott on British goods and set up for second continental congress. '''Second'''- adopted the Declaration of Independence and the Articles of Confederation. Acted as the de facto U.S. national government during the Revolutionary War by raising armies, directing strategy, appointing diplomats, and making formal treaties
fundamental orders of ct
document that has been called the 1st written constitution in America. Eliminated full membership in the church to work in the government
1474. My Lai, Lt. Calley
March, 1968 - An American unit destroyed the village of My Lai, killing many women and children. The incident was not revealed to the public until 20 months later. Lt. Calley, who led the patrol, was convicted of murder and sentenced to 10 years for killing 20 people.
Lyndon B. Johnson's Party*
VP - Hubert H. Humphrey, SS - Dean Rusk
The Impending Crisis of the South
A book written by Hinton Helper. Helper hated both slavery and blacks and used this book to try to prove that non-slave owning whites were the ones who suffered the most from slavery. The non-aristocrat from N.C. had to go to the North to find a publisher that would publish his book.
What did the Townshend Acts do?
What did they cause?
Who proposed them?
Placed more indirect taxes on Colonists
Eventually the "Boston massacre
Exchequer Charles Townsheand
924. "Cross of Gold" Speech
Given by Bryan on June 18, 1896. He said people must not be "crucified on a cross of gold", referring to the Republican proposal to eliminate silver coinage and adopt a strict gold standard.
Who did Reagan nominate to sit on the supreme court during his presidency? why was each one notable?
Sandra Day O'Connor-first female. & also two other conservative judges
St. Augustine
...
Voltaire
Freedom of speech
Loyalists
colonists who supported Britian
New Deal
President Franklin Roosevelt's precursor of the modern welfare state (1933-1939); programs to combat economic depression enacted a number of social insurance measures and used government spending to stimulate the economy; increased power of the state and the state's intervention in United States social and economic life.
coffles
hand cuffs or neck cuffs
1607
the year Jamestown was founded
Janissaries
Infantry, originally of slave origin, armed with firearms and constituting the elite of the Ottoman army from the fifteenth century until the corps was abolished in 1826. See also devshirme. (p. 526, 675)
Gentry
landowners with substantial amounts of property and without aristocratic titles; considered
Gothic Cathedrals
Large churches originating in twelfth-century France; built in an architectural style featuring pointed arches, tall vaults and spires, flying buttresses, and large stained-glass windows. (p. 405)
dance-hall girls
Prostitutes at cathouses in boomtowns
Deism
The religion of the Enlightenment (1700s). Followers believed that God existed and had created the world, but that afterwards He left it to run by its own natural laws. Denied that God communicated to man or in any way influenced his life.
Pericles
Aristocratic leader who guided the Athenian state through the transformation to full participatory democracy for all male citizens. (130)
Federalists
Led by Alexander Hamilton, the Federalists believed in a strong central government, loose interpretation, and encouraged commerce and manufacturing. They were staunch supporters of the Constitution during ratification and were a political force during the early years of the United States. The Federalist influence declined after the election of Republican Thomas Jefferson to the presidency and disappeared completely after the Hartford Convention.
Causes of WWI
Zimmerman TelegramGermany started unrestricted sub warfareLusitania incident
pragmatism
character or conduct that emphasizes practicality.
patron/client relationship
Anciant Roman: a fundamental social relationship in which the patron-a wealthy and powerful individual-provided legal and economic protection and assistance to clients, men of lesser status and means, and in return the clients supported their patrons (149
"ghost towns"
Communities that were bypassed by railroads.
The Liberator
An anti-slavery newspaper written by William Lloyd Garrison. It drew attention to abolition, both positive and negative, causing a war of words between supporters of slavery and those opposed.
impeach
occurs in government when the people and or their representatives feel the President has failed to fulfill his duties. The resulting action is a trail before the Senate where the President may make his case and his past actions are put under scrutiny. The Senate will then vote at the end of the trial to determine whether he is impeached or not.
stock
a supply of something available for future use
Oracle Bones
animal bones carved with written characters which were used for telling the future
Peter Stolypin
Prime minister of Russia from 1906-1911. He was very involved in fighting radical groups and he also took upon himself various agrarian reforms - which he thought and were proven to be essential for the Russian economy.
Second Triumvirate
Octavius, Marc Anthony, and Lepidus; made upon death of Julius Caesar
Manchu
the Tungusic language spoken by the Manchu people
Hong Xiuquan
Leader of the Taiping rebellion; converted to specifically Chinese form of Christianity; attacked traditional Confucian teachers of Chinese elite
The Act where Hindu Women voluntarily throw herself on her dead husbands funeral pyre is...
Sati
feudalism
a political and social system that developed during the Middle Ages; nobles offered protection and land in return for service
Kamikaze
"Divine wind" that stopped the Mongol invasion of Japan.
tennis cabinet
Term for Roosevelt's group of athletic, tennis-playing cronies who surrounded him.
Jackson disliked caucuses, but had people come into meeting through the back door, these people were called the___________.
Kitchen Cabinet
Berlin Airlift
mid-20th century, a military operation that brought food & other needed goods into West Berlin by air after government of East Germany had cut off its supply routes
Excise Tax
A taxed, proposed by Hamilton that placed a tax on a few domestic items, such as whiskey. This angered some farmers who know had to pay tax on their whiskey and made it difficult to trade it. This caused minor rebellions which were squashed because of the fright of a rebellion.
27th Amendment*
(RN) , regulates pay raises for members of Congress
Election of 1848
Democrats nominated Lewis Cass, and Whigs Zachary Taylor. Out of this election the Free-Soil Party emerged which drew from the Liberty Party and the Whig and Democratic parties.
Spoils System
the system of employing and promoting civil servants who are friends and supporters of the group in power
Gilgamesh
the epic story of the king, Gilgamesh, who searched for immortality. This is a Sumerian legend and is believed to be the first story
Lusitania
(WW), British passenger boat sunk by a German submarine that claimed 1,000 lives. One of main reasons US decided to join the war.
Socialist
Youth Corps Formed in 1920 in China; dedicated to recruiting urban working classes to the nationalist revolution in China.
Ven us Fegurine
to show desire for human fertility
monroe doctrine was
bold policy statement that warned europe to stay out of the western hemisphere
These were a collection of more than one hundred mystical dialogues between teachers and disciples that reflect the questioning of the foundations of Vedic religion
Upanishads
Glorious Revolution
took place in England in 1688-1689; bloodlessly replaced Catholic James II with Protestant Dutch William II and English May (daughter of James II); inspired colonists to the point that a Boston mob sent Andros back to England
XYZ affair
An insult to the American delegation when they were supposed to be meeting French foreign minister, Talleyrand, but instead they were sent 3 officials Adams called "X,Y, and Z" that demanded $250,000 as a bribe to see Talleyrand.
election of 1824
Crawford, *Adams, Clay, Jackson (all dem-reps)
-Adams won by corrupt bargain, end of caucus system, Jackson won popular vote
george goethals
..., United States army officer and engineer who supervised the construction of the Panama Canal (1858-1928)
Farmers and cheap-money people
Founders of Greenback Labor party
John Hay
September, 1899 - Hay sent imperialist nations a note asking them to offer assurance that they would respect the principle of equal trade opportunities, specifically in the China market.
patriarchal
a person regarded as the father or founder of an order, class, etc.
Molasses Act of 1733
British legislation which had taxed all molasses, rum, and sugar which the colonies imported from countries other than Britain and her colonies. The act angered the New England colonies, which imported a lot of molasses from the Caribbean as part of the Triangular Trade. The British had difficulty enforcing the tax; most colonial merchants did not pay it.
How did the US gain territory in 1848?
Mexican-American War
Cuban Missile Crisis
The soviets began to build missile sites in Cuba, and when they were discovered by the Americans in 1962, Kennedy ordered them removed
Tokugawa Shogunate
The last of the three shogunates of Japan. (p. 563)
ideology
a set or system of beliefs that shapes the thinking of individuals and how they view the world
The Virginia Plan
- suggested by Randolfe
- plan in which representation in US legislation was based on population
- led to House of Representatives
Roe v. Wade
'73 Supreme ct decision that stuck down 46 state laws restricting women's access to abortion (highlighted divisions within women's mvmt
Code of Hammurabi
Introduced by Hammarabi was the first complete collection of laws that the people could look at and follow
Washington's Farewell Address
1) outlined 2 principles that guided foreign policy (maintain commercial, not political ties; enter into no permanent alliances)
2) also stressed America's unique and need for unilateralism
3) warned against political factions
Eisenhower Doctrine
refers to a speech by President Dwight David Eisenhower on 5 January 1957, within a "Special Message to the Congress on the Situation in the Middle East". Under the Eisenhower Doctrine, a country could request American economic assistance and/or aid from U.S. military forces if it was being threatened by armed aggression from another state. Eisenhower singled out the Soviet threat in his doctrine by authorizing the commitment of U.S. forces "to secure and protect the territorial integrity and political independence of such nations, requesting such aid against overt armed aggression from any nation controlled by international communism."
Bartolomeo Vanzetti
Fish peddler convicted in 1921 of the murder of a Massachusetts paymaster

Webster-Hayne debate
was an unplanned series of speeches in the Senate, during which Robert Hayne of South Carolina interpreted the Constitution as little more than a treaty between sovereign states, and Daniel Webster expressed the concept of the United States as one nation.
Henry Cabot Lodge
Lodge was against the League of Nations, so he packed the foreign relations committee with critics and was successful in convincing the Senate to reject the treaty.
1403. Jimmy Hoffa
Leader of the teamster's union, he was anti-AFL/CIO. He threatened to defeat for reelection an Congressman who dared to vote for a tough labor law.
Board of Customs Commissioners
was to enforce trade regulations and establish vice-admiralty courts to deal w/ colonists who violated the law.
Judiciary Act, 1789
- placed in every state, a Federal court that operated according to local procedures (Supreme Court still had final jurisdiction)
most part, chesapeak colonies during seventhenth century
maintained close emotional and political ties to england
American Federation of Labor
Federation of craft labor unions lead by Samuel Gompers that arose out of dissatisfaction with the Knights of Labor
1458. Thurgood Marshall (1908-1993)
In 1967, appointed the first Black Supreme Court Justice, he had led that NAACP's legal defense fund and had argued the Brown v. The Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas case before the Supreme Court.
CAMP DAVID ACCORDS
where Anwar Sadat of Egypt and Menachem Begin of Israel sign a peace treaty
579. Prigg v. Pennsylvania
1842 - A slave had escaped from Maryland to Pennsylvania, where a federal agent captured him and returned him to his owner. Pennsylvania indicted the agent for kidnapping under the fugitive slave laws. The Supreme Court ruled it was unconstitutional for bounty hunters or anyone but the owner of an escaped slave to apprehend that slave, thus weakening the fugitive slave laws.
Things about the Umayyad Caliphate...
The Umayyad Caliphate was replaced by the Abbasid Caliphate in 750.
Lincoln's Ten percent plan
During the Civil War in December 1863, Abraham Lincoln offered a model for reinstatement of Southern states. It decreed that a state could be reintegrated into the Union when 10 percent of the 1860 vote count from that state had taken an oath of allegiance to the U.S. and pledged to abide by emancipation. The next step in the process would be for the states to formally elect a state government. Also, a state legislature could write a new constitution, but it also had to abolish slavery forever.
613. Dred Scott Decision
A Missouri slave sued for his freedom, claiming that his four year stay in the northern portion of the Louisiana Territory made free land by the Missouri Compromise had made him a free man. The U.S, Supreme Court decided he couldn't sue in federal court because he was property, not a citizen.
631. North's advantages in the Civil War
Larger numbers of troops, superior navy, better transportation, overwhelming financial and industrial reserves to create munitions and supplies, which eventually outstripped the South's initial material advantage.
land ordinance of 1785
A law that divided much of the United States into a system of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers., A major success of the Articles of Confederation. Provided for the orderly surveying and distribution of land belonging to the U.S.
Why did Hitler believe European nations would not interfere in his Anschluss plan?
They had not stopped him in the Rhineland
What 2 things make up Supply-side economics?
1. focused on inflation
2. to lower inflation, money needs to be removed from circulation
 
390. Eli Whitney: cotton gin (short for "engine")
1798 - He developed the cotton gin, a machine which could separate cotton form its seeds. This invention made cotton a profitable crop of great value to the Southern economy. It also reinforced the importance of slavery in the economy of the South.
Geronimo
Apache chief
sufis
islamic mystics and missionaries
mosque
Muslim house of worship
Humanist
Renaissance scholars interested in moral philosophy, history, and literature,
drawing inspiration from classical texts.
Wilberforce,
William British statesman and reformer; leader of abolitionist movement in English parliament; led abolition of English slave trade in 1807
Cartier
Explored the St. Lawerence River
countermeasure
an opposing, offsetting, or retaliatory measure.
Iraq
Awarded to Britain at Paris Conference
cuneiform
written language of the Sumerians, probably the first written script in the world
St.Petersburg
capital of Russia established during the reign of Peter the Great.
Concordat
the peace agreement made between Napoleon and the Pope following the chaos of the French Revolution.
Il-Khan
A 'secondary' or 'peripheral' khan based in Persia. The Il-khans' khanate was founded by H?leg?, a grandson of Genghis Khan, was based at Tabriz in modern Azerbaijan. It controlled much of Iran and Iraq. (p. 333)
Tokugawa Ieyasu
Vassal of Toyotomi Hideyoshi; succeeded him as most powerful military figure in japan
russia accepted this line for Oregon
52'54"
syndicate
a group of individuals or organizations combined or making a joint effort to undertake some specific duty or carry out specific transactions or negotiations:
Nazis
German political party joined by Adolf Hitler, emphasizing nationalism, racism, and war. When Hitler became chancellor of Germany in 1933, the Nazi Party became the only legal party and an instrument of Hitler's absolute rule. (786)
Imperialism
Term associated with the expansion of European powers and their conquest and
colonization of African and Asian societies, mainly from the sixteenth through the nineteenth centuries.
Shay's Rebellion
This was rebellion of Daniel ShayDaniel Shay, a poor farmer, (previously an officer who resigned in 1780 because of the delay in pay), went to the legislature of Massachusetts to prevent these foreclosures. Its denial of his request led him to start Shay's Rebellion (1786-1787). Shay assembled a group of poor farmers like himself and attempted to capture a federal arsenal. In the end they are caught, and Shay is charged with treason. The absence of a central government allows this incident, and many like it, to occur. This rebellion may not have made a change in policy, but it provided ammunition for leaders at that time to think about the need for a stronger central governemnt.
horse collar
Harnessing method that increased the efficiency of horses by shifting the point of traction from the animal's neck to the shoulders; its adoption favors the spread of horse-drawn plows and vehicles. (p. 269)
Recall
(TR) dismissal of elected or appointed offical
Yellow
Turbans Chinese Daoists who launched a revolt in 184 c.e. in China promising a golden age to be brought about by divine magic.
Appeasement
The policy, followed by the European nations in the 1930s, of accepting Hitler's annexation of Austria and Czechoslovakia in the believe that meeting his demands would assure peace and stability.
Black Belt
region where slavery was most concentrated in the South; Slavery in South-Peculiar Institution
Sasanid Empire
Iranian empire, established ca. 226, with a capital in Ctesiphon, Mesopotamia. The Sasanid emperors established Zoroastrianism as the state religion. Islamic Arab armies overthrew the empire ca. 640. (p. 225)
Stamp Act
Colonies hated it. Resulted in Parliament passing the Declaratory Act
John Winthrop
Governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, envisioned colony as a "city upon a hill"
Committees of Correspondence
committees appointed from different colonies to communicate on matters; asserted right to self-government. cooperation between colonies
European Union
Since the 1950s, Western European countries have been slowly integrating their economies and defense arrangments. In 1979, citizens of Western European countries voted directly for representatives to the European Parliament. The Maastricht Treaty in 1992 made the European Union a reality.
zachary taylor
12th president of the U.S. 1849–50: major general during the Mexican War and commander of the army of the Rio Grande 1846.
Olney
Attorney General at the time of the Pullman Strike, disagreed with Illinois governor Altgled about the seriousness of the strike. He used the excuse that the strike was interfering with mail delivery to justify bringing in federal troops.
Benjamin Franklin
He owned a successful printing and publishing company in Philadelphia. He conducted studies of electricity, invented bifocal glasses, the lighting rod, and the stove. He was a important diplomat and statesman and eventually signed the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution of the United States.
Define Columbian Exchange.
Exchange of plants, animals, and disease
972. Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty
1903 - U.S. guaranteed the independence of the newly-created Republic of Panama.
Don Juan de Onate
Colonial governor of new Spain.
Teapot Dome Scandal
a government scandal involving a former U.S. Navy oil reserve in Wyoming that was secretly leased to a private oil company in 1921
central Europe
The Holy Roman Empire dominated _____ ______.
The Englightenment
Era in Western philosophy, reason as the primary source for legitimacy and authority, critical questioning of traditional customs and institutions and a strong belief in rationality and science
Constitution: Logrolling
This refers to the practice of representatives or senators exchanging votes for each others' pet bills.
Indian Ocean Trade
connected to Europe, Africa, and China; worlds richest maritime trading network and an area of rapid Muslim expansion
James Wolfe
led British on Plains of Abraham (died)- Quebec surrenders
Vladimir I
ruler of Russian kingdom of Kiev, converted kingdom to christianity
William Henry Harrison
Was an American military leader, politician, the 9th President of the United States 1841, and the first President to die in office. His death created a brief constitutional crisis, but ultimately resolved many questions about presidential succession left unanswered by the Constitution until passage of the 25th Amendment. Led US forces in the Battle of Tippecanoe. Nominated as the Whig's presidential candidate for 1840. Proven vote getter. Military hero who expressed few opinions on national issues and had not political record to defend.
Worcester v. Georgia
Georgia cannot enforce American laws on Indian tribes
Regnans in Exelsis
Stripped Elizabeth of her entitlement to the kingdom
Wright Bros.
created a plane, Kitty Hawk,NC. gave prospect of commercial aviation. 1903
Marbury v. Madison
1803; established the principle of judicial review; Supreme Court had responsibility for reviewing the constitutionality of Congressional acts
Coxey's Army
A band of unemployed people who marched to DC during the depression of 1894 under the leadership of Jacob S. Coxey. They urged the enactment of laws which would provide money without interest for public improvements to create work.
Haile Selassie
Emperor of Ethiopia (r. 1930-1974) and symbol of African independence. He fought the Italian invasion of his country in 1935 and regained his throne during World War II, when British forces expelled the Italians. He ruled Ethiopia as an autocrat. (809)
William McKinley's Party*
VP - TR SS - John Hay
Great Western Schism
a division in the Latin (western) Christian Church between 1378 and 1415, when rival claimants to the papacy existed in Rome and Avignon.
Charlotte Perkins Gilman
A major feminist prophet during the late 19th and early 20th century; called on women to abandon their dependent status
suffrage
the right to vote, esp. in a political election.
Billion Dollar Congress
bailed out the Republican party's poor legislative decisions
Baker v. Carr
established one man, one vote - discrict lines must show equallity for all
Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)
an organization dedicated to the establishment of an independent state for Palestinians in the Middle East but tolerant of Jews and for that reason opposed by Hamas
appropriation
A sum of money or property legally set aside for a specific use.
Punic Wars
a series of three wars between Rome and Carthage, resulted in the destruction of Carthage and Rome's dominance in the western Mediterranean
Paleolithic age
"old stone age"
a long period of human development before the development of agriculture
Alice Paul
- student in GB who didn't like militant tactics of women's suffrage- 1913 est Congressional Union (Woman's Party) to bring direct pressure on the fed gov
Barbed wire
New invention that helped do away with the long drive
Bland-Allison Act
Stated that the Treasury had to buy and coin between $2 and $4 million worth of silver bullion each month. The government put down hopes of inflationists when it bought only the legal minimum.
Embargo Act
1807 (TJ) , The U.S. tried to hurt Britain and France by cutting off the supplies they needed from America because it banned all the U.S.'s foreign trade.
1440. Sit-ins, freedom rides
Late 1950's, early 1960's, these were nonviolent demonstrations and marches that challenged segregation laws, often braving attacks by angry White mobs.
Progressive Party (1948)
Party for which Henry Wallace ran for President,
Fugitive Slave Law
Enacted by Congress in 1793 and 1850, these laws provided for the return of escaped slaves to their owners. The North was lax about enforcing the 1793 law, with irritated the South no end. The 1850 law was tougher and was aimed at eliminating the underground railroad.
unification of england
during the rule of king john, peasants rebelled and forced him to sign the magna carta, which gave people rights and laid the foundation for parliament. Parliament was established and divided into the house of lords (legal stuff) and the house of commons (taxes and finances). this led england to establish its identitiy pretty early on
Birth of a Nation
Movie released in 1915 - promoted White supremecy and pro KKK - first blockbuster
509. Santa Ana
As dictator of Mexico, he led the attack on the Alamo in 1836. He was later defeated by Sam Houston at San Jacinto.
Root-Takahira Agreement
1908 - Japan / U.S. agreement in which both nations agreed to respect each other's territories in the Pacific and to uphold the Open Door policy in China.
757. James B. Duke
Made tobacco a profitable crop in the modern South, he was a wealthy tobacco industrialist.
Rome and the Roman republic
Rome- 753 BCE. Roman Republic- after 509 BCE when Etruscan kings were expelled
What were the roles of monasteries?
Dominated cultural & social life; accumulated large land holdings, organized rural labor for for agriculture, provided social services & centers of learning
117. Wolfe, Montcalm, Quebec
1759 - British general James Wolfe led an attack on Quebec. The French, under Marquis de Montcalm, fought off the initial attack, but the British recovered and took Quebec in a surprise night attack in September, 1759.
1134. McNary-Haugen Bill, vetos
The bill was a plan to raise the prices of farm products. The government could buy and sell the commodities at world price and tariff. Surplus sold abroad. It was vetoes twice by Coolidge. It was the forerunner of the 1930's agricultural programs.
1535. Election of 1972: candidates, issues
People feared that George S. McGovern, the Democratic candidate, was an isolationist because he promised cuts in defense spending. Richard M. Nixon, the Republican, promised an end to the Vietnam War and won by 60.7% of the popular vote.
1495. United Nations in the Congo, 1960
A Black uprising against the Belgian colonial government in the Congo became increasingly violent with White settlers being raped and butchered. The U.N. sent in troops to try to prevent civil war.
What were the Married Women's Property Acts between 1839 and 1845?
They gave women full legal control over the property she brought to marriage
if you were a war hawk, you were most likely to be
a republican from the south and west
goa ormuz
...
2500-2000 BCE
Hinduism Date
king mines
united both kingdoms
demagogue
hitler, appeals to emotions
Wari
Andean civilization culturally linked to Tiwanaku, perhaps beginning as a colony of Tiwanaku
Privateering
Privately owned armed ships specifically authorized by congress to prey on enemy shipping. There were over a thousand American privateers who responded to the call of patriotism and profit. The privateers brought in urgently needed gold, harassed the enemy, and raised American morale.(American Revolution, 1775-1783)
Confucius
Chinese philosopher (circa 551-478 BC)
Dean Rusk
JFK's secretary of state
duma
National parliament created in Russia in the aftermath of the Revolution of 1905; progressively stripped of power during the reign of Tsar Nicholas II; failed to forestall further revolution.
Almohadis
followers of a reformist movement among the Islamic Berbers of northern Africa; followed the example of the Almoravids
Emiliano Zapata
Mexican revolutionary who led guerrilla fighting in the South; motto was "Tierra y Libertad"; demanded land reform.
Centralists
Latin American politicians who wished to create strong centralized national governments with broad powers often supported by politicians who described themselves as conservatives
Yaroslav
(2) Rulers of the Kievan Rus
Jacobins
Radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre from 1793 to 1794.
predilection
a predisposition in favor of something
untouchables
lowest caste in Indian society, performing worst jobs
Haight-Ashbury
In San Francisco, Hippie formed community, famous center of counterculture. Young people flocked there.
stock watering
originally referring to cattle, term for the practice of railroad promoters exaggerationg the profitability of stocks in excess of its actual value
Horace
Poet who adapted Greek poetic meters to the Latin language; author of lyrical poetry laudatory of the empire; patronized by Augustus.
Galleons
large, heavily armed ships used to carry silver from New World
around what year did the aztecs migrate to the central valley of mexico?
1325
Isaac Newton
English scientist during the 17th century; author of Princi Pia; drew various astronomical and physocal observations and wider theories together in a neat framework of natural laws; est. principles of motion; defined forces of gravity
Mugwump
campaign slogan that lost Blaine the election in 1884
Farmer's Alliance
1880s - Organized farming economic system - tried to raise commedy prices by collective action of individual farmers
Bacon's Rebellion
Virginia Governor Berkeley refuses to retaliate against Indians, so Bacon takes group of colonists and kills all natives, friend and foe; drives Berkeley out, but dies; movement fails
Mamluks
Under the Islamic system of military slavery, Turkic military slaves who formed an important part of the armed forces of the Abbasid Caliphate of the ninth and tenth centuries. Mamluks eventually founded their own state, ruling Egypt and Syria (1250-1517)
Peter the Great
(1672-1725) Russian tsar (r. 1689-1725). He enthusiastically introduced Western languages and technologies to the Russian elite, moving the capital from Moscow to the new city of St. Petersburg.
Miscegenation
having relations with someone of a different race
Lincoln-Douglass Debates
Seven debates between Lincoln and Douglass before election of 1860 - mostly over issues of slavery
52. Homer
legendary early Greek poet and rhapsode traditionally credited with authorship of the major Greek epics Iliad and Odyssey
bold ambitious irish merchant who built one of the first department stores
AT stewart
Marian Anderson
First African-American to perform at the White House; the DAR refused her use of Constitution Hall for a concert, so Eleanor Roosevelt set her up to perform at the Lincoln Memorial.
Laissez Faire
(USG) , the doctrine that government should not interfere in commercial affairs
Zen
The Japanese word for a branch of Mahayana Buddhism based on highly disciplined meditation. It is known in Sanskrit as Dhyana, in Chinese as chan, and in Korean as son.
Nation State
A state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality.
surface mining
Panning and sluicing are examples of this type of mining.
United Nations
Successor to the League of Nations, this U.S.-backed international organization had more success in all ways than its predecessor.
6.4 big-stick diplomacy
Slogan of Roosevelt's extension to Monroe Doctrine.
Alger Hiss
Accused of being a Communist and soviet spy, convicted in 1950
City Commissioner Plan
Cities hire experts in different fields to run a single aspect of government: Ex. Sanitation Commissioner
Bacons Rebellion
1676 Due to Sir William Berkley, governor of Virginia, constant friendliness with the Indians even after they attacked poor farmers (plantation owners had special treatment) Nathaniel bacon who was in the House of Burgesses kicked out Berkley and killed the Indians setting fire to Jamestown
St. Petersburg
Capitol city created by Peter the Great to resemble a French city. It was built on land taken from Sweden
Delhi sultans
Delhi Sultanate, refers to the various Muslim dynasties that ruled in India (1210-1526). It was founded after Muhammad of Ghor defeated Prithvi Raj and captured Delhi in 1192
Read more: Delhi Sultanate — Infoplease.com http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0815061.html#ixzz14k1DGmaR
Northwest Ordinance 1787
set rules for creating new states
jacques dessalines
1. a former slave, named himself governor-general of haiti and declared the island a free republic.
2. haiti then became the first independant nation in latin america
he was responsible for the mass production of the steel furnace
henry bessemer
Aesops:
the supposed author of a collection of Greek fables, almost certainly a legendary figure
Supreme Court during Ford
(GF) school pupils coannot be suspended without telling their side of the story, President has no right to freeze funds, US has title to oil
Doric Columns
least ornate of the 3 types of architecture
William Bradford
A Pilgrim, the second governor of the Plymouth colony, 1621-1657. He developed private land ownership and helped colonists get out of debt. He helped the colony survive droughts, crop failures, and Indian attacks.
Manhattan Project
Code name given to the development of the US atomic bomb during World War II. Work on the bomb was carried out in great secrecy by a team including US physicists Enrico Fermi and J. Robert Oppenheimer. The first test took place on July 16, 1945, near Alamogordo, New Mexico, and the next month the US Air Force dropped bombs on Japan.
In 410 CE Rome was sacked by these people...
Visigoths
Johnson Debt Default Act
Prevented countries from borrowing if they owed
Atlantic Charter of 1941
World War II alliance agreement between the United States and Britain; included a clause that recognized the right of all people to choose the form of government under which they live; indicated sympathy for decolonization
Theory of Secession
the act of withdrawing form an organization union, or political entity
Article X
Part of the Treaty of Versaille that created the League of Nations
Neolithic Revolution
the shift from hunting of animals and gathering of food to the keeping of animals and the growing of food on a regular basis around 8,000 BC
league of nations
1. President wilson called for the creation of a joint council of nations.
2. wilson was embarrassed when his own congress openly rejcted joining this in pursuit of their isolationist leanings.
Vicksburg
(AL), 1863 , a decisive battle in the American Civil War (1863)
Gays in Military
(WJC) "dont ask, dont tell", end ban of homosexual in military, but under conditions 1) no open engagement, 2) remained quiet about orientation
Lewis and Clark expedition
Expedition led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to explore the Louisiana Territory. Jefferson instructed Lewis to trace the Missouri River to its source, cross the western highlands, and follow the best water route to the Pacific. He ordered Lewis to learn about Indian languages and customs, climate, plants, birds, reptiles, and insects.
Loyalists / Tories
A colonist in the new world who remained loyal to the British during the American Revolution.
Agricultural Adjusment Administration (AAA)
Established by the Agricultural Act of 1932, a New Deal bureau designed to restore economic position of farmers by paying them not to farm goods that were being overproduced
Gilded Age
Late 1800s to Early 1900s - time of large increase in wealth caused by industrialization
babur
1. a muslim leader who claimed to be a descendant of ghengis khan.
2. invaded india and quickly defeated the delhi sultanate.
3.established the mughal empire
Carter's Energy Plan
(JEC) 1979, he wanted cut down on foregin oil supports and on American reliance on petroleum, alternate sources he wanted were solar poewr and synthetic gasoline, also (1) commit funds to develop alternative enrgy sources through windfall taxes, but sadly none of these happened.
matteo ricci and adam schall
Jesuit scholars at the Ming court; also skilled scientists; won few converts to Christianity.
Wilbur and Orville Wright
famous in the world of aviation for their contributions to human flight.
the law allowing the federal govt to intervene in state affairs in order to protect african americans was
the civil rights act
Single Whip Tax System
1581 tax reform by Zhang Juz hen: all land taxes were to be paid in silver.
6.8 League of Women Voters, Alice Paul, National Women's party, 1923
Campaign for an equal rights amendment to constitution. League of Women Voter= Carrie Catt. 6 months before 19th amendement.
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