AP US History 4 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Taft
1909-1913
Rack-renting
merciless rent increases
Thomas Malthus
Eighteenth-century English intellectual who warned that population growth threatened future generations because, in his view, population growth would always outstrip increases in agricultural production. (p. 867)
Vichy
French collaborationist government established in 1940 in southern France following defeat of French armies by the Germans.
City-state
urban areas that controlled surrounding agricultural regions and that were often loosely connected in a broader political structure with others.
Ziggurats
massive towers associated with Mesopotamian temple complexes
Civilazation
Complex Highly Organized Social System
Chimu
Powerful Peruvian civilization based on conquest. Located in the region earlier dominated by Moche. Conquered by Inca in 1465. (p. 314)
English Whigs
Supported the americans at first
Who designed the dome in Florence?
Brunelleschi
Investiture
Practice of state appointment of bishops; Pope Gregory VII attempted to ban the practice of lay investitures, leading to war with Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV.
Stalwarts
Republicans fighting for civil service reform during Garfield's term.
Enconmienda
Concession from Spanish letting a colonist take tribute from Indians in a certain area
Candomble
African religious ideas and practices in Brazil, particularly among the Yoruba people.
Paxton Boys
Frontiersmen in western Pennsylvania that feared surrounding Indian tribes; marched to Philadelphia demanding tax relief and government funds to protect them from Indians; eventually achieved goals., A mob of Pennsylvania frontiersmen led by the Paxtons who massacred a group of non-hostile Indians.
Missi Dominici
Charlemagne's group of imperial officers that traveled every year to local jurisdictions and reviewed the accounts of local authorities
Huns
Turkic speaking peopel from Central Asia who began a westward migration in the late fourth century. Their warrior-king Attila organized the Huns to invade Hungary, tested Roman frontiers in the Balkans, and threatened Gual and northern Italy. The Hunds had little effect on teh Western postclassical world after Attila's death in 453 CE
serf
In medieval Europe, an agricultural laborer legally bound to a lord's property and obligated to perform set services for the lord. In Russia some serfs worked as artisans and in factories; serfdom was not abolished there until 1861. (pp. 254, 553)
Theodore Roosevelt
(WMc) Assistant Secretary of Navy, Rough Rider (helped him gain fame after San Juan Hill), instructed Commodore Dewey to attack Philippines
Tokugawa Shogunate
(1603—1868), or Tokugawa bakufu, or Edo bakufu, was a feudal military dictatorship of Japan established by Tokugawa Ieyasu and ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family. This period is known as the Edo period and gets its name from the capital city of Edo, now Tokyo. The Tokugawa shogunate ruled from Edo castle until the Meiji Restoration.
Ulysses S. Grant
U.S. president 1873-1877. Military hero of the Civil War, he led a corrupt administration, consisting of friends and relatives. Although Grant was personally a very honest and moral man, his administration was considered the most corrupt the U.S. had had at that time.
Freeport Doctrine
He supported popular sovereignty; his views contradicted the Supreme Court's ruling that seemed to prohibit a territorial legislature from excluding slavery before statehood. Douglas Replied that in order for slavery to exist, laws were necessary to protect it. If no such laws were established, slave-owners would not reside there and the territory would be free. He concluded that if the residents did nothing, slavery would essentially be excluded from the territory.
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
A nineteenth-century American poet. Among his works are The Song of Hiawatha and " Paul Revere's Ride."
Baron de Montesquieu
French political thinker
Theory of separation of powers
The Spirit of the Laws
Influenced Burke
Sugar Act,
Part of Prime Minister Grenville's revenue program, the act replaced the Molasses Act of 1733, and actually lowered the tax on sugar and molasses (which the New England colonies imported to make rum as part of the triangular trade) from 6 cents to 3 cents a barrel, but for the first time adopted provisions that would insure that the tax was strictly enforced; created the vice-admiralty courts; and made it illegal for the colonies to buy goods from non-British Caribbean colonies.
James Earl Ray
Convicted of assassinating Martin Luther King, Jr. in Memphis, Tennessee.
Lazaro Cardenas
President of Mexico (1934-1940). He brought major changes to Mexican life by distributing millions of acres of land to the peasants, bringing representatives of workers and farmers into the inner circles of politics, and nationalizing the oil industry 820
4. Han Dynasty
206 B.C.E. - 220 C.E.
Edict of Nantes
granted limited toleration to protestants in France
Joseph Smith
Founder of Mormonism; led followers around country looking for new community; eventually arrested for treason and killed by angry mob.
King Alfred
leader of the England unification, expanded empire & built a navy to challenge the Vikings; est. as Kings of England
Whiskey Rebellion
A direct result of Alexander Hamilton's economics policies, and was made up of western PA farmers resisting a tax on whiskey. Washington, to make an example of them, dispatched the militia to disperse the rebels. It is significant because it demonstrated the strength and fiarness of the new government.
Theodore Parker (1810-1860)
A leading transcendentalist radical, he became known as "the keeper of the public's conscience." His advocating for social reform often put him in physical danger, though his causes later became popular
protectionism
the theory, practice, or system of fostering or developing domestic industries by protecting them from foreign competition through duties or quotas imposed on importations.
Humanitarian diplomacy
fought for human rights in Africa, Panama Canal returned to Panama, relations with China resolved
Han
A term used to designate (1) the ethnic Chinese people who originated in the Yellow River Valley and spread throughout regions of China suitable for agriculture and (2) the dynasty of emperors who ruled from 206 B.C.E. to 220 C.E. (p. 164)
greenbacks
Name for Union paper money not backed by gold or silver. Value would fluctuate depending on status of the war (plural)
Marshall Plan
U.S. plan that offered financial and other economic aid to all European states that had suffered from WWII, including Soviet bloc states.
Jihad
is an Arabic word meaning " striving in the way of God", but it is often translated as "holy war". Refer to an armed struggle fought in the defense of Islam to please Allah
Ronald Reagan
first elected president in 1980 and elected again in 1984. He ran on a campaign based on the common man and "populist" ideas. He served as governor of California from 1966-1974, and he participated in the McCarthy Communist scare. Iran released hostages on his Inauguration Day in 1980. While president, he developed Reagannomics, the trickle down effect of government incentives. He cut out many welfare and public works programs. He used the Strategic Defense Initiative to avoid conflict. His meetings with Gorbachev were the first steps to ending the Cold War. He was also responsible for the Iran-contra Affair which bought hostages with guns.
French revolution
This political revolution began with a peasant revolt in France in 1789. The French sought to limit the powers of the Catholic church, to weaken the power of the nobility and the monarch and strengthen the political voice of the common
Kilwa
Town on W African coast, wealthy & beautiful town , access to gold (Sofala) and most southern ship stop
Ivan the Terrible
(1533-1584) earned his nickname for his great acts of cruelty directed toward all those with whom he disagreed, even killing his own son. He became the first ruler to assume the title Czar of all Russia.
Russian Revolution
the coup d'etat by the Bolsheviks under Lenin in November 1917 that led to a period of civil war which ended in victory for the Bolsheviks in 1922
Triangular Trade
Commerce linking Africa, the New World colonies, and Europe; slaves carried to America for sugar and tobacco transported to Europe.
sovereignty
ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states
gunpowder
The formula, brought to China in the 400s or 500s, was first used to make fumigators to keep away insect pests and evil spirits. In later centuries it was used to make explosives and grenades and to propel cannonballs, shot, and bullets. (p. 289)
Teapot Dome Scandal
An unprecedented bribery scandal and investigation during the White House administration of United States President Warren G. Harding. Cabinet accepts bribes for oil deposits to different companies.
Four Noble Truths
Part of the Buddhist Doctrine:
1. Suffering is part of life
2. Desire is the result of suffering
3. Freedom from suffering can be achieved by the 8 fold path
4. The 8 fold path leads to nirvana
Washing Irving
- Got international recognition in the 1820’s as the nation’s first writer of importance to use American scenes and themes.
The Germans who immigrated here were called....
the 48ers
Rhode Island
Founded by separate groups of Puritans led by Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson, the colony became a haven for those who found Massachusetts Bay too restrictive.
bourgeoisie
In early modern Europe, the class of well-off town dwellers whose wealth came from manufacturing, finance, commerce, and allied professions. (p. 459)
Barbados Slave Code
law that gave masters complete control over their slaves
Schlieffen Plan
Germany's World War I plan of attack in which they would swiftly attack France and
then fight a defensive war against Russia.
William Bradford
A Pilgrim, the second governor of the Plymouth colony, 1621-1657. He developed private land ownership and helped colonists get out of debt. He helped the colony survive droughts, crop failures, and Indian attacks.
Zulu
a member of the tall Negroid people of southeast Africa living in northern Natal
Peter Stuyvesant
The governor of the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam, hated by the colonists. They surrendered the colony to the English on Sept. 8, 1664.
Public education, Horace Mann
Secretary of the newly formed Massachusetts Board of Education, he created a public school system in Massachusetts that became the model for the nation. Started the first American public schools, using European schools (Prussian military schools) as models.
Third World
Term applied to a group of developing countries who professed nonalignment during the Cold War. (p. 846)
Agricultural transition
A period when people started to take in and domesticate plants and animals. It started as early as 9000 BCE. Agriculture led to the development of advanced complex societies.
Muller v Oregon
1908 - Supreme Court upheld Oregon state restrictions on the working hours of women as justified by the special state interest in protecting women's health
John L Lewis
head of the united mine workers, couldn't get the AFL to do industrial unionism so he got up and walked out of the meeting and decked the head of the Carpenters Union, and started the Committee on Industrial Organization
Indian removal act
Ordered the removl of indian tribes still east of the mississippi to newly established indian territory west of arkansas and missouri.  Tribes resisting eviction were forcibly removed by American forces, often after prolonged legal or military battles.
Proclamation of 1763
forbade settlement west of the rivers running through the Appalachians
Supreme Court case that ruled the Congress’ implied powers made the National Bank constitutional, and that states did not have the power to tax a federal institution.
McCulloch v. Maryland
Annexation of Hawii
Use of Pearl Harbor- nazy Base and sugar
hawaii territory use
1452. Twenty-Fourth Amendment
1964 - It outlawed taxing voters, i.e. poll taxes, at presidential or congressional elections, as an effort to remove barriers to Black voters.
Bureau of Indian Affairs
to manage Indian removal to western lands, Congress approved the creation of a new government agency
Bartolome de Las Casas
First bishop of Chiapas, in southern Mexico. He devoted most of his life to protecting Amerindian peoples from exploitation. His major achievement was the New Laws of 1542, which limited the ability of Spanish settlers to compel Amerindians to labor, (476
King Cotton Diplomacy
The hope of southerners that access to Southern cotton was vital to the English and French textile industries would be able to counter the strength of British antislavery forces.
Political Structure; Reason for Collapse: Inca
dynastic emperor rigid class system lack of immunity to Afro Eurasian diseases like smallpox tributary states allied with Spanish
889. Great American Desert
Region between the Missouri River and the Rocky Mountains. Vast domain became accessible to Americans wishing to settle there. This region was called the "Great American Desert" in atlases published between 1820 and 1850, and many people were convinced this land was a Sahara habitable only to Indians. The phrase had been coined by Major Long during his exploration of the middle portion of the Louisiana Purchase region.
Necessary and Proper Clause
The part of the Constitution that allowed the government to do what is necessary and proper to keep the government strong, implied powers
1102. Versailles Conference, Versailles Treaty
The Palace of Versailles was the site of the signing of the peace treaty that ended WW I on June 28, 1919. Victorious Allies imposed punitive reparations on Germany.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
A measurement of the total goods and services produced within a country.
Railroad strike of 1877
On baltimore and ohio RR and ended when President hayes called out federal troops
What was the name of the treaty that ended the war?
treaty of versailles
Fugitive Slave Act
a law that made it a crime to help runaway slaves; allowed for the arrest of escaped slaves in areas where slavery was illegal and required their return to slaveholders
823. Rev. Russel Conwell, "Acres of Diamonds"
Baptist preacher whose famous speech said that hard work and thrift would lead to success.
the rise of guilds, which essentially served as jati
One of the biggest transformation of the caste system during this period was
360. Naval engagements in the War of 1812
The U.S. navy won some important battles on the Great Lakes but failed to break the British blockade of the U.S.
Egyptian city
Heliopolis
maharaja
a great raja
Neolithic Age
5,000-10,000 years ago
Mercantilism
Economic theory that stressed governments' promotion of limitation of imports from other nations and internal economics in order to improve tax revenues; popular during 17th and 18th centuries in Europe
Toleration
Originally, religious freedom granted by an established church to a religious minority
Troy
Site in northwest Anatolia, overlooking the Hellespont strait, where archaeologists have excavated a series of Bronze Age cities. One of these may have been destroyed by Greeks ca. 1200 B.C.E., as reported in Homer's epic poems. (p. 76)
 
 
 
 
62. Gilbert Tennant
 
 
 
 
William Tennant’s son. Developed a theology of revivalism.
Barbary pirates
Plundering pirates off the Mediterranean coast of Africa; President Thomas Jefferson's refusal to pay them tribute to protect American ships sparked an undeclared naval war with North African nations
Methodius
along with Cyril converted southern Russia/Balkans to Orthodox Christianity
ethnic
sharing distinctive cultural traits as a group in society
Hawaii
Taken over and annexed in 1900
Hipolito Irigoyen
Argentine politician, president of Argentina from 1916-1922 and 1928-1930. The first president elected by universal male suffrage, he began his presidency as a reformer, but later became conservative. leader of the radical party
Integral
forming an essential part of something
Ex: Slaves were an integral part of the economic system known as the triangular trade. (B.208)
Umma
community of the faithful within Islam, created degree of political unity
thomas paine
American Revolutionary leader and pamphleteer (born in England) who supported the American colonist's fight for independence and supported the French Revolution (1737-1809), Wrote Common Sense
Whisky Rebellion
Rebellion against Hamilton's Whisky tax by farmers who produced the product from surplus corn. It was ended without bloodshed and showed the strength of the Constitution.
Massachusetts Bay governor who proclaimed that his colony would be a “city upon a hill,” “a model of Christian charity” whose example would shame England into reforming the Church of England.
John Winthrop
Scopes Trial
John Scopes convicted for teaching Darwinism, Scopes found guilty
Thomas Edison
American inventor best known for inventing the electric light bulb, acoustic recording on wax cylinders, and motion pictures. (p. 703)
pottawatomie massacre
When John Brown (abolitionist) and followers murdered 5 pro-slavery settlers in Kansas then mutilated their bodies to scare other slave supporters and to keep slavery supporters from moving into Kansas.
Sahel
Belt south of the Sahara; literally 'coastland' in Arabic. (p. 215)
Alexander Hamilton
1789-1795; First Secretary of the Treasury. He advocated creation of a national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt .He was a 'founding father,' and author of the Federalist Papers. However, he is most popular for losing a duel with Aaron Burr that eventually cost him his life
berber
a cluster of related dialects that were once the major language of northern Africa west of Egypt
Hansa
Hanseatic League is also called as? The trading system allowed trading of grain, fish, furs, timber and pitch
Buddhism
a religion, originated in India by Buddha (Gautama) and later spreading to China, Burma, Japan, Tibet, and parts of southeast Asia, holding that life is full of suffering caused by desire and that the way to end this suffering is through enlightenment that enables one to halt the endless sequence of births and deaths to which one is otherwise subject.
Charles Darwin
English naturalist. He studied the plants and animals of South America and the Pacific islands, and in his book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859) set forth his theory of evolution. (p. 715)
Capitalism
an economic system in which investment in and ownership of the means of production, distribution, and exchange of wealth is made and maintained chiefly by private individuals or corporations, esp. as contrasted to cooperatively or state-owned means of wealth.
Merchant class
group of adventurous entrepreneurs who by the mid 18th century began to form a distinct class. They had protection from foreign competition, created markets with other countries.
Asian Tigers
Collective name for South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore-nations that became economic powers in the 1970s and 1980s. (p. 861)
Essex Junto
New England's merchants opposed the War of 1812 because it cut off trade with Great Britain. Critics of the war were mainly Federalists who represented New England. They were a group of extreme Federalists led by Aaron Burr who advocated New England's secession from the U.S.
Songhai
a Nilo-Saharan language spoken by the Songhai people in Mali and Niger
Indigo
Plant from which a bluish-purple dye is made
Boston Massacre
British soliders fired on crowd provking them, killing five. Propaganda campaign ensued leading colonists to believe bystanders were innocent, tensions mounted.
Confederation of 1867
Negotiated union of the formerly separate colonial governments of Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. This new Dominion of Canada with a central government in Ottawa is seen as the beginning of the Canadian nation.(p. 627)
Indian Civil Service
The elite professional class of officials who administered the government of British India. Originally composed exclusively of well-educated British men, it gradually added qualified Indians. (p. 661)
Antinomians
Those who oppose the rule of laws; followers of Anne Hutchinson
Cyrus McCormick
1831- invented mechanical reaper - for harvesting grain
Srivijaya
A state based on the Indonesian island of Sumatra, between the seventh and eleventh centuries C.E. It amassed wealth and power by a combination of selective adaptation of Indian technologies and concepts, and control of trade routes. (192)
Cause of Great Depression
European allies not repaying debt
What is the climate like in the islands of Japan?
Mild
Iran-Contra affair
Scandal including arms sales to the Middle East in order to send money to help the Contras in Nicaragua even though Congress had objected.
Homer
Greek writer; wrote the epic poems The Illiad and The Odyssey
Paleolithic
The period of the Stone Age associated with the evolution of humans. It predates the Neolithic period. (p. 11)
John Jacob Astor
United States capitalist (born in Germany) who made a fortune in fur trading (1763-1848)
Herman Melville
* an orphaned, ill-educated New Yorker who was on a whaler for 18 months
* his masterpiece Moby Dick wasn't popular because it was too depressing for the time period
* continued writing unprofitably and made a scanty living by being a customs inspector
* died in relative obscurity and poverty and was only properly recognized posthumously
Louisiana Purchase
The U.S., under Jefferson, bought the Louisiana territory from France, under the rule of Napoleon, in 1803. The U.S. paid $15 million for the Louisiana Purchase, and Napoleon gave up his empire in North America. The U.S. gained control of Mississippi trade route and doubled its size.
Ming Empire
Empire based in China that Zhu Yanzhang established after the overthrow of the Yuan Empire. The Ming emperor Yongle sponsored the building of the Forbidden City and the voyages of Zheng He. The later years of the Ming saw a slowdown in technological development and economic decline.
Nicolas Biddle
Director of the National Bank. He granted loans to congressmen and extended the powers of the National Bank.
 
 
 
276. Residence Act
 
 
 
 
Set the length of time which immigrants must live in the U.S. in order to become legal citizens.
MAI LAI
place where Lt. William Calley ordered the soldiers to put all the Vietnamese that were in that village in a ditch and to shoot them; we pretended nothing happened but Americans were outraged
dynasty
a sequence of rulers from the same family, stock, or group:
Shay's Rebellion
1786-87; a tax dispute in MA between Western farmers and Eastern elite bankers a) Farmers wanted to pay their taxes in paper money but the bankers said no because they only wanted to use coins- this led to a riot b) PROBLEM: the federal government cannot control the people in MA and the little army (1/3 of the rebels) were in Ohio protecting the border from the Indians c) Washington, Madison, Hamilton and others decided that they needed to revise Articles and create a stronger central government or America will fall apart d) 1787- Boston papers suggested in separating the 13 states
Atlantic Charter of 1941
World War II alliance agreement between the United States and Britain; included a clause that recognized the right of all people to choose the form of government under which the live; indicated sympathy for decolonization
262. Judiciary Act, 1789
Created the federal court system, allowed the president to create federal courts and to appoint judges.
Annexation of Texas
Texas seceded from Mexico and declared independence in response to Mexican abolition of slavery. US adopts/annexes Texas because Southern states support Texas slavery. The North fearded expansion of slavery and war with Mexico (see Mexican American War)
At the end of the Civil War, many white Southerners...
a. Reluctantly supported the federal government
b. Bean planning a new rebellion
c. Saw their former slaves in a new light
d. Asked for bardons so that they could once again hold political office and
e
spheres of influence
areas in which countries have some political and economic control but do not govern directly (ex. Europe and U.S. in China)
Lineage Groups
A clan in African Society, this was used to trace back into founding ancestors.
Roman Catholic Church
the Christian Church based in the Vatican and presided over by a pope and an episcopal hierarchy
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments to the Constitution made to protect individual freedoms from possible abuses by the centeral government, and state sovereignty.
Hartford Convention
Meeting of Federalists near the end of the War of 1812 in which the party listed its complaints against the ruling Republican Party. These actions were largley viewed as traitorous to the country and lost the Federalist much influence
VE Day
May 8, 1945; victory in Europe Day when the Germans surrendered
729. McKinley Tariff
A highly protective tariff passed in 1880. So high it caused a popular backlash which cost the Republicans votes.
MONICA LEWINSKY
had an affair with Clinton (he lied under oath) she was a white house intern)
British raj
The rule over much of South Asia between 1765 and 1947 by the East India Company and then by a British government. (p. 659)
Nat Turner
Slave from VA that led group of slaves to kill their slaves holders abd familes. Turner caught and executed on Nov.11, 1831. Slave states stricker control on slave population.
Foreign affairs with France
Treaty of Alliance issue; still want their $$$
Chandra Gupta I
In 320 B.C.E. who created the Gupta Dynasty?
scramble for africa
Sudden wave of conquests in Africa by European powers in the 1880s and 1890s. Britain obtained most of eastern Africa, France most of northwestern Africa. Other countries (Germany, Belgium, Portugal, Italy, and Spain) acquired lesser amounts. (p. 731)
The golden age of Greece came to and end after the
Peloponnesian War
Massachusetts Circular Letter
The MA Assembly sent out a letter (Massachusetts Circular Letter) to ask all other assemblies to protest in unison. Numerous protests and boycotts followed, their effectiveness buoyed by the large numbers of “common folk” who joined. After two years, in 1770, Parliament repealed the taxes imposed by the Townshend Acts, though everything else remained.
Mandate of Heaven
When the Chou overthrew the last Shang king, they had to convince the people, especially the nobles, that they had the right to rule. The Chou told people that the gods in heaven had told them that they were to rule. This was called "The Mandate of Heaven", heaven's orders. The Chou added that the gods had warned them that they would only rule as long as they were good rulers. If they became selfish, and thought of themselves first, before the people, that heaven would appoint another ruling family.The Mandate of Heaven is based on four principles: The right to rule is granted by Heaven. There is only one Heaven therefore there can be only one ruler. The right to rule is based on the virtue of the ruler. The right to rule is not limited to one dynasty.
The Dred Scott Decision
1857, a Supreme Court case which ruled that slaves are not citizens but are property. It affirmed that property cannot be interfered with by Congress and slaves do not become free if they travel to free territories or states. This fueled abolitionist movement and was hailed a victory for the South
Maine Laws
Passed in 1851 - first big step in the Temperance Movement - outlawed sale of alcohol except for medical purposes (in Maine)
The Changing Family
* Women began to work
* Families grew smaller
* Less arranged marriages
* Contraceptives were primitive
* Less beatings, but still punished
1480. Election of 1960: issues, candidates, "Missile gap"
Kennedy, the Democrat, won 303 electoral votes, Nixon, the Republican, won 219 electoral votes, Byrd, the Independent, won 15 electoral votes. Kennedy and Nixon split the popular vote almost 50/50, with Kennedy winning by 118,000. The issues were discussed in televised debates. The "Missile gap" referred to the U.S. military claim that the U.S.S.R. had more nuclear missiles that the U.S., creating a "gap" in U.S. defensive capabilities.
John Winthrop (1588-1649), his beliefs
1629- He became the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay colony, and served in that capacity from 1630 through 1649. A Puritan with strong religious beliefs. He opposed total democracy, believing the colony was best governed by a small group of skillful leaders. He helped organize the New England Confederation in 1643 and served as its first president.
the tariff, the banks, the trusts
The three components of the "triple wall of privilege" which Wilson advocated against.
"Organizer of Victory" and the "Great Commoner"
Two nicknames given to William Pitt
1416. Korean War (1950-1953)
At the end of WW II, Korea had been divided into a northern sector occupied by the U.S.S.R. and a southern sector occupied by the U.S. who instituted a democratic government. On June 25, 1950, the North invaded the South. The United Nations created an international army, lead by the U.S. to fight for the South and China joined the war on the side of North Korea. This was the first time the United Nations had intervened militarily.
what did james jeffords of vermont do that greatly affected bush's ability to pass the legislation he wanted?
he made the balanced senate mostly democratic by cutting his ties to republican bush dividing choices. that left bush with a problem of passing his desired legislation since there was now a democratic majority in the senate
Cartographer
Map maker
conquistadors
Early-sixteenth-century Spanish adventurers who conquered Mexico, Central America, and Peru. (See Cortés, Hernán; Pizarro, Francisco.) (p. 436)
Mark Hanna
Ohio industrialist
Organized McKinley's victory over Bryan by rallying businessmen to pay for campaigning for McKinley
National Assembly
French Revolutionary assembly (1789-1791). Called first as the Estates General, the three estates came together and demanded radical change. It passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man in 1789. (p. 585)
Secessionists supported leaving the Union because
a. they were dismayed by the success of the Republican party
b. they believed that the North would not oppose their departure
c. the political balance seemed to be tipping against them
d. they were tired o
e
Tanzimat
'Restructuring' reforms by the nineteenth-century Ottoman rulers, intended to move civil law away from the control of religious elites and make the military and the bureacracy more efficient. (p. 678)
1887
Date of Dawes Severity Act
SALT
(RN), Strategic Arms Limitation Talks- A pact that served to freeze the numbers of long-range nuclear missles for five years in 1972. This treaty between Nixon (U.S.), China, and the Soviet Union served to slow the arms race that had been going on between these nations since World War II.
insurrectos
Name for Cuban insurgents fighting Spanish rule. They utilized a destructive scorched-earth policy.
Haciendas
Prominent sites of agriculture, large private estates
proprietor
government of new colonies delegated by king
Brunelleschi
artist, during Ren., painted in "perspective"- depiction of distance and space on a flat surface
New Imperialism
Historians' term for the late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century wave of conquests by European powers, the United States, and Japan, which were followed by the development and exploitation of the newly conquered territories. (p. 726)
Sappho was
the most influential greek poet
slave plantation system
repelled immigration in south
 
profitable for the great planters, but not overall economic development
 
majority of slave owners were small farmers
It made compulsory campaign contributions from federal employees illegal and it established the Civil Service Commission to make appointments to federal jobs on the basis of competitive examinations rather than "pull"
Pendleton Act
John Winthrop
1st governor of Massachusettes Bay colony, was a lawyer who believed he was called by God to lead new experiment- goal: build holy society
Perestroika
Policy of 'openness' that was the centerpiece of Mikhail Gorbachev's efforts to liberalize communism in the Soviet Union. (See also Gorbachev, Mikhail.) (p. 863)
Yaroslav
last of Kievan monarchs who issued legal codification based on codes from Byzantine empire
Who is the most influential post Confucian philosopher who served as chief spokesman for Kong Fuzi?
Mencius
carpetbaggers
term for Northerners who moved south after the Civil War
Placerville
A location between San Francisco and Lake Tahoe where an innocent man proved himself not guilty by ordering fried oysters
cuneiform
an ancient wedge-shaped script used in Mesopotamia and Persia
Cyrus II
Created the Persian Empire by defeating the Medes, Lydians, and Babylonians; was known for his allowance of existing governments to continue governing under his name
Silk Road
Caravan routes connecting China and the Middle East across Central Asia and Iran. (p. 203)
Athens
the capital and largest city of Greece
First Triumverate
pompey, Crasses and Caesar. Caesar conquered Gaul and other parts of Europe - but NOT germany. War led to Caesar pushing pompey and crassus out of the picture and becoming emperor for life.
Robert Fulton
American inventor who designed the first commercially successful steamboat and the first steam warship (1765-1815)
Pearl Harbor
A surprise military strike conducted by the Imperial Japanese Navy against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, on the morning of December 7, 1941. The attack was intended as a preventive action in order to keep the U.S. Pacific Fleet from interfering with military actions the Empire of Japan was planning in Southeast Asia against overseas territories of the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and the United States.
Netherlands
The most prosperous country in Europe in the 17th century
Federal Farm Board
-Hoover
-authorized to stablize prices by temporarily holding surplus grain and cotton in storage
-to modest to handle continued overproduction of farm goods
Wilson-Gorman Tariff
Did not have Cleveland’s approval. It did have a modest income tax of 12% on all income over $4000, but the Supreme Court declared it unconstitutional.
Hammurabi
Amorite ruler of Babylon (r. 1792-1750 B.C.E.). He conquered many city-states in southern and northern Mesopotamia and is best known for a code of laws, inscribed on a black stone pillar, illustrating the principles to be used in legal cases. (p. 34)
Federal Trade Commision
A government agency established in 1914 to prevent unfair business practices and help maintain a competitive economy
satraps
The governor of a province in the ancient Persian Empire
Nation-state
A sovereign state whose people share a common culture and national identity
national debt
the amount of money a national government owes to other governments or its people
Alexander Nevski
Prince of Novgorod (r. 1236-1263). He submitted to the invading Mongols in 1240 and received recognition as the leader of the Russian princes under the Golden Horde. (p. 339)
Wobblies
Industrial Workers of the World (aka I won't works) did not support war, these workers victims of worst working conditions in country (fruit & lumber)
Democracy
A government by the people based on economic, social, or professional standing.
Johannes Kepler
Assistant to Brahe; used Brahe's data to prove that the earth moved in an elliptical, not circular, orbit; Wrote 3 laws of planetary motion based on mechanical relationships and accurately predicted movements of planets in a sun-centered universe; Demolished old systems of Aristotle and Ptolemy
middle kingdom
no more pyramids, pharoh had less power, & they traded with outside countries
Crusades
Armed pilgrimages to the Holy Land by Christians determined to recover Jerusalem from Muslim rule. The Crusades brought an end to western Europe's centuries of intellectual and cultural isolation. (p. 270)
berbers
a member of a North African, primarily Muslim people living in settled or nomadic tribes from Morocco to Egypt
Treaty of Gijanti
signed in 1757; reduced remaining javanese princes to vassals of dutch east india trading company.
Oligarchy
form of government in which a few people have the power
Ernest Hemingway
a popular author who criticized WW2, wrote novels such as For Whom the Bell Tolls glorifying desertion of the military 7: 1934-1941
Louise Pasteur
discovered bacteria and germs and that they can create disease.
William D. Haywood
IWW leader who was arrested, convicted, and sent to prison because the their freedom of speech was harmful to the nation
Navigation Acts
The 1633 Navication Act required that all goods going to the British colonies had to be routed through England. Parliament passed a restriction in 1651 that all goods imported into either England or the colonies had to be on English ships. European goods were excluded. In 1660 new requirements were added: ship's crews had to be three-quarters English and certain goods were to go only to England or the colonies. These included tobacco, cotton, indigo, ginger, sugar, and later rice, hemp, masts/spars, and furs.
francis ferdinand
archduke of Austria: heir apparent to the thrones of Austria and Hungary whose assassination precipitated the outbreak of World War I (nephew of Francis Joseph I).
Demographic Transition
A change in the rates of population growth. Before the transition, both birth and death rates are high, resulting in a slowly growing population; then the death rate drops but the birth rate remains high, causing a population explosion. (867)
missouri compromise
Allowed Missouri to enter the union as a slave state, Maine to enter the union as a free state, prohibited slavery north of latitude 36˚ 30' within the Louisiana Territory (1820)
834. Chautauqua Movement
One of the first adult education programs. Started in 1874 as a summer training program for Sunday School teachers, it developed into a travelling lecture series and adult summer school which traversed the country providing religious and secular education though lectures and classes.
End of F&A War
Britain most powerful European nation. France had few colonies left in Western Hempishere. France lost war b/c of its colonial population.
Esch Cummins Act*
(WW) 1920, railroads given to private operations, now US digresses from railroad and more into automobiles and ships
Meat Inspection Act
1906; passed by Roosevelt as a response to Sinclair's book The Jungle; decreed that the preparation of meat shipped over state lines would be subject to federal inspection from corral to can
stay laws, land speculation, and bank foreclosures resulted in
panic of 1819
The Harlem Renaissance
This was an outpouring of black literature, it centered on experiences of blacks in Northern cities and the rural south
vladimir 1
prince in kievan rus from 980-1015 who forced christianity on his people, starting the russian orthodox church
Buchanan Pakenham Treaty
In 1846, they negotiated the dispute of the Oregon boundaries, stemming from the Treaty of 1818 in which both U.S. and British settlers were granted free navigation of the territory.
Civil Service Exam
in China, exam based on Confucian teachings to get into government positions
809. Literacy tests
Immigrants were required to pass a literacy test in order to gain citizenship. Many immigrants were uneducated or non-English-speakers, so they could not pass. Meant to discourage immigration.
56 delegates (2)
Number of delegates to sign the Declaration of Independence (How many were former indentured servants?)
George Bancroft
He was the secretary of the navy. Took part in the founding of Annapolis naval academy. The Father of American history because he published six volumes of US history showing patriotism and nationalism.
Webster's reply to Hayne
people, not states, had framed the constitution, decried nullification. Supreme Court must judge constitutionalist of laws. If all the states could ignore any federal statutes, the union would be a "rope of sand", " Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable"
Third Rome
this was in response to the fall of the Byzantine Empire and Ivan Great's desire to make Moscow the new center of the Orthodox Church
Otto the Great
King of the Germans and arguably the first Holy Roman Emperor
Age of Reason
a movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions
Phineas T. Barnum
was an American showman who is best remembered for his entertaining hoaxes and for founding the circus that eventually became the Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus. He was a businessman above all else, his profession was pure entertainment,
311. Pickney’s Treaty
1795 - Treaty between the U.S. and Spain which gave the U.S. the right to transport goods on the Mississippi river and to store goods in the Spanish port of New Orleans.
The Bolsheviks, led by Lenin, signed the ______, giving away 1/3 of Russia's population in Eastern Europe to Germany in exchange for ending World WAr I.
Traty of Brest Litovsk
Conquest of the Aztec
Cortés heard of this rich empire and pushed towards the capital of Tenochtitlan. The emperor Moctezuma II tried to use diplomacy rather than warfare, but they took him prisoner, looted his treasury, interfered with the city's religious rituals, and massacred hundreds. The people tried a rebellion, and in the confusion, Moctezuma was killed. An epidemic of smallpox also killed many.
Hawley Smoot Tariff
(HH) 1930 , charged a high tax for imports thereby leading to less trade between America and foreign countries along with some economic retaliatio, HIGHEST EVER
Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla
Mexican priest who led the first stage of the Mexican independence war in 1810. He was captured and executed in 1811. (p. 625)
446. Margaret Fuller (1810-1815), The Dial
Social reformer, leader in women's movement and a transcendentalist. Edited The Dial (1840-1842), which was the puplication of the transcendentalists. It appealed to people who wanted "perfect freedom", "progress in philosophy and theology . . . and hope that the future will not always be as the past."
Martin Luther King Jr.
He was one of the pivotal leaders of the American civil rights movement. He led the Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955-1956) and helped found the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (1957), serving as its first president. He delivered his famous "I Have a Dream" speech.
rev. increase mather
Put an end to the mass hysteria of the witch trials. Remaining people in jail were released or found innocent.
What is chattel slavery?
It is the ownership as property of one human being by another.
48. New York: Dutch, 1664 English
New York belonged to the Dutch, but King Charles II gave the land to his brother, the Duke of York in 1664. When the British came to take the colony, the Dutch, who hated their Governor Stuyvesant, quickly surrendered to them. The Dutch retook the colony in 1673, but the British regained it in 1674.
How did US radio stations differ from that of the Europeans?
They were not government sponsered and therefore relied on advertisement to create revenue
Mansa Musa
...
Shogun
Military governor of Japan
Octavian Augustus
Rome's first true emperor
Modern Republicanism
Eisenhower's government plan: "conservative when it comes to economics, more Liberal when it comes to social programs "
dark-skinned speakers of Dravidian languages
Dasas
Jawaharial Nehru
Indian statesman. He succeeded Mohandas K. Gandhi as leader of the Indian National Congress. He negotiated the end of British colonial rule in India and became India's first prime minister (1947-1964). (p. 815)
Arabesque
Complex designs typical of Islamic art, combining intertwining plants and geometric patterns
Islam
Religion expounded by the Prophet Muhammad (570-632 C.E.) on the basis of his reception of divine revelations, which were collected after his death into the Quran. (231)
Zhu Xi
definition: (1130-1200) Most prominent of neo-Confucian scholars during the Song dynasty in China
significance: demonstrated the influence of Buddhism
Separatists, non-separatists
Non-separatists (which included the Puritans) believed that the Church of England could be purified through reforms. Separatists (which included the Pilgrims) believed that the Church of England could not be reformed, and so started their own congregations.
Committees of Correspondence
Committees of Correspondence, organized by patriot leader Samuel Adams, was a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies. They provided the organization necessary to unite the colonies in opposition to Parliament. The committees sent delegates to the First Continental Congress.
Langston Hughes
an American novelist, playwright, short story writer, and columnist. He was one of the earliest innovators of the new literary art form jazz poetry. Hughes is best-known for his work during the Harlem Renaissance. He famously wrote about the period that "Harlem was in vogue".
Renaissance
literally means a "rebirth of learning".
united nations
an international organization, with headquarters in New York City, formed to promote international peace, security, and cooperation under the terms of the charter signed by 51 founding countries in San Francisco in 1945.
Henry the Navigator
(1394-1460) Portuguese prince who promoted the study of navigation and directed voyages of exploration down the western coast of Africa. (p. 425)
Château-Thierry
Battle where Americans saw their first serious action; helped turn back a German offensive on the Marne River in June 1918
Thomas Gallaudet 1817
studied techniques for instructing hearing impaired people and established the first american school for the hearing impaired
Seventeenth Amendment
This amendment to the Constitution established the direct election of US Senators. It was established in 1913.
Fascist Party
Italian political party created by Benito Mussolini during World War I. It emphasized aggressive nationalism and was Mussolini's instrument for the creation of a dictatorship in Italy from 1922 to 1943. (See also Mussolini, Benito.) (p. 786)
Zhenghe
Chinese admiral who led seven overseas trade expeditions under Ming emperor Yunglo between 1405 and 1423; demonstrated that the Chinese were capable of major ocean exploration
Sicily
During the Punic Wars, the Romans first fought the Carthaginians over the most important source of grain in the western Mediterranean. Where was is?
Balboa
1st European to sail to Pacific Ocean
John Locke
English philosopher who advocated idea that all people have unalienable rights: life, liberty, and pursuit of happiness; stated that any government that abused these rights was invalid.
Song Empire
Empire in southern China (1127-1279; the 'Southern Song') while the Jin people controlled the north. Distinguished for its advances in technology, medicine, astronomy, and mathematics. (p. 285)
Celts
Peoples sharing a common language and culture that originated in Central Europe in the first half of the first millennium B.C.E.. After 500 B.C.E. they spread as far as Anatolia in the east, Spain and the British Isles in the west, onquered by Romans (90)
Mexica Priests
read omens, presided over rituals, monitored calendar; advised rulers, occationally became supreme warriors
muhammad
the Arab prophet who founded Islam (570-632)
Bank War
Jackson though Bank was monopolistic, Biddle had unconstitutional amount of power. Clay pushed renewing bank to election so Jackosn would isolate either wealthy or poor. Jacon vetos bank, wealthy= minority, wins election of 1832
joseph canon
..., leading conservative Speaker of the House who Taft would not reduce the power of
Book of Walt Whitman's poetry
Leaves of Grass
Minute Men
late 18th century, rapidly mobilized colonial militiamen whose refusal to disperse sparked the first battle of the revolution
"Corrupt Bargain"
When the 1824 election ended without any candidate receiving a majority in the Electoral College, the House of Representatives awarded the election to John Quincy Adams. Andrew Jackson's outraged supporters claimed that a corrupt bargain had been struck whereby Henry Clay supported Adams in the House vote in return for the office of secretary of state. The corrupt bargain later resulted in Andrew Jackson being elected in the election of 1828 in a landslide because rigorous campaigning on how unfair it was that he had won the popular vote but Adams had been elected becoming the first minority president.
First Continental Railroad
(USG) Central Pacific Railroad, Union Pacific, Irish and Chinese, meets at Promontory Point, Utah
mercenaries
Soldiers who fight for money, not for any specific nation or cause.
480. Nativism
An anti-foreign feeling that arose in the 1840's and 1850's in response to the influx of Irish and German Catholics.
National Bank Act
Passed Feb. 1863, established criteria by which a bank could obtain a federal charter and issue national bank noes. - Gave private bankers an incentive to purchase war bonds. -reflected experience and northern political cohesion in wartime
Brain Trust
a group of young college professors with innovative ideas about the economy and government that wrote FDR's speeches
Liberal Republicans*
(USG) , wanted to end Reconstruction, sought honest government, and the riding of "grantism', so they nominated Greeley as their candidate. The Democratic Party had also chosen Greeley, hoping that Grant would be defeated if they united against him. But Regular Republicans renominated Grant. The Republicans controlled enough Black votes to gain victory for Grant.
St. Scholastica
Who spread the Benedictine rule to women living in convents?
Indus River
a prosperous urban civilization and it formed around 2500 BCE; supported several large cities including Harappa and Mohenjo Daro; the houses even had running water; developed their own distinctive alphabet alphabet and artistic form;
Liluokalani
was the last reigning monarch of the Hawaiian islands. She felt her mission was to preserve the islands for their native residents. In 1898, Hawaii was annexed to the United States and she was forced to give up her throne.
chain gang
a group of prisoners chained together when working
Separatists
sect of Puritanism that did not want the "saints" to go to church with the "damned" (as was the case with the Church of England); broke away from the Church of England
American Colonization Society
Created in 1817; proposed gradual freeing of slaves and transportation back to Africa to establish their own society.
Wounded Knee
Zealous whites tried to stamp out Sioux "Ghost Dance". 200 Dakota Sioux killed
theodore dreiser
..., American naturalist who wrote The Financier and The Titan. Like Riis, he helped reveal the poor conditions people in the slums faced and influenced reforms.
Benjamin Harrison beat Grover Cleveland... In 1892, Grove makes a comeback
Outline election of 1888
Monopolies
It is defined as a persistent market situation where there is only one provider of a product or service. Monopolies are characterized by a lack of economic competition for the good or service that they provide and a lack of viable substitute goods.
pious
having or showing a dutiful spirit of reverence for God or an earnest wish to fulfill religious obligations.
Shogunate system
the system of government in Japan in which the emperor exercised only titular authority while the shogun exercised actual political power
Free Market
an economic system in which prices and wages are determined by unrestricted competition between businesses, without government regulation or fear of monopolies.
Francisco "Pacho" Villa
former ranchhand who led taking of land in Mexico
Fletcher v. Peck 1810
Members of Georgia legislature were bribed to sell 35 mil acres cheaply to private speculators. Next year new Georgia legislature rescinded sale. Case taken to Supreme Court, Marshal ruled original sale a legal contract - even if fraudulent - and was protected by Constitution. Was SIGNIFICANT b/c: protected property rights against popular pressures and asserted the Supreme Court's right to invalidate state laws that conflicted with Constitution.
Germany
defeated Austria in 1864 in a war for leadership of the German States. Germany joined together after victory in Franco-prussian war. Became industrial powerhouse and working class grew larger. gov't was conservative
Baghdad
Capital city of Iraq. As heart of the Arab Empire, it was second only to Constantinople in terms of size and grandeur in 1000 C.E.
Declaration of Independence
the document authored mostly by Thomas Jefferson recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress which was on 4 July 1776 asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain
Berlin and Milan Decrees
issued by Napoleon stating that neutral ships trading with Britain or obeying the Orders in Council could be seized
William Lloyd Garrison
1831 Issues first edition of the "Liberator" an abolitionist newspaper
Lunch counter sit-ins
A form of protest that involves occupying seats or sitting down on the floor of an establishment
judge landis
..., an American jurist who served as a federal judge from 1905 to 1922, and subsequently as the first commissioner of Major League Baseball
Chateau - Thierry
1918, French Marshal Foch led American troops for the first time and pushed Germans back
Eugene McCarthy
Was challenging Johnson and had a good chance of winning until Robert Kennedy decided to run.
Open Door note
This message was written by John Hay and sent to the major world powers operating spheres of influence in China. It urged them to announce that they would respect certain Chinese rights and the ideal of fair competition. Only Italy accepted it unconditionally, and Britain, German, France and Japan accepted on the terms that everyone else did. Russia politely refused, but Hay cleverly interpreted its answer as an acceptance.
459. Charles G. Finney (1792-1875)
An immensely successful revivalist of the 1800's. He helped establish the "Oberlin Theology". His emphasis on "disinterested benevolence" helped shape the main charitable enterprises of the time.
Military Reconstruction Act of 1867
became final plan for reconstruction and identified the new conditions under which the southern gov would be formed. Tennessee was exempt b/c it ratified the 14th amendment. It divided the CSA into 5 military districted each occupied by a Union general and his troops. They had the power to maintain order and protect the civil rights of all persons. Had to ratify 14thamendment for military occupation to leave.
Victor Emmanuel III
King of Italy from 1900-1946, was the king who gave Mussolini the right to rule.
identy african americans developed during the 18th century was
intiallly based on common religion that the slaves brought with them from africa
Griswold v. Connecticut
A landmark case in which the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that the Constitution protected a right to privacy. The case involved a Connecticut law that prohibited the use of contraceptives. By a vote of 7-2, the Supreme Court invalidated the law on the grounds that it violated the "right to marital privacy".
13. Anne Hutchinson, Antinomianism
She preached the idea that God communicated directly to individuals instead of through the church elders. She was forced to leave Massachusetts in 1637. Her followers (the Antinomianists) founded the colony of New Hampshire in 1639.
Minutemen
Men who were supposed to be ready in a moment's notice to defend the nation
1079. Loans to the Allies
During WWII, loans were offered under the Lend-Lease Act, which became law March 11, 1914. The U.S. spent $54 billion.
clear and strict laws
Shang Yang and Han Feizi hoped to control China's subjects by
Treaty of San Ildefonso (1800)
In this treaty, Spain ceded the Louisiana Territory to France, which was fast rising under Napoleon.
 
 
 
 
38. Georgia: reasons, successes
 
 
1733 - Georgia was formed as a buffer between the Carolinas and Spanish-held Florida. It was a military-style colony, but also served as a haven for the poor, criminals, and persecuted Protestants.
1547. Six Day War, 1967
Israel responded to a blockade of the port of Elath on the Gulf of Aqaba by Egypt in June, 1967, by launching attacks on Egypt, and its allies, Jordan and Syria. Won certain territories for defense.
How did the farmers alliance differ from the grange
formed in South, Northwest- like Grange focused on local problems (co-op banks, processing plants) but also larger goal to create society of cooperation. Like Grange cooperatives not very successful, harnessed frustrations into creating national political organization 1880s
1144. T.S. Elliot, "The Waste Land"
One of the most influential poets of the early 20th century, he had been born in St. Louis, Missouri, but moved to England after college and spent his adult life in Europe. The poem, written in 1922, contrasts the spiritual bankruptcy of modern Europe with the values and unity of the past. Displayed profound despair. Considered the foundation of modernist, 20th century poetry.
Who challenges Diaz in the election? Who "wins'?
madero; the election was rigged in diaz's favor
federal aid to both public and parochial schools
made education fair and work for all - LBJ helps parochial unlike Kennedy who wouldn't touch them because they were Catholic
Diocletian
Roman emperor
insatiable
constantly wanting more
Niccolo Macniavelli
wrote The Prince
Jefferson
-keep national bank
-Louisiana Purchase
-smaller army
-Democratic-Republican
-Anti-Federalist
-Free trade over mercantilism
Wazir
chief administrative official under the Abbasid caliphate; initially recruited from Persian provinces of Empire
Tribunes
plebeian officials elected annually during the Roman republic.
Sufis
(750-1258) abbasid dynasty, islamic mysitcs were missionaries converting people to islam to make empire more adaptable to more situations, stressed a personal relationship with god
Thomas Jefferson
1801-1809, Republican, split Federalist Party (Jay Treaty and Impressment hurt), against Aaron Burr, issue = Alien and Sedition Act and relation with France and England
cientificos
Advisors of government of Porfirio Díaz who were strongly influenced by positivist ideas; permitted government to project image of modernization.
Chavin
First major urban civilization in South America. Capital is de Huantar, was located in the Andes Mountains of Peru. Has 2 distinct ecological zones, the Peruvian Costal Plain and the Andean Foothills.
Creoles
descendents of Spanish-born BUT born in Latin America; resented inferior social, political, economic status
Marco Polo
Italian explorer who introduced Europeans to Central Asia and China, from his travels throughout there.
Robespierre
radical Jacobin who dominated the convention;
ruthless, "the incorruptible"
Tenochtitlan
definition: capital of the Aztec Empire, located on an island in Lake Texcoco; population was about 150,000 on the eve of Spanish conquest; Mexico City was constructed on its ruins.
significance: Demonstrated Aztec ingeniuity
Nobunaga
(1534-1582) Japenese daimyo; first to make extensive use of firearms; in 1573 deposed last of Ashikaga shoguns; unified much of central Honshu under his command
War of 1812
(JM), 1812-1815, Resulted from Britain's support of Indian hostilities along the frontier, interference with American trade, and impressments of American sailors into the British army (Leopard on Chesapeake) (1812 - 1815), Embargo Act
Ibn Khaldun
A Muslim historian; developed concept that dynasties of nomadic conquerors had a cycle of three generations-strong, weak, dissolute.
Swazi
Native African state formed on the model of Zulu chiefdon, survived mfecane
Middle Passage
The journey from Africa to America.
Francisco Madero
Moderate democratic reformer in Mexico who proposed moderate reforms in 1910 and initiated a revolution against Porfirio Diaz
6.6 Kaiser Wilhelm II
Leader of Germany, auristocratic
Dust Bowl
Windy topsoil triggers massive Dust clouds which turn into Dust Bowel
Great Awakening
Religious revival in the American colonies of the eighteenth century during which a number of new Protestant churches were established.
6th century BCE
Date: Origin of Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism
(Hint "___ century BCE")
rural
living in or characteristic of farming or country life
Roger Williams
A dissenter, Roger Williams clashed with Massachusetts Puritans over the issue of separation of church and state. After being banished from Massachusetts in 1636, he traveled south, where he founded the colony of Rhode Island, which granted full religious freedom to its inhabitants.
Scientific Revolution
new vision of science (developed during 17th and 18th centuries); relied on reason
Janissaries
Balkan Christians captured as boys who became skilled soldiers
nations 100th birthday was celebrated on july 4th 1876 with a
centennial exposition
American Revolution
Rebellion of English American colonies along Atlantic seaboard between 1775 and 1783; resulted in independence for former British colonies and eventual formation of United States of America
intrigue
a secret scheme or plot
Ex: For most of the 1800s, Britain and Russia were locked in an intense campaign of espionage and diplomatic intrigue known as the Great Game, a term coined by the poet Rudyard Kipling. (C.253)
Ho Chi Minh
-1950s and 60s
-communist leader of North Vietnam
-used geurilla warfare to fight anti-comunist, American-funded attacks under the Truman Doctrine
-brilliant strategy drew out war and made it unwinnable
DeWItt Clinton
Gov of NY who built Erie Canal
Xuanzang
young Buddhist monk who decided to go to India and visit the holy sites of Buddhism and learn about his faith; crossed 3 mountain ranges: the Tian Shan, Hindu Kush, and Pamir ranges; translated Buddhist treatises into Chinese and promoted his fait
Napoleon
Losing the war with the rest of Europe, he didn't want his American colonies to be taken over by the french or the british, so he sold them to the US for 15 million dollars (3 cents/acre).
conversion
a change from lack of faith to religious belief
Tom Watson
First stood up for blacks' rights, but, after a break from the political world, condemned blacks for conspiring against poor whites.
Hubert Humphrey
Wanted large armed force for Vietnam in 1968 election; Democrats divided, lose
Beringia
an ancient land bridge over which the earliest Americans are believed to have migrated from Asia into the Americas
Comfort girls
Women forced into prostitution by the Japanese during WWII. The women came from countries in East and Southeast Asia as Japan's empire expanded.
Election of 1860
Lincoln, the Republican candidate, won because the Democratic party was split over slavery. As a result, the South no longer felt like it has a voice in politics and a number of states seceded from the Union.
Poor Richards Almanack
by Benjamin Franklin (1732-1758) it contained many sayings called from the thinkers of the ages, emphazised such homespun virtues as thrift, industry, morality and common sense. Was well known in Europe and was more widely read in America than anything except the Bible.
Sui Wendi
reunited the North and South, founder of Sui dynasty, encouraged economical and political developement, under him society was peaceful and stable
Intolerable Acts
british reaction to boston tea party. includes boston port act in which the port is closed until damages are paid
napoleon bonaparte
1. used his reputation and popularity to overthrow the directory and eclared himself the first consul under the fourth constitution.
2. instituted many enlightened-style reforms in france, but he is best known for trying to expand frances empire.
it was established to provide meals, jobs, and schooling for former slaves
freedmend bureau
Atlantic Charter
1941-Pledge signed by US president FDR and British prime minister Winston Churchill not to acquire new territory as a result of WWII amd to work for peace after the war
War Hawks
(JM), Henry Clay and Calhoun, one of the members of congress from the south and the west who called for war with Britian prior to the war of 1812
Pendleton Act
1883 law that created a Civil Service Commission and stated that federal employees could not be required to contribute to campaign funds nor be fired for political reasons
field matrons
In the 1890's, these women were sent to the reservations to teach Indian women the art of sewing, and to teach chastity and hygiene.
Mutually Assured Destruction
a doctrine of military strategy in which a full-scale use of nuclear weapons by two opposing sides would effectively result in the destruction of both the attacker and the defender.[
123. Paxton Boys
A mob of Pennsylvania frontiersmen led by the Paxtons who massacred a group of non-hostile Indians.
Dominion of New England
Royal administration to more tightly connect the colonies to England
Twelve Tables
Completed in 449 BCE, these civil laws developed by the Roman Republic to protect individual following demands by plebeians.
William the Conqueror
Creates the Domesday Book and gave each knight a fief
Teller Amendment
April 1896 - U.S. declared Cuba free from Spain, but this amendment disclaimed any American intention to annex Cuba
Booker T. Washington
Booker T. Washington was an advocate for education for African Americans and gave a speech named the Atlantic Compromise. He inspired blacks to get an education and offered a challenge to people who wanted to discriminate against the idea.
Fuel Administration!!!
(WW) , Harry Garfield, Like the Food Administration, the Fuel Administration encouraged Americans to save fuel with "heatless Mondays" and "gasless Sundays." The actions helped create a sum of $21 billion to pay for the war.
Indian Removal Bill
(RBH), put down of Sioux uprising in Minnesota and the Dakota (last tribe)
Tea Act
This Act gave the East India Company a monopoly on the trade in tea, made it illegal for the colonies to buy non-British tea, and forced the colonies to pay the tea tax of 3 cents/pound.
Act of Religious Tolerance
1649- passed because 2/3 of Maryland was protestant, said a person could be any religion they wanted as long as the religion acknowledged the trinity
Cold War
A conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted eachother on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years.
Homestead Act
1862 - provided free land in the west as long as the person would settle there and make improvements in five years
muhammad ali jinnah
1. led a movement to partition the newly independant subcontinent of india so that he and his followers could form a seperate muslim nation in the northern region, where islam had become the dominant religion.
2. convinced the british to partition the region, creating the countries of india and pakistan and east pakistan.
Battle of Omdurman
British victory over the Mahdi in the Sudan in 1898. General Kitchener led a mixed force of British and Egyptian troops armed with rapid-firing rifles and machine guns.
Olney's corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
Issued when British Guiana and Venezuela disagree on boundary dispute. Says US is international law in the hemisphere
464. William Seward -
Senator from New York who was for anti-slavery, was very religious, and would not compromise; he later became a rival for the presidency; when Lincoln's won the presidency, he became Secretary of State; he Lincoln to wait until a Union victory (Antietam) before announcing the Emancipation Proclamation, 1867 - An eager expansionist, he was the energetic supporter of the Alaskan purchase and negotiator of the deal often called "Seward's Folly" because Alaska was not fit for settlement or farming.
New Economic Policy
(RN), Phase 1, at least 90 days, phase 2, wage and price controls for 90 day period, rate of inflation incresae of 2% to 3%. wage gains through collective bargaining were cut of labor members, which was unfair since there were no provisions for cutting profits.
Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge
1837) interest of community are above corporate rights case settled a dispute over the constitutional clause regarding obligation of contract
the passage of the quebec act aroused intense american fears because
it extended catholic jurisdiction and a nonjury judicial system into the western ohio country
The the founders, what was the main difference between a federal union and a national union
the degree of power given to the central govt
/ 394
Term:
Definition:
Definition:

Leave a Comment ({[ getComments().length ]})

Comments ({[ getComments().length ]})

{[comment.username]}

{[ comment.comment ]}

View All {[ getComments().length ]} Comments
Ask a homework question - tutors are online