AP US History 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Municipal
City
Andrew Johnson*
1865-1869, Republican
horus
Egyptian falcon-headed solar god
Confucius
Chinese philosopher, administrator, and moralist. His social and moral teachings, collected in the Analects , tried to replace former religious observances
Epicureans
Hellenistic philosophers who taught that pleasure-as in quiet satisfaction- was the greatest good.
Batu
grandson and heir to ghengis
Grand Canal
The 1,100-mile (1,700-kilometer) waterway linking the Yellow and the Yangzi Rivers. It was begun in the Han period and completed during the Sui Empire. (p. 277)
manifestation
outward or perceptible indication; materialization:
Carolina
Found in 1670, SUGAR&RICE!, indians were being used as slaves
Zhou
established by Wu Wang; longest dynasty; created Mandate of Heaven; feudal system and bureacracy
mercenaries
hired foreign soldiers; British hired German Hessians (many of whom were more interested in money than duty and remained in America after the war)
Sudanic
states Kingdoms that developed during the height of Ghana's power in the region; based at Takrur on the Senegal River to the west and Gao on the Niger River to the east; included Mali and Songhay.
Zapata
Revolutionary Leader in Mexico during the Mexican Revolution.
Talleyrand
the French foreign minister, whom which three American dipolmats seek to reach an agreement with, they are stopped by the French X, Y, and Z dipolmats and are asked for a bribe to speak with Talleyrand. Causes XYZ affair.
Ashoka
Chandragupta's grandson; Served as a governor of two provinces, gained all but the southern tip of India through fierce fighting, and ultimately converted to Buddhism.
pilgrims
English Puritans who founded Plymouth colony in 1620.
Monroe Doctrine
American president James Monroe declared in 1820 that European countries were not allowed to attempt re-colonization of the newly indepdendent nation-states in Latin America. He also states that only the government or U.S. merchants had the right to intervene in Latin American countries if debts or other financial matters need to be solved.
Ethiopia
East African highland nation lying east of the Nile River. (See also Menelik II; Selassie, Haile.) (p. 221)
Watergate
(RN), 1972, The events and scandal surrounding a break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters in 1972 and the subsequent cover-up of White House involvement, leading to the eventual resignation of President Nixon under the threat of impeachment, Ford becomes President
classical civilizations
Very Organized Civilizations that had strong Central Governments, made major Contributions to our Society(Architecture, Law, Government, Science), and developed large Trade Networks.
What is the one most important invention by humans?
agriculture
Cuneiform
wedge shaped writing / the "first" writing done with a stylus on a damp clay tablet and preserved through drying in the sun
Joseph Smith
started Mormonism. Believed to have had a vision and then received the golden plates that detailed the new religion.
Valley Forge
Place where Washington's army spent the winter of 1777-1778, a 4th of troops died here from disease and malnutriton, Steuben comes and trains troops
Nikita Khrushchev
Russian Soviet statesman and premier after Stalin who denounced him. He led the de-Stalinization of Russia and argued for major innovations. He wanted peaceful coexistence with the U.S. Eisenhower agreed to a summit conference with Khrushchev, France and Great Britain in Geneva, Switzerland in July, 1955 to discuss how peaceful coexistence could be achieved., ruled the USSR from 1958-1964; lessened government control of soviet citizens; seeked peaceful coexistence with the West instead of confrontation, premier (1894-1971)
Consignment system
One company sells another company's products, and then gives the producing company most of the profits, but keeps a percentage (a commission) for itself.
Food Stamps
Federal program to help low-income families purchase food more easily using stamps.
holy alliance
Alliance among RUssia, Prussia, and Austria in defense of religion and the established order; formed at Congress of Vienna by most conservative monarchies of Europe.
James Oglethorpe
pressure parlament outlaw slave in Georgia
John Bartram (1699-1777)
America's first botanist; traveled through the frontier collecting specimens.
john dickinson
Drafted a declaration of colonial rights and grievances, and also wrote the series of "Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania" in 1767 to protest the Townshend Acts. Although an outspoken critic of British policies towards the colonies, Dickinson opposed the Revolution, and, as a delegate to the Continental Congress in 1776, refused to sign the Declaration of Independence.
Great Awakening
Religious movement during the 1730s and 40s/ its leaders were george whitefield, and jonathan edwards/ religious pluralism was promoted by the idea that all protestant denominations were legitimate/ Baptists, congregationalst, presbyterians/ emphasis on sinfulness of humanity and need for personal redemption thu jesus christ/ extended scope of religion to blacks and women (excluded before)/ waned with Am. Rev. but was follwed by second/ emphasis on the sinfulness of humanity and the need for personal redemption through jesus christ/ included baptists, congregationalists, and presbyterians/ extended the scope of religion to the poor, to blacks, and to women, many of whom had been excluded from mainstream established churches/
Yellow Journalism
Pioneered by Joeseph Pulitzer and William Randolph and favored more sensationalistic headlines over accuracy; led to a rise in the growth of newspapers and journalism.
Internal/External Taxation
Internal taxation taxed goods within the colonies and acted much like a sales tax. The Stamp Act of 1765 is an example of internal taxation. External taxation applied to imports into the colonies. The merchant importing the good paid the tax on it, much like the Sugar Act of 1764. Colonists were more accepting of external taxation and more opposed to internal taxation.
plague
an epidemic disease that causes high mortality; pestilence.
Oneida Community
John Noyes, New York; utopian society for communalism, perfectionism, and complex marriage
Treaty Ports
Cities opened to foreign residents as a result of the forced treaties between the Qing Empire and foreign signatories. In the treaty ports, foreigners enjoyed extraterritoriality. (p. 685)
literacy tests
usually from the bible; however, many times black voters were turned down because the bible was actually in another language.
Yuan
Empire created in China and Siberia by Khubilai Khan.
leisure culture
An aspect of the later Industrial Revolution; based on newspapers, music halls, popular theater, vacation trips, and team sports.
Warren Burger
the Supreme Court justice durning the Nixon admistration. He was chosen by Nixon because of his strict interpretation of the Constitution. He presided over the extremly controversal case of abortion in Roe vs. Wade.
White Mans Burden
"duty' of Europeans to spread Christanity and western civilization. Used to Justify Imperialism
sedentary agriculture
Where farming occurs in one place, repeatedly, opposed to shifting cultivation
New Immigrants
Immigrants who came to the United States during and after the 1880s; most were from southern and eastern Europe.
Vasco da Gama
Portuguese explorer; first to round the Cape of Good Hope; reached India and established trade relations
George Grenville
Became prime minister of Britain in 1763 he persuaded the Parliament to pass a law allowing smugglers to be sent to vice-admiralty courts which were run by British officers and had no jury. He did this to end smuggling.
New Kingdom
The period during which Egypt reached the height of its power and glory.
Taiping Rebellion
The most destructive civil war before the twentieth century. A Christian-inspired rural rebellion threatened to topple the Qing Empire. (p. 687)
Virginia (Randolph) Plan
Virginia delegate James Madison's plan of government, in which states got a number of representatives in Congress based on their population
Ashoka Maurya
He was Buddhist, which encouraged the people to convert to Buddhism.
He was the emperor when the Mauryan Empire was at its height.
Oregon Country
US and British claims from discovery and exploration
 
more American settlers, Britain wanted Colombia River as boundary, Us 49th parallel
Which indians from Florida put up the biggest resistance during the Indian Removal Act?
Seminole
Pinckney's Treaty
Gave America what they demanded from the Spanish: free navigation of the Mississippi, large area of north Florida. (Helped America to have unexpected diplomatic sucess) (1795)
free-trade imperialism
Economic dominance of a weaker country by a more powerful one, while maintaining the legal independence of the weaker state. In the late nineteenth century, free-trade imperialism characterized the relations between the Latin American republics. (744)
Francis I
King of France in the 16th century; regarded as Renaissance monarch; patron of arts; imposed new controls on Catholic church; ally of Ottoman sultan against Holy Roman emperor.
Long Drive
General term for the herding of cattle from the grassy plains to the railroad terminals of Kansas, Nebraska, and Wyoming.
Caroline incident
Caroline was an American ship that was sunk by British force @ Niagra falls in 1837
The Grand Banks
Submarine plateaus off the coast of Newfoundland that are good for fishing
Ninth Amendment
written by Madison as an Amendment to the Constitution, it declares that specifying certain rights "shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people"
Federalists / Democratic-Republicans: Party leaders and supporters
The leading Federalists were Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The leading Democratic- Republicans were Thomas Jefferson and James Madison.
Qin
A people and state in the Wei Valley of eastern China that conquered rival states and created the first Chinese empire (221-206 B.C.E.). The Qin ruler, Shi Huangdi, standardized many features of Chinese society and enslaved subjects. (163)
Treaty of Kanagawa
An agreement by Japan with America, that Japan would open two ports to trade with the U.S. and would help shipwrecked U.S. sailors
bubonic plague
Also called the Black Death was a deadly disease that spread through Europe and killed one out of every three people
Populist (People's) Party
supported mainly by farmers in the South and West, the People's party was the successor of the Greenback-Labor party of the 1880s. The party adopted a platform calling for free coinage of silver and the issuance of large amounts of paper currency—inflationary measures that it hoped would ease the financial burdens of the nation's debt-ridden farmers. Its other demands included abolishing the national banking system, nationalizing the railroads, instituting a graduated income tax, electing U.S. senators by direct popular vote, and allowing people to participate directly in government by means of referendum 5: 1865-1900
Stamp Act
tax placed on paper goods; created by Grenville; caused great uproar and nonimportation
183. Edmund Burke (1729-1797)
A conservative British politician who was generally sympathetic to the colonists' greivances, and who felt that Britain's colonial policies were misguided. He also opposed the early feminist movements. He once said, "A woman is but an animal, and not an animal of the highest order."
Political party that sought to rid the U.S. of immigrant and Catholic political influence and appoint only native-born Protestants to office.
Know-Nothings/American Party
Roger Williams, Rhode Island
1635- He left the Massachusetts colony and
purchased land from the neighboring Indian tribe to found the colony of Rhode Island. Rhode Island was the only colony at the time to offer complete religious freedom.
1168. Washington Disarmament Conference, 1921-1922
The U.S. and nine other countries discussed limits on naval armaments. They felt that a naval arms race had contributed to the start of WW I. They created quotas for different classes of ships that could be built by each country based on its economic power and size of existing navies.
Collective Security
a system in which a group of nations acts as one to preserve the peace of all
Harappa
Site of one of the great cities of the Indus Valley civilization of the third millennium B.C.E. It was located on the northwest frontier of the zone of cultivation, and may have been a center for the acquisition of raw materials.
Anthony Ashley Cooper and John Locke
Modern philosophers of their time.
New Deal
The New Deal is a series of economic programs implemented in the United States between 1933 and 1936. They were passed by the U.S. Congress during the first term of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The programs were responses to the Great Depression, and focused on what historians call the "3 Rs": relief, recovery, and reform. That is, Relief for the unemployed and poor; Recovery of the economy to normal levels; and Reform of the financial system to prevent a repeat depression. The New Deal produced a political realignment, making the Democratic Party the majority (as well as the party which held the White House for seven out of nine Presidential terms from 1933 to 1969), with its base in liberal ideas, big city machines, and newly empowered labor unions, ethnic minorities, and the white South. The Republicans were split, either opposing the entire New Deal as an enemy of business and growth, or accepting some of it and promising to make it more efficient. The realignment crystallized into the New Deal Coalition that dominated most American elections into the 1960s, while the opposition Conservative Coalition largely controlled Congress from 1938 to 1964.
566. Theodore Weld (1802-1895)
Weld was devoted to the abolitionism movement. He advised the breakaway anti-slavery Whigs in Congress and his anonymous tract "American Slavery as It Is" (1839) was the inspiration for Uncle Tom's Cabin.
Mary McLeod Bethune
had been a long-time leader of efforts for improving education and economic opportunities for women; established the federal Council of Negros
537. John Jacob Astor (1763-1848)
His American fur company (est. 1808) rapidly became the dominant fur trading company in America. Helped finance the War of 1812. First millionaire in America (in cash, not land).
King Philip's War
1675 - A series of battles in New Hampshire between the colonists and the Wompanowogs, led by a chief known as King Philip. The war was started when the Massachusetts government tried to assert court jurisdiction over the local Indians. The colonists won with the help of the Mohawks, and this victory opened up additional Indian lands for expansion.
Judiciary Act of 1789
In 1789 Congress passed this Act which created the regulations for the Supreme Court and set up the federal-court system. The act managed to quiet popular apprehensions by establishing in each state a federal district court that operated according to local procedures.
Define: Pocket Veto
10 days pass and congress is not in session and the bill dies
in africa, what is a stateless society
lacking in concentration of politcal power and authority
106. Differences between French and British colonization
The British settled mainly along the coast, where they started farms, towns, and governments. As a general rule, whole families emigrated. The British colonies had little interaction with the local Indians (aside from occasional fighting). The French colonized the interior, where they controlled the fur trade. Most of the French immigrants were single men, and there were few towns and only loose governmental authority. The French lived closely with the Indians, trading with them for furs and sometimes taking Indian wives.
How did the war eventually end?
Armistice ends the conflict in 1953 so the war ends in a stalemate
514. Annexation of Texas, Joint Resolution under President Tyler
U.S. made Texas a state in 1845. Joint resolution - both houses of Congress supported annexation under Tyler, and he signed the bill shortly before leaving office.
Sulla
...
Nathaniel Hawthorne
Scarlett Letter
hacienda
large Latin American estate
Achmemenid Administration
- - -
patrilineal
inheritance passed through the father
darbar
Ceremonial gathering in colonial India.
Hoover
Supporters halfheartedly said "The Worst is Past" "It might have been worse" and "Prosperity is just around the corner". Lost election to FDR
Antietam
prevented British from siding with Confederates
Propaganda
Information or material spread to advance a cause or to damage an opponent's cause
Guomindang
Nationalist political party founded on democratic principles by Sun Yat-sen in 1912. After 1925, the party was headed by Chiang Kai-shek, who turned it into an increasingly authoritarian movement
Dynamic Conservatism
Eisenhower's philosophy of being liberal in all things human and being conservative with all things fiscal. Appealed to both Republicans and Democrats.
Dynasty
a family/group that maintains power for several generations
Berbers
1st millenium B.C.E. was founded, Lived in northern africa in the Saharan desert. Traded things such as Salt, copper, gold, slaves and food products. Carried goods from Carthage into Africa.
Holocaust
Term for Hitler's attempted genocide of European Jews during World War II; resulted in deaths of 6 million Jews.
Herodotus
Heir to the technique of historia-'investigation'-developed by Greeks in the late Archaic period. He came from a Greek community in Anatolia and traveled extensively, collecting information in western Asia and the Mediterranean lands. (128)
Mexican Revolution
The Mexican Revolution was characterized by several socialist, liberal, anarchist and agrarianist movements, and culminated in the Mexican Constitution of 1917 Led by Fransico Madero
1774
Year the Quebec Act was passed
Chancellorsville
In Virginia where Lee daringly divided his numerically inferior army and sent Stonewall Jackson to attack the Union flank. This was successful strategy as it was one of the Confederates most successful victories of the war. However, during the battle Jackson was shot and killed by friendly fire which depleted the moral of the confederate force.
absolute monarchy
concept of government developed during rise of nation-states in western Europe during the 17th century; featured monarchs who passed laws without parliaments, appointed professionalized armies and bureaucracies, established state churched, imposed state economic policies.
Li Dazhao
Chinese intellectual who gave serious attention to Marxist philosophy; headed study circle at the University of Beijing; saw peasants as vanguard of revolutionary communism in China.
203. Constitution
The document which established the present federal government of the United States and outlined its powers. It can be changed through amendments.
Puritans
People who wanted more reformation to go "Purer"
Embargo Act
1807 Prohibited American ships from engaging in any type of foreign trade. It was one of the origins of the War of 1812.
Lassiez-Faire
idea that government should stay out of business and economic affairs as much as possible. "Hands Off"
Orthodox
The word orthodoxy, from the Greek ortho ('right', 'correct') and doxa ('thought', 'teaching'), is typically used to refer to the correct theological or doctrinal observance of religion, as determined by some overseeing body. Each is headed by a bishop; most are related to a specific country, as in Serbian, Russian and Greek Orthodox
Richard Arkwright
English inventor and entrepreneur who became the wealthiest and most successful textile manufacturer of the first Industrial Revolution. He invented the water frame, a machine that, with minimal human supervision, could spin several threads at once.
Third Estate
the estate in pre-revolutionary France that was made up of the majority of the population including the peasants and the bourgeoisie but has the least power
acllas
Women selected by Inca authorities to serve in religious centers as weavers and ritual participants. (p. 318)
Insurrectos
Cuban insurgents who used a scorched earth policy to try to drive out the Spanish landlords.
Enumerated Powers
Powers specifically given to Congress in the Constitution; including the power to collect taxes, coin money, regulate foreign and interstate commerce, and declare war.
the act where a hindu widow voluntarily throws herself on her dead husbands funeral pyre is known as
sati
graft
The illegal use of political influence for personal gain
Nullification
states could refuse to enforce the federal laws they deemed unconstitutional
Charles Townshend
Replaced George Greenville as prime minister
liberation
To set free, as from oppression, confinement, or foreign control.
American Colonization Society
society which established the colony of Liberia, to which freed blacks were sent from the United States. The colony later declared its independence.
naturalization
the legal process by which citizens of one country become citizens of another
Bourgeoisie
in early modern Europe, the class of well-off town dwellers whose wealthy came from manufacturing, finance, commerce, and allied professions.
The high point of Maryan success would come during the reign of whom?
Ashoka
Imperialism
the policy of extending the rule or authority of an empire or nation over foreign countries, or of acquiring and holding colonies and dependencies.
Mercantilism
an economic system (Europe in 18th C) to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests
Protestant Reformation
the breaking off of Christian faith from the Catholic Church
ray stannard baker
Wrote "Railroads on Trial". He believed that social justice required journalism of "righteous indignation."
Simon Bolivar
The most important military leader in the struggle for independence in South America. Born in Venezuela, he led military forces there and in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia.
Parliamentarism
a system of government in which the ministers of the executive branch are drawn from the legislature and are accountable to that body, such that the executive and legislative branches are intertwined
*Note: In Europe (1600-1700s) this is the less centralized form of government.
Paul of Tarsus
hichly educated Jewish Roman citizen and founded Christian commmunities throughout Asia Minor
unification of spain
queen isabella and ferdinand combined their kingdoms and enlisted the catholic church as their ally. they persecuted anyone who was not catholic (known as the spanish inquisition)
James Garfield
20th President of the United States, Thought that people should get government jobs on the basis of merit or ability rather then as a political reward he also found himself swamped by people seeking patronage., assasinated; believed people should be appointed to government positions because of their qualifications
Clarence Darrow
an American lawyer and leading member of the American Civil Liberties Union, best known for defending teenage thrill killers Leopold and Loeb in their trial for murdering 14-year-old Robert "Bobby" Franks (1924) and defending John T. Scopes in the Scopes Trial (1925), in which he opposed William Jennings Bryan.
Manifest Destiny
This expression was popular in the 1840s. Many people believed that the U.S. was destined to secure territory from "sea to sea," from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. This rationale drove the acquisition of territory.
395. Internal improvements
The program for building roads, canals, bridges, and railroads in and between the states. There was a dispute over whether the federal government should fund internal improvements, since it was not specifically given that power by the Constitution.
Yellow River
Important river in ancient China named for the loess soil carried by the river. While "China's Sorrow" has flooded extensively, the loess provided rich soil to work.
Roger Williams
creator of Rhode Island, notable for his prominent religious tolerance
Shiloh
This was battle fought by Grant in an attempt to capture the railroad of the South. The battle was fought in the west prevented the north from obtaining an easy victory. However, the Confederates strong resistance showed that they would not go quietly and the war was far from over.
contract of indenture
A voluntary agreement binding a person to work for a specified period of years in return for free passage to an overseas destination. Before 1800 most indentured servants were Europeans; after 1800 most indentured laborers were Asians. (p. 670)
natural rights
any right that exists by virtue of natural law
Upanishads
are regarded as part of the Vedas and as such form part of the Hindu scriptures. discuss philosophy, meditation, and the nature of God
"Great Wagon Road"
an area of Scots- Irish settlement- Appalachin foothills
Pyrinies and Alpas
What two mountain ranges did Hannibal cross on his way to invade Rome?
Qin Dynasty
the Chinese dynasty (from 246 BC to 206 BC) that established the first centralized imperial government and built much of the Great Wall
Tulip Period
Last years of the reign of Ottoman sultan Ahmed III, during which European styles and attitudes became briefly popular in Istanbul. (p. 530)
giovanni de verrazano
in 1524, he explored the north american coast for france
Act of Toleration
a 1649 Maryland law that provided religious freedom for all Christians
Long Telegram
a telegram sent from George Kennan to the USSR outlining the policy of containment
1089. Bond drives
Campaigns to get people to but government war bonds to finance the war, people traveled around America selling them and it was extremely successful in raising funds.
by 1929 the price for a bushel of wheat was?
$.38
DeWitt Clinton
Governor of NY that strongly urged for the Erie Canal to be dug
the dred scott decision 1857
supreme court decision that overturned efforts to limit the spread of slavery
Zen Buddhism (Chan Buddhism)
Most popular branch of Buddhism in China, with an emphasis on intuition and sudden flashes of insight instead of textual study
First Bank of the US
(GW) 1791-1811, by Hamilton, came about strict vs loose construction
The Burned-Over District
Term applied to the region of western New York along the Erie Canal, and refers to the religious fervor of its inhabitants. In the 1800's, farmers there were susceptible to revivalist and tent rallies by the pentecostals (religious groups).
Governor William Berkeley
He was a British colonial governor of Virginia from 1642-52. He showed that he had favorites in his second term which led to the Bacon's rebellion in 1676 ,which he ruthlessly surpressed. He had poor frontier defense.
Dutch West India Company
Trading company chartered by the Dutch government to conduct its merchants' trade in the Americas and Africa. (p. 498)
North advantages during Civil WAr
An industrialized market economy that gave the government a tremendous amount of resources to fall back on. A much larger population and more manpower for the army and navy. Speaking of the navy, the North had a larger, stronger navy. An already established, relatively powerful and organized central government led by Lincoln. The support of the liberated/runaway slaves in the South.
shaft graves
A term used for the burial sites of elite members of Mycenaean Greek society in the mid-second millennium B.C.E. At the bottom of deep shafts lined with stone slabs, the bodies were laid out along with gold and bronze jewelry, implements, and weapons (75
Juan and Evita Peron
was the second wife of President Juan Perón
Second Boer War
a war fought between the Boers and the British between 1899-1902 when the Orange Free State and Transvaal declared war on Britain after diamonds were discovered in Boer territory and the British began to immigrate; resulted in the creation of the Union of South Africa which was a British Colony
Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890
Its creation was pressured by public groups and prohibited "any combination or conspiracy in the restraint of trade". Unforunately, the wording was ambigous enough that the pro-business Supreme Court was able to interpert it to benefit big business, and was often used against big businesses.
YoungPoorLess educatedLived in the NorthBelonged to the Congregational Church
People who tended to support the rebels were
Japan is reffered to as "Wa". What does "Wa" mean?
The land of short people.
1454. Kerner Commission on Civil Disorders
In 1968, this commission, chaired by Otto Kerner, decided that the race riots were due to the formation of two different American cultures: inner-city Blacks and suburban Whites.
Ronald Reagan and the "evil empire"
Reagan's term for the Soviet Union at the beginning of his presidency
Declaration of the rights of Man and citizen
one of the fundamental documents of the French Revolution, defining a set of individual rights and collective rights of all of the estates as one. Influenced by the doctrine of natural rights, these rights are universal: they are supposed to be valid in all times and places, pertaining to human nature itself.
Maori
mestizo
spanish for mixed
Fall of Rome
476 CE
Robert M LaFollette
"fighting bob"
Victoria Woodhull
Radical feminist propagandist
Attacked conventional social morality
Phoenicians
Semitic-speaking Canaanites living on the coast of modern Lebanon and Syria in the first millennium B.C.E. Famous for developing the first alphabet, which was adopted by the Greeks. From major cities such as Tyre and Sidon, these merchants and sailors explored the Mediterranean, and engaged in widespread commerce.
Oceania
Geographic region containing thousands of Pacific Islands plus Australia
Yalta Conference
1945 established world organization; Soviet Union pledged to allow democratic procedures in Eastern Europe, pledge broken, led to Cold War
Ticonderoga
Ethan Allen and Benidict Arnold suprised and captured Ticonderoga and gained gunpowder and artillery for the siege of Boston.
Roman capital moved to constantinople
333 CE
1689
Parliament enacts Bill of Rights; Maryland uprising; Leisler's Rebellion
Wu Zhao
Empress in China; supported Buddhism
achievement of articles of confederation
land ordinance
Ummayyad
Clan of Quraysh that dominated politics and commercial economy of Mecca.
steppe
Treeless plains, especially the high, flat expanses of northern Eurasia, which usually have little rain and are covered with coarse grass. They are good lands for nomads and their herds. Good for breeding horses: essential to mongol military. (326)
Devotional Cults
Embraced because they promised salvation; hoped to achieve union with gods to bring grace and salvation. Temples and Shrines began to populate the landscape in north & south India
city
protection and defense for large numbers of people; points of trade and economic activity; exchange of ideas, information, religious beliefs and cultural values; specialization of labor
Connecticut Plan
The Great Compromise; (proposed by Sherman of ct.) bicameral congress with equal representation in one house and proportional representation in the other house
North Carolina Settlers
outcasts from aristocratic Virginia- poor, don't like authority
Wagner Act
1935, also National Labor Relations Act; granted rights to unions; allowed collective bargaining
1269. Ethiopia
Mussolini invaded, conquering it in 1936. The League of Nations failed to take any effective action against Mussolini, and the U.S. just looked on.
gag rule
under John Quincy Adams 1836. automatically tabled abolitionist petitions & prevented discussion of them in congress. He secured its repeal in 1845
Denby
Secretary of the Navy under Harding; Fall convinced him to transfer the valuable Teapot Dome and Elk Hills oil reserves to the control of the Department of the Interior.
Richard Ely
economist who called for more government intervention to reform the injustices of capitalism
Lazaro cardenas
President of Mexico (1934-1940). He brought major changes to Mexican life by distributing millions of acres of land to the peasants, bringing representatives of workers and farmers into the inner circles of politics, and nationalizing the oil industry 820.
1488
Date: Dias rounded Cape of GOod Hope
Serfs
In feudalism, peasants that were tied to the land that they worked
Hammurabi
Amorite ruler of Babylon (r. 1792-1750 B.C.E.). He conquered many city-states in southern and northern Mesopotamia and is best known for a code of laws, inscribed on a black stone pillar, illustrating the principles to be used in legal cases. (p. 34)
Isaac Singer
made improvements on Howe's sewing machine, as it was soon being used in the manufacture of ready-to-wear.
Walt Whitman
influenced by Emerson, a poet, teacher, journalist, & editor of the Brooklyn Eagle, & a publicist for the Democratic Party, wrote Leaves of Grass, focuses on the individual expands to become divine & democracy assumes a sacred character.
Proclamation of 1763
prohibited settlements west of Appalachian, restriction on colonial growth
Witte
who was nicholas II's first 'prime minister'?
 
 
 
 
 
196. Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, John Jay
 
 
 
 
They were the American delegates who signed the Treaty of Paris in 1783.
New Hampshire
Puritans from the Massachusetts Bay Colony began settling New Hampshire during the 1620s and it became a separate royal colony in 1679.
contemporaries
existing, occurring, or living at the same time; belonging to the same time:
rotation in office
Beginning in 1829, Jackson invoked this wholesale practice as his guiding principle, saying plainly that "no one man has any more intrinsic right to office than another."
38* Parallel
The dispute over the border between North and South Korea.
What is the name system historians use when the emperor has political and religious authority?
Caesaropapism
Whig Party
An American political party formed in the 1830s to oppose President Andrew Jackson and the Democrats, stood for protective tariffs, national banking, and federal aid for internal improvements
Checkers speech
Given by Richard Nixon on September 23, 1952, when he was the Republican candidate for the Vice Presidency. Said to have saved his career from a campaign contributions scandal.
black legend
false concept that held that the conquerors merely tortured and butchered the Indians, stole their gold, infected them with smallpox, and left little but misery behind and did nothing else
River-Valley Civilizations
The great civilizations were built on the achievements of these early human societies.
Delhi Sultanate
Region of India controlled by Muslims 1206-1520
Confederation of 1867
Negotiated union of the formerly separate colonial governments of Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. This new Dominion of Canada with a central government in Ottawa is seen as the beginning of the Canadian nation.(p. 627)
Iron Curtain
Phrase used to describe the economic, social, and military barriers created by the USSR and Communist countries of Eastern Europe against the west during the cold war
Bull Moose Party
Teddy Roosevelt's party in the election of 1812
Franklin D. Roosevelt
President elected four times led country out of Depression and WWII
First Continental Congress
met in Philadelphia (Georgia is absent), produced Declaration of Rights and Grievances
230. Northwest posts
British fur-trading posts in the Northwest Territory. Their presence in the U.S. led to continued British-American conflicts.
the "Anglican Church"
the official, state, or tax-supported church in the South.
Horizontal integration
late 19th century, absorption into a single firm of several firms involved in the same level of production & sharing resources at that level
Abbas I (the Great):
Safavid shah (1587-1629); extended the empire to its greatest extent; used Western military technology
civil war
a war between factions in the same country
Intolerable Acts
The Acts passed in 1774, following the Boston Tea Party, that were considered unfair because they were designed to chastise Boston in particular, yet effected all the colonies by the Boston Port Act which closed Boston Harbor until damages were paid.
Hartford Convention
Meeting of Federalists near the end of the War of 1812 in which the party listed it's complaints against the ruling Republican Party. These actions were largley viewed as traitorous to the country and lost the Federalist much influence
proprietary colony
a colony given to a proprietor to govern (in 17th century)
Stalin, Joseph
Successor to Lenin as head of the USSR; strongly nationalist view of Communism; represented anti-Western strain of Russian tradition; crushed opposition to his rule; established series of five-year plans to replace New Economic Policy; fostered agricultural collectivization; led USSR through World War II; furthered cold war with Western Europe and the United States; died in 1953.
Cambyses II
Son of Cyrus II; extended the Persian Empire into Egypt
Keating-Owen Child Labor Act
Prohibited the sale of interstate commerce goods produced by children
bank war
Jackson believed the Bank of US had too much power and was too rich. Vetoed the 2nd Bank charter and withdrew gov't money from the US Banks and put it into "pet banks"
protective tariff
tax on goods imported in the country that is intended to protect maufacturing and industry from foreign competition
825. Rev. Josiah Strong
Enivisioned a "final competition of races," in which the Anglo-Saxons would emerge victorious.
What was the triple alliance later known as?
the central powers
Define habeas corpus
a legal process designed to protect people from arrest and detention
mandate of heaven
a political theory of ancient China in which those in power were given the right to rule from a divine source
What is the Varna hierarchy?
The Hindu caste system (Brahmin Kshatraya Vaishva Shudra)
ARticles of Confederation
adopted in 1781. It was the first written constituion adopted by colonists
"axis of evil"
Named by Bush: North Korea, Iraq and Iran
Indian Ocean Maritime System
In premodern times, a network of seaports, trade routes, and maritime culture linking countries on the rim of the Indian Ocean from Africa to Indonesia. (p. 207)
sherman silver purchase act
Required the government to purchase an additional 4.5 million ounces of silver bullion each month for use as currency.
Dawes Severity Act 1887
Act which tried to 'civilize' Plains Indians
Treaty of Guadeloupe Hidalgo
1848 yielded Texas to west Oregon and California. The United States paid about $15 million for land and assumed claims of the citizens instead of Mexico. Condemned by both opponents who wanted all and no part of Mexico. An ignorant misunderstanding.
(Jacob A.) Riis
This man was a Danish immigrant and a reporter from the New York 'Sun.' He shocked the middle class with his 'How the Other Half Lives,' a depiction of the squalid conditions of poverty in the New York slums.
Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla
Mexican priest who led the first stage of the Mexican independence war in 1810. He was captured and executed in 1811. (p. 625)
135. Patrick Henry (1736-1799)
An American orator and member of the Virginia House of Burgesses who gave speeches against the British government and its policies urging the colonies to fight for independence. In connection with a petition to declare a "state of defense" in virginia in 1775, he gave his most famous speech which ends with the words, "Give me liberty or give me death." Henry served as Governor of Virginia from 1776-1779 and 1784-1786, and was instrumental in causing the Bill of Rights to be adopted as part of the U.S. Constitution.
Virginia and New Jersey Plans
The Virginia Plan called for a two-house Congress with each state's representation based on state population. The New Jersey Plan called for a one-house Congress in which each state had equal representation.
Making the World Safe for Democracy
Woodrow Wilson's main point of his speech to congress to agree to entering the war; ignoring the fact that the British monarchy, though powerless, and Russian tsar were allied with Wilson and not this at all.
1603. Supreme Court: Diamond v. Chakrabarty, 1980
Ruled that a man-made life form (genetic engineering) could be patented.
Richard Henry Lee's Resolution of June 7, 1776
Stated that the colonies should be independent and sever all political ties with Britain. It was adopted by Congress and was the first step towards independence.
Archbishop Oscar Romero of El Salvador
Who was gunned down in 1980 at the alter while saying mass?
atman
essential self
Communism
Philosophy/movement (mid-19th-century) begun by Karl Marx that has the same general goals as Socialism, but believes that violent revolution is necessary to destroy the bourgeois world for a new world run by and for the proletariat.
plebeians
common people of Rome
Sinification
Extensive adaptation of Chinese culture in other regions; typical of Korea and Japan, less typical of Vietnam.
George Whitefield
began Great Awakening movement
Chimu
Powerful Peruvian civilization based on conquest. Located in the region earlier dominated by Moche. Conquered by Inca in 1465
annex
take illegally, as of territory
Midnight Judges
a. Federal judicial officials appointed under the Judiciary Act of 1801, in the last days of John 's presidency
Explain the Balfour Declaration.
Support Zionist movement
Gupta Empire
powerful Indian state based. controlled most of the Indian subcontinent
fascism
Political ideology prominent in Europe b/t 1919-1945 featuring an extreme authoritarian and nationalistic right-wing system of government and social organization. (ex. Mussolini and Hitler).
Catholic Reformation
(or Counter Reformation)The religious reform movement within the Catholic Church that occurred in response to the Protestant Reformation. It reaffirmed Catholic beliefs and promoted education
Renaissance
"rebirth" of Classical knowledge based on the principals of humanism, individualism, and secularism
What was Lucy?
the greatest find ever
Genghis Khan
Temujin was proclaimed Genghis Khan-meaning "universal ruler"-and united Central Asia, as well as valued his army above all else.
silver
a soft white precious univalent metallic element having the highest electrical and thermal conductivity of any metal
Representative assembly of MA Bay
General Court
Horatio Alger
author during depression, wrote books on rags to riches
agricultural revolution
The transformation of farming that resulted in the eighteenth century from the spread of new crops, improvements in cultivation techniques and livestock breeding, and consolidation of small holdings into large farms from which tenants were expelled (600)
Timbuktu
one of the main african slave ports
African National Congress
educated lawyers/journalists in S. Africa for change
vassal
somebody who gave loyalty and homage to a feudal lord and received the right to occupy the lord's land and be protected by him
Massive Retaliation
buildup of nuclear weapons, less reliance on normal armies, "MAD"
Lend Lease
program authorizing the president to lend or lease equiptment to nations whose defense was deemed vital to the US security; it was designed to help a bankrupt Britian continue fighting the Nazis. By 1945, the United states has extended $50 billion in wartime aid to Britian and the Soviet Union
election of 1912
Woodrow Wilson (democrat), Theodore Roosevelt (progressive/bull moose), William Taft (republican), Eugene V. Debs (socialist)... Wilson won!
Mohandas Gandhi
Leader of the Indian independence movement and advocate of nonviolent resistance. After being educated as a lawyer in England, he returned to India and became leader of the Indian National Congress in 1920.
varna
(Hinduism) the name for the original social division of Vedic people into four groups (which are subdivided into thousands of jatis)
New Orleans
fortified post that guarded France from the Gulf of Mexico- fur trade industry
Neolithic Age
invention of agriculture; creation of cities & other foreshadowings of civilization; centered on development of agriculture; agriculture produced major changes; changed economic, political & religious activities; population increased from about 7 million to about 100 million in around 3,000 years; knowledge of agriculture spread to India, North Africa & Europe; rice cultivation soon developed in China; 1st potter's wheel developed;
NATO
Organization formed in 1949 as a military alliance of western European and North American states against the Soviet Union and its east European allies. (See also Warsaw Pact.)(p. 832)
Oneida Communtiy
Experiment which practiced free love, birth control and the eugenice selection of parents to produce superior offspring
Specialized Production
Indian artisans built thriving local industries around cotton-textile production; also developed techniques in sugar refining, leather tanning, stone carving, carpet weaving, & iron and steel production; trade encouraged this in all lands
WEB DuBois
Lived in the North (Harvard graduate)Belief in "Talented Tenth"Helps found NAACP
The shipboard agreement by the Pilgrim Fathers to establish a body of politic and submit to majority rule
Mayflower Com.
bolster
a long, often cylindrical, cushion or pillow for a bed, sofa, etc.
joint-stock company
A business, often backed by a government charter, that sold shares to individuals to raise money for its trading enterprises and to spread the risks (and profits) among many investors. (p. 460)
Meuse-Argonne offensive
Offensive that sought to cut the German railroad lines feeding the western front; Sept 26 to Nov 11, 1918
Woodrow Wilson
28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize
Susan B. Anthony
social reformer who campaigned for womens rights, the temperance, and was an abolitionist, helped form the National Woman Suffrage Assosiation
Lucretia Mott
A Quaker who attended an anti-slavery convention in 1840 and her party of women was not recognized. She and Stanton called the first women's right convention in New York in 1848
Banana republics
Term used to describe Latin American nations with corrupt governments.
Food Administration
This government agency was headed by Herbert Hoover and was established to increase the production of food and ration food for the military.
Trading Post Empires
Built initially by the portuguese, these were used to control the trade routes by forcing merchant vessels to call at fortified trading sites and pay duties there.
Kievan Russia
State established at Kiev in Ukraine ca. 879 by Scandinavian adventurers asserting authority over a mostly Slavic farming population. (p. 267)
sundiata
the founder of Mali empire. He crushed his enemies and won control of the gold trade routes
Great Basin
From the Rocky mountains, land fell off jaggedly into the intermoutain Great Basin, bouded by the Rockes on the east and the Sierra and Cascade on the west; harsh expanse of dry desert and high mountains (also known as the watershed region)
trans-sharan trade
The trade across the Sahara desert between meditation countries and sub-Saharan Africa
Samuel Gompers
United States labor leader (born in England) who was president of the American Federation of Labor from 1886 to 1924 (1850-1924)
Ida M. Tarbell
journalist who published a devastating but factual expose of the Standard Oil Company
1025. Mark Hanna (1839-1904)
Prominent Republican senator and businessman, he was Republican campaign manager.
Trafalgar
War between the British and French and Spanish fleets, Britain won and their naval supremacy was established
Fall of the Soviet Union
1991 Gorbachev decreased nuclear arsenals, Communist Party lost power, Boris Yelstein (president of Russian Republic) led Muscovites to take control
Alvin C. York
Member of antiwar religious sect who became a hero when he killed 20 Germans and captured 132 more.
64. Lord Baltimore
Founded the colony of Maryland and offered religious freedom to all Christian colonists. He did so because he knew that members of his own religion (Catholicism) would be a minority in the colony.
William the Conqueror
1027-1087 Norman king in 1066 he defeated Harold, the Anglo-Saxon king, to become the first Norman king of england
seditious
of, pertaining to, or of the acts of rebellious nature
Paxton Boys
They were a group of Scots-Irish men living in the Appalachian hills that wanted protection from Indian attacks. They made an armed march on Philadelphia in 1764. They protested the lenient way that the Quakers treated the Indians. Their ideas started the Regulator Movement in North Carolina.
Samuel de Champlain
soldier and explorer who led the Quebec exploration
New World
name given to the Americas during the time of European exploration and colonization; term for Americas
Convention of 1800
Agreement which freed America from its alliance with France, forgave French $20 million in damages and resulted in Adams' losing a second term as president
Warsaw Pact
The treaty was a mutual defense treaty subscribed to by eight communist states in Eastern Europe. It was established at the USSR's initiative and realized on 14 May 1955, in Warsaw. In the Communist Bloc, the treaty was the military analogue of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CoMEcon), the communist (East) European economic community. The Warsaw Pact was the Soviet Bloc's military response to West Germany's May 1955 integration to the NATO Pact, per the Paris Pacts of 1954.
1378. Taft-Hartley Act
1947 - Senator Robert A. Taft co-authored the labor-Management Relations Act with new Jersey Congressman Fred Allan Hartley, Jr. The act amended the National Labor Relations Act of 1935 and imposed certain restrictions of the money and power of labor unions, including a prohibition against mandatory closed shops.
Trail of Tears
Jackosn ships up NAtive Americans to Oklahoma, many perish
yalta
a seaport in the Crimea, S Ukraine, on the Black Sea: site of wartime conference of Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin February 4–12, 1945. 83,000.
Ratification of Constitution Judiciary Act of 1789
End of Articles of Confederation, stronger central government
Wilmot Proviso
proposed no new slavery in the west - 1st time morality of slavery was discussed
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NATO 1949- military alliance of the United States, ten Wesern European countries, and Canada; it was considered a deterrent to Soviet aggression in Europe, with an attack on one BATO nation to be considered as an attack on all nations
Anti-Comintern Pact
a pact signed by Japan and Germany and ratified by Italy in 1936 which was in opposition to Communism but proved to be the foundation for diplomatic alliance between these three powers
Pope Innocent III
Pope Innocent III was the pope from 1198-1216, and dominated almost all of Europe, and also led papacy to power as a great leader.
Albany Plan of Union
Written by Ben Franklin during the French and Indian War to provide an intercolonial government and a system for recruiting troops and collecting taxes. However, nobody would pass it because each colony wanted its own taxing power. The plan set a precedent for later congresses.
Securities and Exchange Commission
regulate the stock market and place strict limits of speculative practices
Herbert Hoover's Party
VP - Charles Curtis SS - Henry L. Stimson
Battle of Horseshoe Bend
fought during the War of 1812 in central Alabama. On March 27, 1814, United States forces and Indian allies under General Andrew Jackson defeated the Red Sticks, a part of the Creek Indian tribe inspired by the Shawnee leader Tecumseh, effectively ending the Creek War.
Oliver Perry
led the war on the Great Lakes, was a key compenent in the naval victory at Lake Erie
915. Ocala Demands
1890 - The leaders of what would later become the Populist Party held a national convention in Ocala, Florida and adopted a platform advocating reforms to help farmers.
Lewis and Clark expedition and its findings
1804-1806 - Meriwether Lewis and William Clark were commissioned by Jefferson to map and explore the Louisiana Purchase region. Beginning at St. Louis, Missouri, the expedition travelled up the Missouri River to the Great Divide, and then down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean. It produced extensive maps of the area and recorded many scientific discoveries, greatly facilitating later settlement of the region and travel to the Pacific coast.
ballot iniatives and referendums
-ways for people to have more say in government-Progressive-era reforms
Weak democracies after WWl- Which countries in Europe?
The economic disruption of the war and the end of the Austro-Hungarian customs union created great hardship in many areas. Although many states were set up as democracies after the war, one by one, with the exception of Czechoslovakia, they reverted to some form of authoritarian rule. Many quarreled amongst themselves but were too weak to compete effectively. Later, when Germany rearmed, the nation states of south- central Europe were unable to resist its attacks, and fell under German domination to a much greater extent than had ever existed in Austria-Hungary.
473. Criminal Conspiracy Laws and early unions
For a time in the 1700's and 1800's, these laws were directed at early labor unions. The organized stoppage of work by a group of employees in a strike could be judged a criminal restraint of trade. This approach largely ended after Commonwealth v. Hunt.
Egyptian city
Memphis
abraham
founder of Judaism
When did Diocleatian die?
306
gilded age politic
time of corruption
Silk Road
trade route throughout Asia
Wari
Andean civilization culturally linked to Tiwanaku, perhaps beginning as colony of Tiwanaku. (p. 314)
 
 
 
 
15. Covenant theology
 
 
 
Puritan teachings emphasized the biblical covenants: God’s covenants with Adam and with Noah, the covenant of grace between God and man through Christ.
Chatauqua Movement
American Adult educational movement which was popular through the 19th and 20th movements - brought people into communities to lecture
umma
community of the faithful within Islam
Islam
Major world religion originating in 610 CE in the Arabian peninsula; literally meaning submission; based on the prophecy of Muhammad
Samurai
Literally 'those who serve,' the hereditary military elite in Feudal Japan as well as during the Tokugawa Shogunate.
New religious right
denounced abortion, pornography, homosexuality, feminism, and especially affermative action.
prestige
respect associated with high quality: honor, awe, or high opinion inspired by or derived from a high-ranking, influential, or Ex: The Catholic Church enjoyed an immense amount of prestige, power, and wealth during most of the medieval era. (B172)
bushi
regional warrior leaders in Japan; ruled small kingdoms from fortresses; administered the law, supervised public works projects, and collected revenues; built up private armies
Anglican
relating to the Church of England
Which of the following nations intervened militarily in Mexican politics between 1862 and 1865?
France
Textile mills in this Massachusetts town were unique for hiring young, single women.
Lowell
Silent Spring
by Rachel Carson, effects of pesticides on the environment; changed the way Americans viewed their impact on nature
Columbian Exchange
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages. (p. 472)
kansas-nebraska act
made the two territories and established popular sovereignty in them
Fatamids
Claimed to be the rightful successors of the Prophet, conquered Egypt and much of northern Africa, broke with Baghdad., and Abbasid state dissolved.
jongs
cargo ships (junks) left by Polynesian sailors. ships with multilayered hulls, 2 to 4 masts, 2 rudders, and a normal capacity of 400 to 500 tons
Augusto Sandino
Led resistance against U.S. influence in Nicaragua in the 1930s.
Charlemagne
King of the Franks (r. 768-814); emperor (r. 800-814). Through a series of military conquests he established the Carolingian Empire, which encompassed all of Gaul and parts of Germany and Italy. Illiterate, though started an intellectual revival.
Aryans
nomads from Europe and Asia who migrated to India and finally settled; vedas from this time suggest beginning of caste system
pax romana
Roman peace,' The stability and prosperity that Roman rule brought to the lands of the Roman Empire in the first two centuries C.E. The movement of people and trade goods along Roman roads and safe seas allowed for the spread of cuture/ideas (154)
Venerate
to honor, admire, and regard with respect (esp. a Saint)
Cotton Mather
Puritan theologian , believed that disease was punishment from God, but pushed the idea of inoculation (infecting with mild cases of disease to protect )
division of labor
Manufacturing technique that breaks down a craft into many simple and repetitive tasks that can be performed by unskilled workers. Pioneered in the pottery works of Josiah Wedgwood and in other eighteenth-century factories, increasing productivity, (603)
Gettysburg
The most violent battle of the American Civil War and is frequently cited as the war's turning point, fought from July 1 - July 3, 1863.
capitalism
an economic system based on private ownership of capital
Anne Hutchinson
Was banished from Massachusetts and was later killed by Indians along with most of her children
William McKinley
Republican president who believed in the gold standard. Much of his campaign was run by Marcus Hanna. Began era of imperialism.
Aztecs
Also known as Mexica, the Aztecs created a powerful empire in central Mexico (1325-1521 C.E.). They forced defeated peoples to provide goods and labor as a tax. (p. 305)
Aden
Port city in the modern south Arabian country of Yemen. It has been a major trading center in the Indian Ocean since ancient times. (p. 385)
Webster-Ashburton Treaty
Ended Aroostook war - created the northern maine border-ave Britain their desired Halifax-Quebec route for a road while America got a bit more land north of Maine.
absolution
The theory popular in France and other early modern European monarchies that royal power should be free of constitutional checks. (p. 452)
Kellogg-Brand Pact
Outlawed war as an instrument of foreign policy in 1928. US a signatory.
The Abbasids...
The Abasids were overthrown by the MOngols is 1258 and dissolved completely in the early 1500s.
Edward Kennedy
Younger brother of JFK who challenged and lost to Jimmy Carter in the Democratic primary of 1980.
Emperor Xuanzong
emperor during the T'ang Dynasty in China; expanded Chinese territory into parts of Manchuria, Mongolia, TIbet, and Korea
Neolithic
The period of the Stone Age associated with the ancient Agricultural Revolution(s). It follows the Paleolithic period. (p. 11)
Chan (Buddhism)
Known as Zen in Japan; stressed meditation of appreciation of natural and artistic beauty; popular with members of elite Chinese society
Brook Farm
* A community started by twenty intellectuals committed to the philosophy of transcendentalism
* In Massachusetts, comprising two hundred acres of grudging soil; started in 1841
* Prospered well until 1846 when they lost a large new communal building before is completion
Specie Circular
issued by President Jackson July 11, 1836, was meant to stop land speculation caused by states printing paper money without proper specie (gold or silver) backing it. It required that the purchase of public lands be paid for in specie. It stopped the land speculation and the sale of public lands went down sharply. The panic of 1837 followed.
Urdu
Form of writing and speech used mostly in Pakistan.
Force Bill
1833- Bill that says Congress is authorized to use the military against belligerent states. Is nullified by South Carolina.
 
 
 
 
256. The ratification fights, especially in Massachusetts, New York, and Virginia
 
Massachusetts farmers opposed the Constitution because they felt it protected trade more than agriculture, but Massachusetts became the 6th state to ratify. New York was opposed to the Constitution; the Federalist Papers were published there to gain support for it. Virginia and New York would not ratify until the Bill of Rights was added to the Constitution.
AYATOLLAH KHOMEINI
overthrows the shah of Iran and declares a religious war; had told Saddams followers to overthrow him
filial
of, pertaining to, or befitting a son or daughter:
Excise tax
a. Internal tax on goods or services b. Hamilton proposed the idea that to fund the national debt, they needed an excise tax on wines, coffee, tea and spirits—led to the Whiskey Rebellion
Welfare State
A nation in which the government plays an active role in providing services such as social security to its citizens
1012. Forest Reserve Act, 1891
First national forest conservation policy, authorized the president to set aside areas of land for national forests.
At the end of the Civil War, many white Southerners
A) reluctantly supported the federal government.
B) began planning a new rebellion..
C) saw their former slaves in a new light.
D) asked for pardons so that they could once again hold political offic
e
election of 1916
Hughes, Wilson, issues: Wilson ran for reelection for the Democrats on the call that he had kept the United States out of the war. Charles Evans Hughes was the Republican candidate who attacked the inefficiency of the Democratic Party. Wilson won the election, so was able to continue his idealistic policies.
Karl Mauch/19th century Europeans
First People to find Great Zimbabwe.
Scientific Methods
a series of steps followed to solve problems, including collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating conclusions
The Middle Passage
The arm of the Triangular Trade between America and Africa.
NorthWest Ordinance
Enacted in 1787, it is considered one of the most significant achievements of the Articles of Confederation. It established a system for setting up governments in the western territories so they could eventually join the Union on an equal footing with the original 13 states
betty grable
She had the most popular pinup, and her picture found its way into the hands of over 5 million fighting men. She symbolized the modest, genteel girl-friend or wife many servicemen dreamed of finding on their return. Inspired many navy men to fight.
794. Richard Olney
Attorney General of the U.S., he obtained an active injunction that state union members couldn't stop the movement of trains. He moved troops in to stop the Pullman strike.
SPIRO AGNEW
Nixon’s VP who would later resign to escape implications of the Watergate scandal
Great Western Schism
A division in the Latin (Western) Christian Church between 1378 and 1417, when rival claimants to the papacy existed in Rome and Avignon. (p. 411)
John C. Calhoun
The 7th Vice President of the United States and a leading Southern politician from South Carolina during the first half of the 19th century. He was an advocate of slavery, states' rights, limited government, and nullification.
Congress of the Confederation
One legislative branch in which every state has one vote; second cont. congress becomes this after it writes the Articles of Confederation in 1777 (1781)
establishing an imperial university
In 124 B.C.E. Han Wudi transformed China by doing what?
breech loading rifle
Gun into which the projectiles had to be individually inserted. Later guns had magazines, a compartment holding multiple projectiles that could be fed rapidly into the firing chamber. (p. 681)
the battle of marathon in 490 BCE proved to be
a persian loss
Jim Crow Laws
Laws designed in the South to keep blacks in virtual enslavement.
Mined Gold
spanish= too few to mine/ so many were tainos 
The Second Great Awakening
This religious revial in 1801 has a motto as follows: "individuals must readmit God and Christ into their daily lives, must embrace a fervent, active piety, and must reject skeptical rationalism that threatened traditional beliefs."
It combined a piety with a belief in God as an active force in the world, whose grace could be accomplished through faith and good works.
Alien and Sedition acts
Laws passed by congress in 1798 that enabled the government to imprison or deport aliens and to prosecute critics of the government
148. Crispus Attucks (1723-1770)
He was one of the colonials involved in the Boston Massacre, and when the shooting started, he was the first to die. He became a martyr.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
(DDE), racial segregation in schools declared unconstitutional
Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
Statement of fundamental political rights adopted by French National Assembly at beginning of French Revolution.
What was the Declamatory Act?
Act passed by Parliament that said it had power over American's in "in all cases whatsoever."
519. Reoccupation of Texas and reannexation of Oregon
Texas was annexed by Polk in 1845. Oregon was explored by Lewis and Clark from 1804 to 1806 and American fur traders set up there, but during the War of 1812, the British essentially took control of Oregon and held it jointly with the U.S. The land was returned to the U.S. with the Oregon Treaty of 1846, supported by Polk.
what was the long term foreign policy impact of operation desert storm?
u.s. found itself deeply ensnared in the region's web of mortal hatreds and intractable conflicts.
Danpo(China)
5,000 BCE
Suffrage
Right to vote
Persian administrative units
Satrapies were
NATO/SEATO/UN
Post war organization
NATO- All democracies fight for each other
SEATO- Asian nations
UN- Peace
primeval
belonging to the first ages;
Sun Yat-Sen
Chinese nationalist revolutionary, founder and leader of the Guomindang until his death. He attempted to create a liberal democratic political movement in China but was thwarted by military leaders. (p. 768)
VA plan
representation based on population
Progressive Movement
(1901 -1917Formed by Midwestern Farmers, Socialists, and Labor Organizers -attacked monopolies, and wanted other reforms, such as bimetallism, transportation regulation, the 8-hour work day, and income tax
polis
city-state form of government; typical of Greek political organization
Dumping
British merchants would unload cheap, manufactured products in the colonies. stifling US manufacturing
Harrison
-McKinley Tariff (increased tariffs on specific goods)
-Sherman Anti-trust act (required states to indict monopolistic trusts)
Orthodox Christianity
separate branch of Christianity practiced in the Byzantine Empire
tropics
Equatorial region between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. It is characterized by generally warm or hot temperatures year-round, though much variation exists due to altitude and other factors. (370)
Crusades
military adventures led by European Christians to free holy land of Muslim rule, captured Jerusalem once and introduced many Islamic ideas to Europe
Transcendentalism
Belief that each individual should transcend limits of the intellect and allow themselves to be governed by their emotions; people should place the human spirit above all else.
Jane Addams
-settlement houses in Chicago- criticized individualism & called for a new social ideology rooted in awareness of modern society's complex interdependence- Hull House
Shang
First Chinese dynasty for which archeological evidence exists; capital located in Ordos bend
Non-Intercourse Act
sought to encourage domestic American manufacturing
Golden Horde
Mongol khanate founded by Genghis Khan's grandson Batu. It was based in southern Russia and quickly adopted both the Turkic language and Islam. Also known as the Kipchak Horde. (p. 333)
Polynesians
originated in Asia; settled on islands in the pacific;
Frederick Remington
was an American painter, illustrator, sculptor, and writer who specialized in depictions of the American West.
Sylvester Graham
American clergyman whose advocacy of health regimen emphasizing temperance and vegetarianism found lasting expression in graham cracker
Nirvana
realization of absolute truth (end of the road)
coranado
Spanish explorer of SW America who searched for the seven cities of gold
Tenochtitlán
the ancient capital of the Aztec empire, founded c. 1320. In 1521, the Spanish conquistador Cortés destroyed it and established Mexico City on its site.
Byzantine Empire
Historians' name for the eastern portion of the Roman Empire from the fourth century onward, taken from 'Byzantion,' an early name for Constantinople, the Byzantine capital city. The empire fell to the Ottomans in 1453. (250)
Henry Clay
Senator who persuaded Congress to accept the Missouri Compromise, which admitted Maine into the Union as a free state, and Missouri as a slave state. Did lots of other stuff too...
Franklin Pierce
an American politician and the fourteenth President of the United States. Pierce's popularity in the North declined sharply after he came out in favor of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, repealing the Missouri Compromise and reopening the question of the expansion of slavery in the West.
Alexander
King of Macedonia in northern Greece. Between 334 and 323 B.C.E. he conquered the Persian Empire, reached the Indus Valley, founded many Greek-style cities, and spread Greek culture across the Middle East. Later known as Alexander the Great. (p. 136)
TVA
a federally owned corporation in the United States created by congressional charter in May 1933 to provide navigation, flood control, electricity generation, fertilizer manufacturing, and economic development in the Tennessee Valley, a region particularly affected by the Great Depression.
Hunas
A branch of Xiongnu invaders that conquered the Gupta Empire also known as Huns. ( Members of the same race also invaded Rome and China)
Harvey Wiley
chemist who exposed the patent medicine industry
Adams-Onis Treaty
The negotiated sale of Spain's territories in eastern and western Florida to the U. S. for $5 million.
Ferdinand Magellan
Portuguese navigator who led the Spanish expedition of 1519-1522 that was the first to sail around the world. (p. 431)
Dorothea Dix
Rights activist on behalf of mentally ill patients - created first wave of US mental asylums
Stanley, Henry Morton (1841-1904)
British-American explorer of Africa, famous for his expeditions in search of Dr. David Livingstone. Stanley helped King Leopold II establish the Congo Free State. (p. 732)
Western Front
A line of trenches and fortifications in World War I that stretched without a break from Switzerland to the North Sea. Scene of most of the fighting between Germany, on the one hand, and France and Britain, on the other
A primary motive for the formation of the Ku Klux Klan was
A) hostility to the growing practice of interracial sex.
B) anger at the corruption in Reconstruction legislatures.
C) the southern desire to instigate guerrilla warfare against the occupying U
e
Kilwa
In the 11th century, the island was sold to a Persian trader Ali bin Al-Hasan, who founded the city and the Kilwa Sultanate. Over the next few centuries, Kilwa grew to be a major city and trading centre along that coast, with overlordship and inland as far as Zimbabwe. Trade was mainly in gold and iron from Zimbabwe, ivory and slaves from Tanzania, and textiles, jewelry, porcelain, and spices from Asia.
The Louisiana Purchase
- 1803
- Jefferson buys Louisiana territory from the French (Napoleon)
- 15 million
Song Dynasty
Chinese dynasty (960-1279 CE); fell to the Jurchens and then to the Mongols until the Yuan Dynasty was extavlioshed
plantocracy
In the West Indian colonies, the rich men who owned most of the slaves and most of the land, especially in the eighteenth century. (p. 502)
Samuel Chase
supreme court justice of whom the Democratic-Republican Congress tried to remove in retaliation of the John Marshall's decision regarding Marbury; was not removed due to a lack of votes in the Senate.
Bacon's Rebellion
A rebellion lead by Nathaniel Bacon with backcountry farmers to attack Native Americans in an attemp to gain more land
p'an ku
giant in Chinese creation myth whose bones created humans
Zheng He
Imperial Muslim eunuch sent to impress the world with the Ming's power
Ridda Wars
Wars that followed Muhammad's death in 632; resulted in defeat of rival prophets and some of larger clans; restored unity of Islam
 
 
 
 
292. Election of 1800, tie, Jefferson and Burr
 
 
The two Democratic-Republicans Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr defeated Federalist John Adams, but tied with each other. The final decision went the House of Representatives, where there was another tie. After a long series of ties in the House, Jefferson was finally chosen as president. Burr became vice-president. This led to the 12th Amendment, which requires the president and vice-president of the same party to run on the same ticket.
ROBERT F KENNEDY
Attorney General (hated by Hoover) wanted to recast the priorities of the FBI
impede
to retard in movement or progress by means of obstacles or hindrances; obstruct; hinder.
Declaration of Independence
- June 1776(July 4, 1776 published)- written by Thomas Jefferson a) Enumerates the colonies' grievances against the Crown b) Articulates the principle of individual liberty and the government's fundamental responsibility to serve the people c) Structure i) Part I: Statement of American political philosophy ii) Part II: Specific grievances d) They believed in Republicanism- self government i) People govern themselves through representatives e) 4 sources of thought/ models for republicanism (1) Antiquity- "virtue", Roman republic; power is the enemy of all republics (2) Enlightenment- Locke- natural rights (3) Puritanism- they were God's chosen people; "Exceptionalism", "City upon a hill"; believed it was America's destiny to be the first free working republic (4) "Commonwealthemen"- 17/18 century England; believed that you could have a place ruled without a king (a) James Harrington- father of commonwealthmen (b) Properfied men- vested interest in seeing the state survival f) Protect the rights of people, their natural rights, and it is the states responsibility and duty to protect them, and if they don't, the people have the power to overturn that government and replace it with a new one
Mexican Constitution of 1917
Promised land reform, limited foreign ownership of key resources, guaranteed the rights of workers, and placed restrictions on clerical education; marked formal end of Mexican Revolution.
245. North-South Compromises
The North was given full federal protection of trade and commerce. The South was given permanent relief from export taxes and a guarantee that the importation of slaves would not be halted for at least 20 years, plus the national capitol was placed in the South. Slaves were also deemed to be counted as 3/5 of a person when determining the state population, thus giving the Southern states a greater number of representatives in the House.
Jacksonian Democracy
this term describes the spirit of the age led by Andrew Jackson. During this period, more offices became elective, voter restrictions were reduced or eliminated, and popular participation in politics increased. The Democratic Part, led by Jackson appealed to the new body of voters by stressing the belief in rotation in office, economy in government, governmental response to popular demands and decentralization of power.
monotheism
Belief in one god; a rare concept in the ancient world.
Stateless Society
A society that is based on the authority of kinship groups rather than on a central government
Adal
The Battle the Arabs had in the Africa east
pet banks
A term used by Jackson's opponents to describe the state banks that the federal
government used for new revenue deposits in an attempt to destroy the Second Bank of
the United States; the practice continued after the charter for the Second Bank expired in 1836.
Gadsden Purchase (1853)
In 1853, James Gadsden, U.S. Minister to Mexico, engineered the purchase of over 29,000 square miles of Mexican territory south of the Gila River. It provided a potential route for construction of a transcontinental railroad
Green backs
Paper money in the North that was first issued during the Civil War.
1444. Adam Clayton Powell
Flamboyant Congressman from Harlem and chairman of the House and Labor Committee, he was elected to the House of Representatives in 1968, but removed from office for alleged misuse of funds.
RACE RIOTS OF 1960'S
riots started because blacks thought the police had killed an African American for no reason; national guard came in; started black power (separatism)
Peloponnesian War
a war in which Athens and its allies were defeated by the league centered on Sparta
Dred Scott Decision
A Missouri slave sued for his freedom, claiming that his four year stay in the northern portion of the Louisiana Territory made free land by the Missouri Compromise had made him a free man. The U.S, Supreme Court decided he couldn't sue in federal court because he was property, not a citizen.
Cold War
A conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted eachother on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years.
British East India Company
company was going to go bankrupt, British government let them sell left over tea to Americans at a cheap price, while still taxing it
84. Federalists and Republicans
the two political parties that formed following Washington's presidency; Federalists for stronger central government, Republicans for stronger state governments
348. Orders-in-council
British laws which led to the War of 1812. Orders-in-council passed in 1807 permitted the impressment of sailors and forbade neutral ships from visiting ports from which Britain was excluded unless they first went to Britain and traded for British goods.
What does Utilitarianism operate by?
greatest good for the greatest number
What happened to the Central Powers after WWI?
The empires were broken up
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution was a joint resolution of the U.S. Congress passed on August 7, 1964 in direct response to a minor naval engagement known as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. It is of historical significance because it gave U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson authorization, without a formal declaration of war by Congress, for the use of military force in Southeast Asia.
Tea Act of 1773
Helped East India company out of its debt
586. Fugitive Slave Law
Enacted by Congress in 1793 and 1850, these laws provided for the return of escaped slaves to their owners. The North was lax about enforcing the 1793 law, with irritated the South no end. The 1850 law was tougher and was aimed at eliminating the underground railroad.
hard money vs. soft ("cheap") money
linked to Panic of 1873; "hard-money" (creditors) people wanted disappearance of greenbacks; "cheap money" supporters (afflicted agrarian and debtor groups) clamored for a reissuance of greenbacks, reasoning that more money meant cheaper money and rising prices and easier to pay debts; hard money advocates carried the day, persuaded Grant to veto a bill to print more paper money in 1874 and scored another victory with the Resumption Act of 1875, which pledged the government to the further withdrawal of greenbacks from circulation and to the redemption of all paper currency in gold at face value (to begin in 1879); "soft money" supporters then looked for relief in silver to promote inflation, however Grant continued to listen to "hard money" supporters (often Republicans); Republican hard-money policy resulted in a backlash when it helped elect a Democratic House of Representatives in 1874 and spawned the Greenback Labor party in 1878
French and Indian War
Was a war fought by French and English on American soil over control of the Ohio River Valley-- English defeated French in1763. Historical Significance: established England as number one world power and began to gradually change attitudes of the colonists toward England for the worse.
MA Bay restricted the vote for the elections of the General Court to male members of the...
Congregational Church- "The visible saints"
1020. Upton Sinclair, The Jungle
The author who wrote a book about the horrors of food productions in 1906, the bad quality of meat and the dangerous working conditions.
what happened at columbine high school in 1999
2 students killed 12 classmates and a teacher. led to more gun control measures
Anti-Federalists
supported constitution
priests and scholars
Brahmin
Washington Ivring
wrote Knickerbocker tales
Akhenaten
Egyptian pharaoh (r. 1353-1335 B.C.E.). He built a new capital at Amarna, fostered a new style of naturalistic art, and created a religious revolution by imposing worship of the sun-disk. (p.66)
The controversy surrounding the Wade-Davis Bill and the readmission of the Confederate states to the Union demonstrated
A) the deep differences between President Lincoln and Congress.
B) the close ties that were developing between President Lincoln and
a
'The beautiful land'
Meaning of 'Oklahoma'
Quids*
(TJ) old democratic republicans who believed was of 1812 violated democratic prinapals
Havana
Cuban harbor where the Maine battleship mysteriously exploded.
Federalist
supporters of the constitution during the debate over its ratification; favored a strong national government, a person who believes in sharing power between the states and the national government
George Wallace
Alabama governor and third-party candidate for president in 1968 and 1972; he ran on a segregation and law-and-order platform. Paralyzed by an attempted assassination in 1972, he never recovered politically
Romanticism
Reaction to Classicism, love of nature, idealization of common man, civilization corrupts, emotions, boundlessness, imagination.
Seperate Spheres
Nineteenth-century idea in Western societies that men and women, especially of the middle class, should have different roles in society: women as wives, mothers, and homemakers; men as breadwinners and participants in business and politics (711)
Karl Marx
German philosopher, economist, and revolutionary. With the help and support of Friedrich Engels he wrote The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (1867-1894). These works explain historical development in terms of the interaction of contradictory economic forces, form the basis of all communist theory, and have had a profound influence on the social sciences.
In organizing thei empire, persian rulers relied heavily on _______ techniques of administration
mesopotamian
Alexander Hamilton
advocated powerful central government in 1787 convention
 
secretary of treasury under Washington, federalist
 
established economic plan which took care of national debt
Japanese gov't would restrict immingration of Japanese worker if the US would get rid of California discrination laws
Gentlemen's Agreement
Great Migration
in 1640's, 16000-20000 settlers came to the new wold b/c of turmoil in Britain
Acheh Sultanate
Muslim kingdom in northern Sumatra. Main center of Islamic expansion in Southeast Asia in the early seventeenth century, it declined after the Dutch seized Malacca from Portugal in 1641. (p. 541)
Machiavelli
Wrote "The Prince", a book that recommended harsh and arbitrary rule for princes
Free Soilers
People who opposed expansion of slavery into western territories
Sooner State
Oklahoma's nickname because about five hundred thousand people illegally entered that state before it became an offical state in 1907
hieroglyphs
characters ina writing system based on use of pictograms or ideograms
Diffusion
The spread of ideas, objects, or traits from one culture to another
All-India Muslim League
Political organization founded in India in 1906 to defend the interests of India's Muslim minority. Led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah, it attempted to negotiate with the Indian National Congress. Demanded Pakistan (813)
Dharma
In Hindu belief, a person's religious and moral duties
Interstate Commerce Act
Established the ICC (Interstate Commerce Commission) - monitors the business operation of carriers transporting goods and people between states - created to regulate railroad prices
Atlantic Charter
A pivotal policy statement first issued in August 1941 that early in World War II defined the Allied goals for the post-war world. It was drafted by the heads of Britain and the United States, and later agreed to by all the Allies. The Charter stated the ideal goals of the war: no territorial aggrandizement; no territorial changes made against the wishes of the people; restoration of self-government to those deprived of it; free access to raw materials; reduction of trade restrictions; global cooperation to secure better economic and social conditions for all; freedom from fear and want; freedom of the seas; and abandonment of the use of force, as well as disarmament of aggressor nations.
Latitude
What the astrolabe was designed to measure
federal land grants
federal government provided railroad companies with land grands and loans out West. It was distributed in a checkerboard pattern.
Burr-Hamilton duel
When Hamilton lobbied for Jefferson when Jefferson and Burr were up for the presidency, Burr became so angered he challenged Hamilton to a duel. Hamilton accepted, and lost.
Fascist Party
Italian political party created by Benito Mussolini during World War I. It emphasized aggressive nationalism and was Mussolini's instrument for the creation of a dictatorship in Italy from 1922 to 1943. (See also Mussolini, Benito.) (p. 786)
Russo-Japanese War
War between two foriegn powers that Roosevelt helped negiotate a peace treaty for, and recieved a Nobel Peacy Prize for his work
James Watt
Scot who invented the condenser and other improvements that made the steam engine a practical source of power for industry and transportation. The watt, an electrical measurement, is named after him. (p. 607)
Divine right
The belief of absolute rulers that their right to govern is granted by God
james madison
The fourth President of the United States (1809-1817). A member of the Continental Congress (1780-1783) and the Constitutional Convention (1787), he strongly supported ratification of the Constitution and was a contributor to The Federalist Papers (1787-1788), which argued the effectiveness of the proposed constitution. His presidency was marked by the War of 1812.
Mao Zedong
Leader of the Chinese Communist Party (1927-1976). He led the Communists on the Long March (1934-1935) and rebuilt the Communist Party and Red Army during the Japanese occupation of China (1937-1945). (789)
One of the main reasons the Chinese came to the US was to...
a. dig for gold
b. work on the East Coast
c. replace the newly freed slaves in the south
d. buy their own farms
e. all of the above
a
Revolution
A drastic and far reaching change in ways of thinking and behaving.
Jean Jacques Rousseau
He was committed to individual freedom, but thought that rationalism and civilization corrupt man. Spontaneous feeling was to replace the coldness of intellectualism. Man is born good and needs protection from society. This influenced the Romantic Movement of the nineteenth century. His book, The Social Contract tells how social inequalities develop when people sign a social contract agreeing to surrender to the general will in order to be free. This creates a government as a necessary evil to carry out general will. If general will fails, people can replace it. This has justified actions in the French revolution and in Hitler's regime. He also wrote Emile that attacked society and proposed a new theory of education. He called for focus on logical thinking, reason, love, tenderness, and understanding toward children. He wanted children to be raised naturally and spontaneously in order to raise their emotional awareness.
Indo-European
People from around the the Black Sea and the Caspian sea; Between 2500 and 2000 BC, they migrated all over Eurasia; known as Hittites or Aryans, became ancestors of Romans and Greeks
Faisal
Arab prince, leader of the Arab Revolt in World War I. The British made him king of Iraq in 1921, and he reigned under British protection until 1933. (p. 760)
jihad
a holy struggle or striving by a Muslim for a moral or spiritual or political goal
Multinational corporations
Businesses with vast holdings in many countries, many of which have annual budgets exceeding that of many foreign governments.
Pocahantas
Indian woman saved the life of John Smith and married John Rolfe
America First Committee
Attracted some of America's most prominent leaders. Its chairman was Robert E. Wood, until recently the president Sears Roebuck; and its membership included Charles Lindbergh, and others. It won editorial support of the Hearst chain and other influential papers; and had at least the indirect support of a large proportion of the Republican part. This organization was primarily formed to oppose Committee to Defend America, whose members lobbied actively for increased American assistance to the Allies but opposed intervention. 7: 1934-1941
Napoleon Bonaparte
Overthrew French Directory in 1799 and became emperor of the French in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile.
Federal Reserve Board
oversaw nationwide system of twelve regional reserve districts, each with its own central bank, and had the power to issue paper money
Patriots and Whigs
Individuals who supported the rebels in the Revolutionary war were called
decolonization
to release from the status of a colony.
Roman Republic
The period from 507 to 31 B.C.E., during which Rome was largely governed by the aristocratic Roman Senate. (p. 148)
Olive Branch Petition
Still pledge loyalty to King George III but are still asking Britain to respect the rights and liberties of the colonies, repeal oppressive legislation, and British troops out of the colonies; George 3 didn't want anything to do with them and declared all colonies in a state of rebellion
391. Interchangeable parts
1799-1800 - Eli Whitney developed a manufacturing system which uses standardized parts which are all identical and thus, interchangeable. Before this, each part of a given device had been designed only for that one device; if a single piece of the device broke, it was difficult or impossible to replace. With standardized parts, it was easy to get a replacement part from the manufacturer. Whitney first put used standardized parts to make muskets for the U.S. government.
New York/ New Jersey
proprietary. NJ = cataret, berkeley NY= Duke of York (James II)
Wabash v. Illinois
(GC), can't have state boards to regulate interstate railroads, weakening Grangers
Homo sapien sapiens
the human species that as most successful at the end of the Paleolithic period
Scopes Trial
John Scopes in Tennessee was put on trial because he taught the theory of evolution in high school. He accepted the ACLU's offer of legal defense. This trial marked the end of fundamentalism as a force in a number of mainstream Protestant sects
senate and consuls
made by Patricians. were the highest branch of government
Roosevelt Corollary
An extension of the Monroe Doctrine by U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt in 1904. Roosevelt's extension of the Monroe Doctrine asserted a right of the United States to intervene to "stabilize" the economic affairs of small states in the Caribbean and Central America if they were unable to pay their international debts. The alternative, according to the U.S. assumptions, was intervention by European powers, especially Great Britain and France, which had lent money to countries that were unable to repay.
New Left
In the U.S., the "New Left" was associated with the Hippie movement and college campus protest movements. It was the new generation of kids who experienced Economic prosperity and placed a higher value on education, they expressed more liberal ideals.
1409. Philip Randolph
President of the Brotherhood of Car Porters and a Black labor leader, in 1941 he arranged a march on Washington to end racial discrimination.
Benedict Arnold
General who was going to sell-out West Point to the British
States' Rights
The individual right of a state to set its own laws. Up until the drafting of the Constitution, the 13 colonies were still awfully independent. Many people called for the "hoop to the barrel" that would unite the states. The conflict between states rights and federal rights was a main argument during the Second Constitutional Convention. "The Great Compromise" provided a balance of power between states.
Worchester v. Georgia (1832)
Marshall rules that Georgia's laws had no jurisdiction in Cherokee territory Jackson replies- "Marshall has made his ruling, now let him enforce it" Cherokees realized their fate at this moment
Women's Rights Convention
Meeting in Seneca Falls, New York of feminists; 1848; First meeting for women's rights, helped in long struggle for women to be equal to men
Treaty of Westphalia (1648)
Ended Thirty Years' War in 1648; granted right to individual rulers within the Holy Roman Empire to choose their own religion-either Protestant or Catholic
Era Of Good Feelings
A name for President Monroe's two terms, a period of strong nationalism, economic growth, and territorial expansion. Since the Federalist party dissolved after the War of 1812, there was only one political party and no partisan conflicts.
310. Washington’s Farewell Address
He warned against the dangers of political parties and foreign alliances.
Who took over the Japanese government by 1931, despite the continued rule of the emperor?
General Tojo and military
tenure of office act
1866 - enacted by radical congress - forbade president from removing civil officers without senatorial consent - was to prevent Johnson from removing a radical republican from his cabinet
U.S v. Butler
(FDR) 1936 as a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that the processing taxes instituted under the 1933 Agricultural Adjustment Act were unconstitutional.
Blacks During the Great Depression
The New Deal helped African Americans survive the Depression.The program served whites as well as whites, but in the south weekly payments that blacks recieved were much smaller.The NRA permitted lower wage scales for blacks, while the AAA led to the eviction of thousands of Negro tenants and sharecroppers.Neither the minim um wage nor the Social Security covered those working as farmers or domestic servants, categories that comprised 65 percent of All African American workers.
1483. Baker v. Carr, 1962
The Supreme Court declared that the principle of "one person, one vote" must be following at both state and national levels. The decision required that districts be redrawn so the each representative represented the same number of people.
Olive Branch Petition (1775)
On July 8, 1775, the colonies made a final offer of peace to Britain, agreeing to be loyal to the British government if it addressed their grievances (repealed the Coercive Acts, ended the taxation without representation policies). It was rejected by Parliament, which in December 1775 passed the American Prohibitory Act forbidding all further trade with the colonies.
Battle of the Alamance
May 1771 - An army recruited by the North Carolina government put down the rebellion of the Carolina Regulators at Alamance Creek. The leaders of the Regulators were executed.
What did Nathaniel Bacon protest, where and when?
In March 1676 in Virginia they rebelled against the local government's refusal to attack the Indians.
1203. National Industrial Recovery Administration (NIRA)
Founded in 1933 to carry out the plans of the National Industry Recovery Act to fight depression. It established code authorities for each branch of industry or buisness. The code authorities set the lowest prices that could be charged, the lowest wages that could be paid, and the standards of quality that must be observed.
Why was it necessary for businesses to spend billions of dollars on advertisement/
because most of the appliances they sold were not necessities, therefore creating a need for advanced help in selling them
Korean War
Stupas
spherical shrines honoring Buddha;
laissez-faire
The doctrine of noninterference, especially by the government, in matters of economics or business.
Sandinista
party Nicaraguan Socialist movement named after Augusto Sandino; successfully carried out a Socialist revolution in Nicaragua during the 1980s.
BUS
Bank of the United States
rene descartes
French philosopher and mathematician.
Indian National Congress
English-speaking Hindu political party
Three R's
Refom, Relief, Recover. Roosevelts plan to help the people after the Great Depression.
Senate
Sometimes called council of elders, was 300 men who served for life and could advise the magistrates, advice was not to be taken lightly, by the 3rd century B.C.E. they were virtually the force of law.
Hatshepsut
Queen of Egypt (1473-1458 B.C.E.). Dispatched a naval expedition down the Red Sea to Punt (possibly Somalia), the faraway source of myrrh. There is evidence of opposition to a woman as ruler, and after her death her name was frequently expunged.
WTO
An international body established in 1995 to foster and bring order to international trade. (p. 889)
Toyotami Hideyoshi
General under Nobunaga; leading military power in central japan; series of alliances that made him military master in Japan
Great Compromise
VA suggested representation in congress by population, NJ suggested equal representation for all. Ends up being 2 reps in Senate, House based on Population, and President needed.
wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin
Harriet Beecher Stowe
paleolithic
of, pertaining to, or characteristic of the cultures of the late Pliocene and the Pleistocene epochs, or early phase of the Stone Age, which appeared first in Africa and are marked by the steady development of stone tools and later antler and bone artifac
Druids
The class of religious experts who conducted rituals and preserved sacred lore among some ancient Celtic peoples. They provided education, mediated disputes between kinship groups, and were suppressed by the Romans as potential resistance. (92)
guilds
sworn associations of people of the same business or trade in a single city
Back Hand
Pre-World War I secret Serbian society; one of its members, Gavrilo Princip, assassinated
Austrian archduke Francis Ferdinand and provided the spark for the outbreak of the Great War.
Washington Irving
essayest biographer, and historian of the early 19th century who helped encourage nationalism after the War of 1812 through literature.
third century crisis
political, military, and economic turmoil that beset the Roman Empire during much of the third century C.E.: frequent changes of ruler, civil wars, barbarian invasions, decline of urban centers, and near-destruction of long-distance commerce. (157)
John Adams!
1797-1801, Federalist, issue = jay treaty, next vote = VP
Solidarity
Polish labor movement formed in 1970s under Lech Walesa; challenged USSR-dominated government of Poland.
Olmec
Cultural tradition that arose at San Lorenzo and La Venta in Mexico c 1200 B.C.E.; featured irrigate agriculture, urbanism, elaborate religion, beginnings of calendrical and writing systems
Harriet Tubman
conductor of the Underground Railroad; rescued hundreds f slaves(southerners demanded new/stricter fugitive laws)
Yangdi
Second member of Sui dynasty; murdered his father to gain throne; restored Confucian examination system; responsible for construction of Chinese canal system; assassinated in 618.
Outsourcing
Beginning in the new millennium many American people were beginning to worry about their manufacturing and industrial work. Opposition to "The New World Order" grew among manual laborers who worried that globalizing the economy also meant shipping jobs out (proved to be true). Among the most avid supporters of this idea were the labor unions and activists who saw the "slave labor conditions" of the third world countries the work was being exported to.
Pharaoh
a king figure in Ancient Egypt; believed to be earthly manifestations of gods; absolute power
89ers
COULDNT FIND THIS ONE (there were 59ers "Pikes Peakers" who rushed to Rockies to find gold and 49ers seeking gold in California)
Ralph Waldo Emerson
transcendentalist lecturer who told Americans not to imitate European culture but instead to create a new one. He adresesd Harvard College with "The American Scholar"
 
Critic of Slavery and Union supporter.
For the next seven months, although war was declared, nothing happened as all countires were mobilizing for war. This is known as the _____or sitzkrieg.
phony
Abdul Hamid
Ottoman sultan who attempted to return to despotic absolutism during reign from 1878 to 1908; nullified constitution and restricted civil liberties; deposed in coup in 1908
The Gupta empire
Indian dynasty (320-550 C.E.) that briefly reunited India after the collapse of the earlier Mauryan dynasty. WHITE HUNS CAUSED THE COLLAPSE
What did the Bolsheviks opponents become as?
The White Army
302. Neutrality Proclamation
Washington's declaration that the U.S. would not take sides after the French Revolution touched off a war between France and a coalition consisting primarily of England, Austria and Prussia. Washington's Proclamation was technically a violation of the Franco-American Treaty of 1778.
Caravel
A small, easily steerable ship used by the Portuguese and Spanish in their explorations
Colonization Movement
Movement in America to move African American to Liberia
Phineas T. Barnum
1810-91, U.S. showman who established a circus in 1871.
Writs of Assistance
special search warrants that allowed tax collectors to search for smuggled goods
Attorney General Randolph
Edmund Randolph had been General Washington's aide-de-camp at the outbreak of the Revolution, and served both as a Virginia delegate to the Continental Congressand as Governor of Virginia from 1786-1788. He submitted the virginia Plan at the Constitutional Convention. From 1789-1794 he served as U.S. Attorney General, and then succeeded Jefferson as Sec. of State. In 1795 he resigned form office after being falsely accused of receiving money from France to influence Washington's administration against Great Britain, although his name was eventually cleared by the french government.
Soviet bloc
the region in Eastern Europe under Soviet control, Stalin used it as a buffer against capitalist invasion
Trung Sisters
Leaders of a rebellions in Vietnam against Chinese rule in 39 c.e.; demonstrates importance of women in Vietnamese society.
Declaration of Sentiments
Revision of the Declaration of Independence to include women and men (equal). It was the grand basis of attaining civil, social, political, and religious rights for women.
92. Barbary Pirates
North African Muslim rulers solved budget problems through piracy and tributes in Mediterranean, obtained fees from most European powers
New England
A region of northeastern United States comprising Maine and New Hampshire and Vermont and Massachusetts and Rhode Island and Connecticut
Phillis Wheatley
Poet known for her triumph over slavery and the quality of her verse
Elkins Act (1903)
Fined railroads that gave special rates to favored shippers
Exodusters
Blacks who knew what fate awaited them in the South and moved to the Midwest to start anew.
sepoy
A soldier in South Asia, especially in the service of the British. (p. 658)
Tweed Ring
(USG) , the corrupt part of Tammany Hall in New York City, started by Burly "Boss" Tweed that Samuel J. Tilden, the reform governor of New York had been instrumental in overthrowing, Thomas Nast exposed through illustration in Harper's Weekly
Jamestown, Virginia
in the Virginia Colony, was founded on May 14, 1607. It is commonly regarded as the first permanent English settlement in what is now the United States, following several earlier failed attempts. It was founded by Captain John Smith. It became the first capital of the Colony for 92 years, until 1699, when it was relocated to Williamsburg
Johns Hopkins University
Opened in 187 and maintained the nation's first high-grade gradual school
Ernest Hemingway
Writer, one of the most affected by war. Responded to evil propaganda and appeal to patriotism. Wrote The Sun Also Rises and A Farewell to Arms. Commits suicide via shotgun to brain.
Survival of the Fittest
Strongest will Survive oroginates in Charlie D "Origin of the Species"
Yates v. United States
1st admendment protected radical / revolutionary speech
Weimar Republic
the German republic in power from 1919 to 1933; toppled and replaced by the Third Reich
"Way of the Elders" branch of Buddhism followed in Sri Lanka and much of Southeast Asia. It remains close to the original principles st forth by Buddha; it downplays the importance of gods and emphasizes austerity and the individual's search for enlighten
Theravada Buddhism
steel
A form of iron that is both durable and flexible. It was first mass-produced in the 1860s and quickly became the most widely used metal in construction, machinery, and railroad equipment. (p. 701)
Carl Schurz
He was a German immigrant who fought for political freedom in his home country, and against slavery and unfair treatment of the Native Americans in America
Knights of Labor
Second national labor union, open to all workers. Wanted
worker cooperatives
abolition of child labor
abolition of trusts and monopolies
Violent Haymarket riot in Chicago turned people against the Union.
National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry
First farmer organization
American Protective Association
Formed to urge voting against Roman Catholic candidates and sponsored the publication of lustful nun fantasies.
National Origins Act
(CC) 1924 was a United States federal law that limited the number of immigrants who could be admitted from any country to 2% of the number of people from that country who were already living in the United States in 1890, according to the Census of 1890. It excluded immigration of Asians, first was from 3%
40. Carolinas
1665 - Charles II granted this land to pay off a debt to some supporters. They instituted headrights and a representative government to attract colonists. The southern region of the Carolinas grew rich off its ties to the sugar islands, while the poorer northern region was composed mainly of farmers. The conflicts between the regions eventually led to the colony being split into North and South Carolina.
Paris Accords of 1973
This promised a cease-fire and free elections regarding the Vietnam War; following the armistice between N Vietnam and the US.
Ann Bradstreet (-)
A Puritan and the first colonial poet to be published. The main subjects of her poetry were family, home, and religion.
school of National Learning
New Ideology that laid emphasis on Japan's unique historical experience and the revival of indigenous culture at the expense of Chinese imporst such as Confuciansim; typical of Japan in the 18th century
James I, Charles I
reluctant to give colonists their own government, preferred to appoint royal governors
1387. House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)
Committee in the House of Representatives founded on a temporary basis in 1938 to monitor activities of foreign agents. Made a standing committee in 1945. During World War II it investigated pro-fascist groups, but after the war it turned to investigating alleged communists. From 1947-1949, it conducted a series of sensational investigations into supposed communist infiltration of the U.S. government and Hollywood film industry.
Al Capone
In Chicago, he was one of the most famous leaders of organized crime of the era.
714. Pendleton Civil Service Act
1883 - The first federal regulatory commission. Office holders would be assessed on a merit basis to be sure they were fit for duty. Brought about by the assassination of Garfield by an immigrant who was angry about being unable to get a government job. The assassination raised questions about how people should be chosen for civil service jobs.
What did Hammurabi create?
The Hammurabi code; was one of the first organized set of laws and was extremely specific; in Mesopotamia
Chief Joseph
tried to lead a band of Nez Perce into Canada but failed and had to surrender
1255. Darby Lumber Co. case
1941 - Overruled the Hamme case of 1918 by upholding the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938.
1082. Election of 1916: Hughes, Wilson, issues
The Democrats emphasized a program of domestic reform. Charles Evans Hughes left the Supreme Court to challenge Wilson, a democrat.
932. E. C. Knight Company case
1895 - The Supreme Court ruled that since the Knight Company's monopoly over the production of sugar had no direct effect on commerce, the company couldn't be controlled by the government. It also ruled that mining and manufacturing weren't affected by interstate commerce laws and were beyond the regulatory power of Congress. It gave E. C. Knight a legal monopoly because it did not affect trade.
How did Texas final join the Union?
By the joint resolution of Congress rather than the two-thirds vote from the Senate
# needed to propose to amend the constitution
2/3 of congress or 2/3 of a special convention
1
new jeresy
John D. Rockefeller
Oil Baron
republicans
anti-slavery, pro-national roads, pro-liberal land distribution in the west, pro-protective tariffs
"The slows"
Lincoln's nickname for McClellan
Justinian Code
Compilation of Roman law
hegemony
leadership or predominant influence exercised by one nation over others, as in a confederation.
william conqueror
invaded england from normandy; extended feudalism to england; established centralized monarchy
Hoovercrats
'Southern Democrats who turned against their party's "wet" Catholic nominee and voted for the Republican in 1928.'
three
estates Typical social organization of Middle Ages after 10th century; included military nobility, clergy, and ordinary people.
ulama
Muslim religious scholars. From the ninth century onward, the primary interpreters of Islamic law and the social core of Muslim urban societies. (p. 238)
Bannermen
Hereditary military servants of the Qing Empire, in large part descendants of peoples of various origins who had fought for the founders of the empire. (p. 684)
Andrew Carnegie
was a Scottish industrialist, businessman, entrepreneur and a major philanthropist. He is one of the most famous captains of industry of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. He earned most of his fortune in the steel industry and gave most of his money to libraries, schools, and universities.
Tecumseh
Shawnee leader who attempted to organize an Amerindian confederacy to prevent the loss of additional territory to American settlers. He became an ally of the British in War of 1812 and died in battle.
Beijing
China's northern capital, first used as an imperial capital in 906 and now the capital of the People's Republic of China. (p. 351)
Seneca Falls Convention
Kicked off the equal-rights-for-women campaign led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony (1848)
Rutherford B. Hayes
Republican presidential nominee in 1876 presidential election (against Democrat Tilden); chosen since Grant was out of the running and the Conklingites and Blaineites neutralizing each other, he was a compromising candidate; won through the Compromise of 1877; while in office, he called in federal troops to quell the unrest over a railroad strike (this brought the striking laborers support from the working-class)
12th Amendment
required separate and distinct ballots for presidential and vice presidential candidates
what was the most important christian kingdomm in africa
ethiopia
Freedman's Bureau
An early social welfare program dedicated to educating, training, and providing financial and moral support to former slaves.
(GW) Farewell Address
maintain national unity, obey principles and authority, create permanent allience but not embroil in European affairs
Analects
What is the collection of Confucian sayings and teachings called?
Pogroms
violent mistreatment of Jews in Russia and Romania
Protectorate
is an autonomous territory that is protected diplomatically or militarily against third parties by a stronger state or entity, in exchange for which the protectorate usually accepts specified obligations, which may vary greatly, depending on the real nature of their relationship. However, it remains a state under international law.
creoles
In colonial Spanish America, term used to describe someone of European descent born in the New World. Elsewhere in the Americas, the term is used to describe all nonnative peoples. (p. 482)
bronze age
(archeology) a period between the Stone and Iron ages, characterized by the manufacture and use of bronze tools and weapons
gothic style
type of European architecture that developed in the Middle Ages, characterized by flying buttresses, ribbed vaulting, thin walls, and high roofs
Fort Necessity
Location at which George Washington was forced to surrender his entire command
Clayton Anti-Trust Act
New antitrust legislation constructed to remedy deficiencies of the Sherman Antitrust Act, namely, it's effectiveness against labor unions
Transcendentalists/ Inner light
1830s - moderninzing puritan beliefs
 
belived truth transcends the body through the senses
 
Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau both were these
Francois Bernier
European observer of Mughal India, noted poverty and lack of discipline/training of armies
ethnic
pertaining to or characteristic of a people, esp. a group
American System
high tariff by Clay to stimulate industrial growth, independent of Britain; internal improvements, national bank
Great Circuit
The network of Atlantic Ocean trade routes between Europe, Africa, and the Americas that underlay theAtlantic system. (p. 508)
Witte Industrialization Program
Count Sergei Iul'evich Witte oversaw Russia's transition economy from 1892 to 1903. As finance minister, Witte pushed for greater exports, ambitious industrialization, and large foreign loans. He hoped to modernize Russia and make it competitive with other great powers. These policies by and large continued after Witte was dismissed in 1903 and were expanded by Witte when he returned to government as premier in 1905-1906, and by his successors.
Gaspee Affair
Rhode Island colonists boarded the HMS Gaspee, a British ship, looted it, then burned and sank it in 1772.
Central Pacific Railroad
The California-based railroad
A lot of Chinese labor
Headed by Leland Stanford
Corduroy Roads
Roads made of logs in swampy areas
tribute
The sacrificing to the gods or the offering and payments to the leaders and/or owners of the land
Tariff of-- Protective
This protective tariff helped American industry by raising the prices of British manufactured goods, which were often cheaper and of higher quality than those produced in the U.S.
John Tyler
elected Vice President and became the 10th President of the United States when Harrison died 1841-1845, President responsible for annexation of Mexico after receiving mandate from Polk, opposed many parts of the Whig program for economic recovery
Meiji Reforms
Brought the Tokugawa Shogunates to an end. It made Japan a great imperial power. Japan became modern.
jizya
Head tax paid by all nonbelievers in Islamic territories. (p. 291)
Popular sovereignty
The American constitution was based on ____ _____.
pg. 925-926
PS
 
Malcolm X
He politically wanted change through black studies programs in schools and more rights for all, he initiated the violent side of the civil rights movement.
his name Malcolm Little was changed by his own self to emphsasize the abuses made towards african americans. He redefined the idea of black power by preaching separatism and animosity towards white people
Alfred Thayer Mahan/"The Importance of Sea Power Upon History"
Received international recognition as a comprehensive of naval strategy.
Congress of Vienna
Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon I. (p. 594)
suspension of habeas corpus
lincoln had people arrested without knowing charges
saloon
By 1900 cities like New York and San Francisco had one of these for every 200 people.
jays treaty 1794
Chief justice john jay sent to negotiate treaty w/ GB
-GB give up forts by 1796
-Us ensure payment of prerevolutionary debts
-GB pays for damages to US shipping
Mercantilism: features, rationale, impact on Great Britain, impact on the colonies
Mercantilism was the economic policy of Europe in the 1500s through 1700s. The government exercised control over industry and trade with the idea that national strength and economic security comes from exporting more than is imported. Possession of colonies provided countries both with sources of raw materials and markets for their manufactured goods. Great Britain exported goods and forced the colonies to buy them.
persecution
the subjecting of a race or group of people to cruel or unfair treatment (C.201)
Zuni and Hopi
descendants of Anasazi, now occupy the pueblos abandoned by the Anasazi
Teller Amendment
Part of the declaration of war against Spain in which Congress pledged that Cuba would be freed and not annexed by the US as a result of the conflict
Albert Fall
Albert Bacon Fall (November 26, 1861 - November 30, 1944) was a Senator from New Mexico and the Secretary of the Interior under President Warren G. Harding, notorious for his involvement in the Teapot Dome scandal. 7: 1934-1941
Commonwealth v. Hunt
ruled that labor unions were not illegal conspiracies
 
provided methods were honorable and peaceful
Hay-Pauncefote Treaty (1901)
-any canal built in Central America was supposed to be jointly US/British. In this treaty, the British agreed to abrogate their earlier treaty and US could dig without British involvement
"Era of Good Feelings"
The years of Monroe's presidency marked by political harmony and upsurge of nationalism. However, underneath their were conflicts over slavery and sectionalism.
1558. Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
An international oil cartel dominated by an Arab majority, joined together to protect themselves.
Tariff of Abominations
Tariff passed by Congress in 1828 that favored manufacturing in the North and was hated by the South
Chief Justice John Marshall: decision
Justice Marshall was a Federalist whose decisions on the U.S. Supreme Court promoted federal power over state power and established the judiciary as a branch of government equal to the legislative and executive. In Marbury v. Madison he established the Supreme Court's power of judicial review, which allows the Supreme Court to declare laws unconstitutional.
First Great Awakening
The First Great Awakening was a time of religious fervor during the 1730s and 1740s. The movement arose in reaction to the rise of skepticism and the waning of religious faith brought about by the Enlightenment. Protestant ministers held revivals throughout the English colonies in America, stressing the need for individuals to repent and urging a personal understanding of truth.
2nd Bank of the U.S.
It was a federal establishment operated by the gov't as an attempt to save the welfare of the economy after the War of 1812. It was part of Henry Clay's American System and forced state banks to call in their loans which led to foreclosures and the Panic of 1819., it had an unfair advantage, the BUS stockholders earned interest, unfair loans at lower rates to congressmen
1145. Sigmund Freud's Theories
An Austrian physician with new ideas on the human mind. One of the founders of the modern science of psychiatry, discovered the subconscious. Believed that the mind is divided into 3 parts: id - primitive impulse; ego - reason which regulates between the id and reality; and superego - morals.
Supreme Court case that ruled that the Supreme Court has the power to declare laws unconstitutional.
Marbury v. Madison
1371. Revenue Act of 1942
Effort to increase tax revenues to cover the cost of WWII by adding additional graduated steps to the income tax and lowering the threshold at which lower income earners began to pay tax.
Lexington and Concord, April ,
General Gage, stationed in Boston, was ordered by King George III to arrest Samuel Adams and John Hancock. The British marched on Lexington, where they believed the colonials had a cache of weapons. The colonial militias, warned beforehand by Paul Revere and William Dawes, attempeted to block the progress of the troops and were fired on by the British at Lexington. The British continued to Concord, where they believed Adams and Hancock were hiding, and they were again attacked by the colonial militia. As the British retreated to Boston, the colonials continued to shoot at them from behind cover on the sides of the road. This was the start of the Revolutionary War.
What were 3 characteristics of King Harsha's rule?
-extended influence to several states
-looked kindly on other faiths (he was buddhist)
-distributed wealth to subjects
pg. 897
P
 
Ho Chi Mihn
Ho chi mihn, under the opression of France, had asked for self determinatin as early as 1919 but was denied by US. This lead him to gravitate north korea to communism. What threw him all the way was actually US as they responded in retaliation of their rebellion against France, supporting south Korea that wanted no communism. He terrorized south korea and waged war against US until they pulled out.
Great Proletariat Cultural Revolution
Mao steps down as head of state (but stays head of party) and launches this campaign (to target the "liberal Communists" who took his place)
767. Munn v. Illinois
1877 - The Supreme Court ruled that an Illinois law that put a ceiling on warehousing rates for grain was a constitutional exercise of the state's power to regulate business. It said that the Interstate Commerce Commission could regulate prices.
# needed to ratify an amendment
3/4 of state legislatures or 3/4 of special conventions
Why was the election of Vicente Fox in Mexico significant?
Ended 71 years of PRI rule.
Second bank of the U S , a reversal of Jeffersonian ideas
As a Republican, Jefferson opposed the National Bank. The Second Bank of the U.S. was established in 1816 and was given more authority than the First Bank of the U.S. Bank loans were used to finance the American industrial revolution in the period after the War of 1812.
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