AP US History 5 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
paleontologists
fossils
virgil
a Roman poet
Classical India
began 1500 BCE
Triple Alliance
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
Confucius
Chinese philosopher (circa 551-478 BC)
exterminate
To kill in wholesale fashion.
universities
Degree-granting institutions of higher learning. Those that appeared in Latin West from about 1200 onward became the model of all modern universities. (p. 407)
Bannermen
Hereditary military servants of the Qing Empire, in large part descendants of peoples of various origins who had fought for the founders of the empire. (p. 684)
zaibatsu
Huge industrial combines created in Japan in the 1890s as part of the process of industrialization
Witchcraft hysteria
Reflected resentment against poor, uncertanties about religious truth; resulted in death of over 100,000 Europeans between 1590 and 1650; particularly common in Protestant areas
Karma
Upanishad Passage: according to the path a man walks a man acts in the path of good he is good, if he walks in the path of evil he becomes evil.
Ten-Percent Plan
Lincoln's plan of readmitting Confederate states back into the Union. Required that 10% of the voters who had voted in the 1860 election swear an oath of allegiance to the Union and accept emancipation. They would then reorganize their state govnerments and reapply for admission.
Vernacular
being or characteristic of or appropriate to everyday language
Scabs
Stirkebreakers hired by employers as replacement workers when unions went on strike
Francois-Dominique Toussaint
Who led the Haitian Revolution?
Suleymaniye
built by Suleyman the Magnificent, most spectacular of the mosques built by sultans after Mehmed, who all strove to beautify the capital, designed by famous architect Sinan, huge engineering achievement
Bularia
Pressed the Byzantine territory in the Balkans
Teller Resolution*
(WMc) Congress granted the presiden the power to liberate Cuba, stating that the United States intended only to free Cuba from tyranny
ibn batuta
arabic traveler who described african societies and cultures in his travel records
fascism
a governmental system led by a dictator having complete power, forcibly suppressing opposition and criticism, regimenting all industry, commerce, etc
Copperheads
a group of northern Democrats who opposed abolition and sympathized with the South during the Civil War
Ordinance of 1784
Jefferson's ordinance that called Congress to grant full statehood and self-government to a western territory only when the population equal that of the smallest of the existing 13 states
Clovis
One of the first kings of France
Federalist Party
were led by Alexandar Hamilton, believed wealthy and educated people should lead the nation, favored strong central government, emphasized manufacturing shipping and trade, favored loose interpretation of constitution, were pro-british, favored national bank, favored protective tariff
Tariff of
A protective tariff signed by President John Tyler, it raised the general level of duties to about where they had been before the Compromise Tariff of 1833. Also banned pornography by increasing its cost.
Mesoamerica
mexico and central america; along with peru, site of development of sedentary agriculture in western hemisphere
agricultural revolution
The transformation of farming that resulted in the eighteenth century from the spread of new crops, improvements in cultivation techniques and livestock breeding, and consolidation of small holdings into large farms from which tenants were expelled (600)
Hurston
wrote a book from the harlem renissance
Chesapeake
where the members of the Virginia Company landed; this region was good for planting tobacco, but was disease-stricken
Kyoto Accords
Document that countries signed that said they would limit pollution
jay treaty
A treaty which offered little concessions from Britain to the U.S Jay was able to get Britain to say they would evacuate the chain of posts on U.S. soil and pay damages for recent seizures of American ships. This resulted in a vitalization of the Democratic-Republicans and Pinckney's Treaty with the Spanish.
John Tyler
Harrison's vice president who assumes the presidency in 1841. He began to champion state's rights, and vetoed many Whig bills, eventually eroding his support in his own party. He is thus often referred to as the "president without a party".
The Iron Curtain 


Speach by Winston Churchill 
Said that the communist world should be seperated from the western world
Eastern half of Europe 
boris yeltsin
president of the Russian Federation 1991–99.
Malcolm X
Black Muslim worked to raise black spirits and pride; emphasized black institutions rather than mere desegregation, blacks to gain freedom at any cost
Ramesses II
A long-lived ruler of New Kingdom Egypt (r. 1290-1224 B.C.E.). He reached an accommodation with the Hittites of Anatolia after a standoff in battle at Kadesh in Syria. He built on a grand scale throughout Egypt. (p. 68)
carpetbaggers
A ortherner who went to the South after the Civil War and became active in Republican politics, especially. so as to profiteer from the unsettled social and political conditions of the area during Reconstruction.
Hyksos
invaders who seized the Nile delta and helped bring an end to the Middle Kingdom
representative government
system of government in which public policies are made by officials selected by the voters and held accountable in periodic elections
American Indian Movement
(AIM) A Native American organization founded in 1968 to protest government policies and injustices suffered by Native Americans; in 1973, organized the armed occupation of Wounded Knee, South Dakota.
WEB Dubois
an intellectual leader for the black community, fought to end segregation
compatibility of Chinese values
Both Confucianism and Daoism co-existed and were patronized side by side, C providing guidelines, and D satifying spiritual need
Rape of Nanjing
a six-week period following the Japanese capture of the Chinese city of Nanjing. During this period, hundreds of thousands of civilians were murdered and 20,000-80,000 women were raped[1] by soldiers of the Imperial Japanese Army.
Central Powers
the alliance created after the Triple Alliance disbanded with the withdrawal of Italy; consisted of Germany, Austria-Hungry, Turkey, Bulgaria and others
Protestant Reformation
a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches
Brook Farm
A community started by George Ripley, a Protestant minister. Wanted to live out the trancendentalist ideal. Attracted many intellectuals. Was destroyed by a bad fire and hig debt.
Black Death
An outbreak of bubonic plague that spread across Asia, North Africa, and Europe in the mid-fourteenth century, carrying off vast numbers of persons. (p. 397)
John Foster Dulles
U.S. Secretary of State under President Dwight D. Eisenhower from 1953 to 1959. He was a significant figure in the early Cold War era, advocating an aggressive stance against communism throughout the world. He advocated support of the French in their war against the Viet Minh in Indochina and it is widely believed that he refused to shake the hand of Zhou Enlai at the Geneva Conference in 1954.
Europe in Africa
European exploration of Africa began with Ancient Greeks and Romans, who explored and established settlements in North Africa. Fifteenth Century Portugal, especially under Henry the Navigator probed along the West African coast. Scientific curiosity and Christian missionary spirit soon were subordinated to mercantile considerations, including lucrative trafficking in enslaved persons. Others (Dutch, Spanish, French, English, etc.) joined in African trading, though for centuries European knowledge of Africa's interior was very vague. Much of the blank map was filled in by arduous, often fatal, expeditions in the Nineteenth Century
Spoils System
The trading of jobs for political favors. Although every previous president had done the same thing, Jackson was the first to be widely critized for it.
Seperation of Powers
the assignment of lawmaking, law enforcing, and law enterprising functions to seperate branches of gevernment
The arrest and censorship of this member of Parliament inspired many colonists.
John Wilkes
Medina
City in western Arabia to which the Prophet Muhammad and his followers emigrated in 622 to escape persecution in Mecca. (p. 231)
Martin Luther
a german monk who protested the sale of indulgences in his home town. Launched a general attack against church abuses and certain parts of Catholic Doctrine. Objects pluralism. Formed the Lutheran church
Alexandria
the first of the new cities laid out by Alexander himself.
federal courts
*** A system of federal courts was established by the Judiciary Act of 1789. The federal courts hear cases that have to do with interstate issues and therefore cannot be handled using state legislature.
Oveta Culp Hobby
1st woman in Republican Cabinet, 1st head of health and human services
Native American Movement
More militant version of an Indian activist organization in the U.S. in the late 20th century
West Florida,
The U.S. wanted this region, which now forms the southern parts of the states of Alabama and Mississippi, because it bordered the Mississippi River. The U.S. seized West Florida after an uprising by American settlers in the region.
Five Year Plans
Plans that Joseph Stalin introduced to industrialize the Soviet Union rapidly, beginning in 1928. They set goals for the output of steel, electricity, machinery, and most other products and were enforced by the police powers of the state. (781)
Samuel Slater
He was a British mechanic that moved to America and in 1791 invented the first American machine for spinning cotton. He is known as "the Father of the Factory System" and he started the idea of child labor in America's factories.
Compromise of 1877
Unwritten deal that settled the 1876 presidential election contest between Rutherford Hayes (Rep) and Samuel Tilden (Dem.) Hayes was awarded the presidency in exchange for the permanent removal of federal troops from the South.
Black Code
a series of laws relating to the control and dehumanization of African Americans during the Reconstruction period and after, largely in southern states.
Manifest Destiny
The idea that America would come to dominate all of South and North America, and were given the right to do so by God himself.
issues delaying ratification
colonist from some states didnt want to have the articles of confederation to be ratifiyed yet
reliquish western claims before they ratify
Where was Harappa and Mohenjo Daro?
along the Indus River
Admiral de Grasse
He operated a powerful French fleet in the West Indies. He advised America he was free to join with them in an assault on Cornwallis at Yorktown. Rochambeau's French army defended British by land he blockaded them by sea. This resulted in Cornwallis's surrender on October 19, 1781.
971. Hay-Herran Treaty
Kept the purchase price of the canal strip in Panama the same but enlarged the area from 6 to 10 miles.
2nd battle of the Marne
marked beginning of a gErman withdrawal
Empress Wu
the only woman to rule China in her own name, expanded the empire and supported Buddhism during the Tang Dynasty.
first great awakening
The First Great Awakening was a time of religious fervor during the 1730s and 1740s. The movement arose in reaction to the rise of skepticism and the waning of religious faith brought about by the Enlightenment. Protestant ministers held revivals throughout the English colonies in America, stressing the need for individuals to repent and urging a personal understanding of truth
Seneca Falls Convention
Took place in upperstate New York in 1848. Women of all ages and even some men went to discuss the rights and conditions of women. There, they wrote the Declaration of Sentiments, which among other things, tried to get women the right to vote.
 
 
 
 
8. John Winthrop (1588-1649), his beliefs
 
1629 - He became the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay colony, and served in that capacity from 1630 through 1649. A Puritan with strong religious beliefs. He opposed total democracy, believing the colony was best governed by a small group of skillful leaders. He helped organize the New England Confederation in 1643 and served as its first president.
What caused large migrations?
many families followed their men to training bases and others moved to obtain high paying defense jobs
80. Currency Act, 1764
This act applied to all of the colonies. It banned the production of paper money in the colonies in an effort to combat the inflation caused by Virginia's decision to get itself out of debt by issuing more paper money.
William the Conqueror
led England in a tradition of a strong monarchy
civilzations during 3000 - 2000 bce
meospotamia, egypt, india, china, and americas
In the 1920s adn 1930s  the soviets began a program of rapid industrialization, through a series of _____Plans. These plans called for empasis on _____industry, rather than consumer goods, and required that peasants surrender their land and become agricu
5 year; heavy; collectivization
"The First Report on the Public Credit"
Declared that the federal government would assume the debts of individual states, thought this would promote a sense of loyalty and gratitude to the national government. Offered to put new national capital in the south b/c most of their debts were already paid off. Also, would take the interest on their debts too. About $54 million in all. Also wanted to establish a national bank. Felt that this fell under
937. Bering sea seal controversy
A dispute between the U.S. and Russia involving who could hunt seals in the Bering Sea.
The Treaty of Tordesillas affected the exploration of the New World in that:
it decreed that the imaginary line divided the non-Christian world between Spain and Portugal for the purposes of exploration
900. Helen Hunt Jackson, A Century of Dishonor
A muckracker whose book exposed the unjust manner in which the U.S. government had treated the Indians. Protested the Dawes Severalty Act.
zealot
An extremist
18th Amendment
established prohibition
Australopithicus
3-4 million years ago
Shiite
Political and theological division within Islam; followers of Ali.
Cyrus McCormick
invented the mechanical reaper
Long March
The 6,000-mile (9,600-kilometer) flight of Chinese Communists from southeastern to northwestern China. The Communists, led by Mao Zedong, were pursued by the Chinese army under orders from Chiang Kai-shek. (789)
 
 
 
 
207. Constitution: Riders
 
 
 
 
Separate, unrelated clauses added to a bill in the legislature, either in order to ensure that the bill passes or to ensure that it fails.
Transcendentalism
New types of literature, religion, culture, and philosophy that emerged in New England - middle 1800s - Ralph Waldo Emmerson, Henry David Thoreau, and Margret Fuller
Roman republic
balanced constitution of Rome; featured a senate, magistrates, and other assemblies
Alchemy
an early, unscientific form of chemistry that sought to change base metals into gold and discover a life-prolonging elixir, a universal cure for disease, and a universal solvent alkahest
Ex: After a time, Daoism became associated with mystical and magical pratices, such as alchemy and fortune-telling.
Election of 1896
McKinley defeats Bryan- bimetallism/gold standard
Juan Peron
President of Argentina (1946-1955, 1973-1974). As a military officer, he championed the rights of labor. Aided by his wife Eva Duarte Per?n, he was elected president in 1946. He built up Argentinean industry, became very popular among the urban poor, but harmed economy.
Socialism
a political theory advocating state ownership of industry
Mongols
central Asian nomads, captured Baghdad and killed last Abbasid caliph
great compromise
Compromise made by Constitutional Convention in which states would have equal representation in one house of the legislature and representation based on population in the other house
Crittenden Compromise


Kentucky Senator’s last ditch effort to avoid secession; he wanted a constitutional amendment to guarantee the Missouri Compromise’s terms. However, Lincoln could not accept because it went against republican views of slavery. 
Simplified language spoken by slaves to help them communicate since they had such different native languages.
pidgin
Jay's Treaty
provided for evacuation of English troops from posts in the Great Lakes
Legalism
In China, a political philosophy that emphasized the unruliness of human nature and justified state coercion and control. The Qin ruling class invoked it to validate the authoritarian nature of their regime. (p.52)
13th amendment
This amendment freed all slaves without compensation to the slaveowners. It legally forbade slavery in the United States.
Marco Polo
Venetian merchant and traveler. His accounts of his travels to China offered Europeans a firsthand view of Asian lands and stimulated interest in Asian trade.
American Antislavery Society
Abolitionist society that included many well-known whites and also former slaves such as Douglass; held meetings in many parts of the country and published writings speaking out against slavery.
william the conquerer
meshed Scandinavian and European culture,1066, Battle of Hastings, Viking prince.ruled Britain and France at the same time
Sandinista party
Leftist political group in Nicaragua backed by the U.S.S.R. Ousted in elections in 1990.
Mongol Empire
Which empire failed to conquer Vietnam, Cambodia, Burma, Java and Japan?
aqueduct
A conduit, either elevated or under ground, using gravity to carry water from a source to a location-usually a city-that needed it. The Romans built many of these in a period of substantial urbanization.
Mahabharata
A vast epic chronicling the events leading up to a cataclysmic battle between related kinship groups in early India. It includes the Bhagavad-Gita, the most important work of Indian sacred literature. (p. 185)
Bleeding Kansas
The contest between pro and antislavery settlers for control of Kansas Territory provoked violence and bloodshed in 1855. For partisan reasons, President Pierce's administration failed to peacefully implement popular sovereignty in this region.
Lecompton Constitution
Pro-slave constitution that got voted in for Kansas after anti-slavery people boycotted the election
extraterritoriality
Foreign residents in a country living under the laws of their native country, disregarding the laws of the host country. 19th/Early 20th Centuries: European and US nationals in certain areas of Chinese and Ottoman cities were granted this right. (682)
Henry Barnard
Father of American High School. Similar to Horace Mann but only considered with High School.
Suleiman
Ottoman sultan who brought the Ottoman Empire to its height; he succeeded in defeating the Habsburgs and capturing Vienna.
Jeremiad
Type of sermon that preached hellfire and brimstone
Rhode Island
Established by Roger Williams, it practiced religious tolerance and did require voters to be church members.
fresco
A technique of painting on walls covered with moist plaster. It was used to decorate Minoan and Mycenaean palaces and Roman villas, and became an important medium during the Italian Renaissance. (p. 73)
Jesuits
Members of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic order founded by Ignatius Loyola in 1534. They played an important part in the Catholic Reformation and helped create conduits of trade and knowledge between Asia and Europe. (p. 548)
Emperor Menelik
. Emperor of Ethiopia (r. 1889-1911). He enlarged Ethiopia to its present dimensions and defeated an Italian invasion at Adowa (1896). (p. 737)
Joint-Stock Companies
type of business organization used to fund English colonies in the New World after initial government funded efforts ended in failure.
Brigham Young
United States religious leader of the Mormon Church after the assassination of Joseph Smith - he led the Mormon exodus from Illinois to Salt Lake City, Utah (1801-1877)
Zulu
A people of modern South Africa whom King Shaka united beginning in 1818. (p. 649)
Works Progress Administration
Established in 1935, responsible for building+renovating 110,000 public buildings, etc.
Muslims believe...
Muslims believe that Islam is the "pimordial religion" and the "last religion". Muslim prophets like Adam, Noah, Abroham, Moses and Jesus kept the monotheistic strain going through the ages.
Michael Dukakis
He was governor of Massachusetts and George Bush's demorcratic opponet in the election of 1988
Khyber Pass
through Hindu Kush Mountains; used by Indus Valley merchants for trade; allowed invading forces into the land
The Prophet
A shawnee indian leader whose brother was Tecumseh
Charles Finney
* The greatest of the revival preachers of the 2nd Great Awakening
* Created the "anxious bench", where sinners could sit and be stared at by the religious
* Denounced Alcohol and slavery
* Became president of Oberlin College in Ohio (which became a center of revivalist activity and abolitionism)
Interchangable Parts
components of any device designed to specifications which insure that they will fit within any device of the same type. Invented by Eli Whitney
czar
Russian title for a monarch was first used in reference to Russian ruler by Ivan III.
Jacksonian Democracy
A policy of spreading more political power to more people. It was a "Common Man" theme.
 
 
 
 
269. Bank of the U.S.
 
 
 
 
Part of Hamilton’s Plan, it would save the government’s surplus money until it was needed.
SADAAM HUSSEIN
secular leader of Iraq; doesn’t like Ayatollah’s religious laws; attacks Iran
franchise
to grant a franchise to; admit to citizenship, esp. to the right of voting.
Boston Massacre
- March 5, 1770 after the Townshend duties were repealed, the soldiers remained in Boston; took up employment off duty which led them to compete with colonists for jobs a) Numerous confrontations resulted between the soldiers and the colonists b) March 5- a mob threw snowballs at the soldiers, leading the soldiers to fire their guns into the crowd, killing five c) John Adams - defended the soldiers in court
Guest Workers
Workers from North Africa and Asia who migrated to Europe during the late 20the century in search for employment; some settled in Europe permanently
852. Hamlin Garland
His best-known work is Middle Board, an autobiographical story of the frustrations of life. One of the first authors to write accurately and sympathetically about Native Americans.
Declaration of Independence
This document was
adopted on July 4, 1776. It
established the 13 American colonies as independent states, free from rule by Great Britain. Thomas Jefferson wrote the
majority of this document.
As a result of the panic of 1837...
a. the US established restrictions on foreign loans
b. Britain lent money to America, its close ally
c. Anti-British passions cooled in the US
d. The Democrats led America into war for more territory
e. Several states d
e
russo japanese war
Russia and Japan were fighting over Korea, Manchuria, etc. Began in 1904, but neither side could gain a clear advantage and win. Both sent reps to Portsmouth, NH where TR mediated Treaty of New Hampshire in 1905. TR won the nobel peace prize for his efforts, the 1st pres. to do so.
Niger River
located in West Africa, its rich soil gave rise to several civilizations; it also helped unite the region by enabling merchants and travelers to spread goods and ideas up and down the river
John Bell: Constitutional Party
Senator from Tennessee nominated for president by the new Constitutional Union party in 1860. That party supported the Constitution, the Union, and the laws of the United States. He received some support from the border states in the election
Bunker Hill
A battle that took place on the strategic point of Breed's Hill. British victory on account of the depletion of American supplies. yet gave them confidence- It pushed Americans towards a final decision for war. King offically declared the colonies in rebellion.
Sons of Liberty
Secret societies formed to protest new taxes passed by Parliament. Led the Boston Tea Party and threatened tax collectors.
Federal Reserve Board
A seven-member board that sets member banks reserve requirements, controls the discount rate, and makes other economic decisions.
801. "New Imigration"
The second major wave of immigration to the U.S.; betwen 1865-1910, 25 million new immigrants arrived. Unlike earlier immigration, which had come primarily from Western and Northern Europe, the New Immigrants came mostly from Southern and Eastern Europe, fleeing persecution and poverty. Language barriers and cultural differences produced mistrust by Americans.
WATERGATE
Nixon orders people to break in to the democrats office and hide a microphone in it but they get caught
Otto von Bismarck
Chancellor of Prussia from 1862 until 1871, when he became chancellor of Germany. A conservative nationalist, he led Prussia to victory against Austria (1866) and France (1870) and was responsible for the creation of the German Empire (714)
Alexis de Tocqueville
Came from France to America in 1831, observed democracy in government and society. His book discusses the advantages and disadvantages of democracy and consequences of the majority's unlimited power. First to raise topics of American practicality over theory, the industrial aristocracy, and the conflict between the masses and individuals.
Foreign affairs with England
Ft. Detroit, Ft. Niagra, and Ft. Michilimackinal
Pope Gregory I
Who was the most important figure in providing the Roman church with the sense of direction during the early middle ages by reasserting papal primacy?
Eva Peron
Wife of Juan Per?n and champion of the poor in Argentina. She was a gifted speaker and popular political leader who campaigned to improve the life of the urban poor by founding schools and hospitals and providing other social benefits. (p. 824)
Chinese society began
on the banks of the Huang He River
Midwest / "Breadbasket"
The Midwest regions were soon found to be highly productive for crops, and soon supplied grain to most of the nation.
the long march
was a journey of 6,215 miles where marchers arrived in Shaanxi Province in October 1935 and headquarters at Yan an inspired many Chinese to join the communist party
Jefferson's election (rev. of 1800)
peaceful transition of power, end of federalist rule (except in courts)
Letters form a Farmer in Pennsylvania
Written by John Dickinson, claimed Parliment had no authority to tax good and raise revenue in America. Had the right to impose tariffs and regulate commerce.
1467. National Liberation Front (NLF)
Official title of the Viet Cong. Created in 1960, they lead an uprising against Diem's repressive regime in the South.
4 Impacts of Italian Renaissance
1. military tactics because of wars in city-states.
2. leaders justified their authority of the general well-being of the city-state.
3. city-states introduce a regular exchange of ambassadors.
4. merchants improved banking techniques.
traveling to India to collect Buddhist texts
The Chinese Buddhist monk, Xuanzang was famous for
"red coats", "lobster backs", or "bloody backs"
What British soldiers were called by the colonists
947. Commodore Dewey, Manila Bay
May 1, 1898 - Commodore Dewey took his ship into Manila Bay, in the Philippine Islands, and attacked the Spanish Pacific fleet there. The U.S. had been planning to take this strategic port in the Pacific. Dewey caught the Spanish at anchor in the bay and sank or crippled their entire fleet.
what were the greatest achievements of 'big science' in the post-WWII era?
big science led to the development of medical science. led to longer life expectancy with the creation of vitamins, antibiotics, and advanced treatments.
King Yu
...
Alexander of Macedon
...
Election of 1828
Andrew Jackson
mecca
the holy city of islam
Niagara Movement
black civil rights movement
National Gazette
Thomas Jefferson, Democrat-Republican newspaper; Philip Freneau was editor
Voltaire believed people were inherently good, dumb, evil or selfish?
dumb
Gothic
Type of architecture with vaulted arches and towers
Sunnis
Muslims that believe the caliph doesn't have to be related to Muhammad and should be chosen by the leaders of the Islamic community
Mamluks
Rulers of Egypt, Napoleon's conquers and proves Muslim vulnerability
Nation-state
The modern form of political organization in which the government coincides exactly with a single national territory and population having a distinctive culture, language, history, and so on.
Analects
The body of writing containing conversations between Confucius and his disciples that preserves his worldly wisdom and pragmatic philosophies.
Constantine
Roman emperor (r. 312-337). After reuniting the Roman Empire, he moved the capital to Constantinople and made Christianity a favored religion. (p.159)
Alexander Kerensky
Liberal revolutionary leader during the early stages of the Russian Revolution of 1917; sought development of parliamentary rule, religious freedom.
Hagia Sophia
New church constructed in Constantinople during reign of Justinian. (p. 355)

Virginia Plan
 proposed a strong national government that could make and enforce laws, and collect taxes. Proposed by James Madison
gallic
pertaining to the French or France.
Moche
Civilization of north coast of Peru (200-700 C.E.). An important Andean civilization that built extensive irrigation networks as well as impressive urban centers dominated by brick temples. (p. 313)
Nazi- Soviet Pact
nonaggression treaty between russia and germany allowing germany to fight a one front war until germany violatet treaty by invading russia
Zheng He
an imperial eunuch and Muslim, entrusted by the Ming emperor Yongle with a series of state voyages that took his gigantic ships through the Indian Ocean, from Southeast Asia to Africa.
James Naismith
United States educator (born in Canada) who invented the game of basketball
deforestation
The removal of trees faster than forests can replace themselves. (p. 462)
El Salvador
US govt supported Salvadorian military government during Salvadoran Civil War
Caravanserais
caravanserai or khan was a roadside inn where travelers could rest and recover from the day's journey. Caravanserais supported the flow of commerce, information, and people across the network of trade routes covering Asia, North Africa, and South-Eastern Europe, especially along the Silk Road.
Weimar Republic
Was the democratic government which ruled over Germany form 1919 to 1933. Was Germany's first democracy and it failed miserably. It had leaders such as Stresseman and Hindenburg.
Aryans
nomadic tribes from north of Caucasus Mountains; horses and weapons; defeated and settled in Indus Valley; polytheists who believed in reincarnation (led to Hinduism)
Totalitarian
Describing a government run by one person or group and controlling all aspects of life
Hernando Cortes
Established a lasting reputation as the most brutal of the Spanish conquistadors
sanitation systems
system designed to protect public health.
Joseph Smith
Founded the Mormon religion after reporting that he was visited by an angel and given golden plates in 1840; the plates, when deciphered, brought about the Church of Latter Day Saints and the Book of Mormon; killed by non believer. started a movement within America of values including no drinking, gambling, and an unorthodox view of marriage
Margaret Sanger
Championed the use of contraceptives; "fiery feminist"
George Whitefield
created orphanage in GA, first celebrity, itinerant preacher, 1739-1770
Guptas
Dynasty that succeeded the Kushans in the 3rd century C.E.; built empire that extended to all but the southern regions of Indian subcontinent; less centralized than Mauryan Empire
Bhaktic Cults
Open to all, including women and untouchables.
William Lloyd Garrison
(AJ) , Wrote the antislavery newspaper, the Liberator
Proclamation of 1763
law forbidding english colonists to settle west of the appalachian mountains
Committees of Correspondence
Samuel Adams started the first committee in Boston in 1772 to spread propaganda and secret information by way of letters. They were used to sustain opposition to British policy. The committees were extremely effective and a few years later almost every colony had one. This is another example of the colonies breaking away from Europe to become Americans.
when did muhammad recieve his first revelations
610 ce
Sectional Tariff*
1824, (JMon)was a protective tariff in the United States designed to protect American industry in the face of cheaper British commodities, especially iron products, wool and cotton textiles, and agricultural goods., Calhoun thought South suffered
Trung
sisters Leaders of one of the frequent peasant rebellions in Vietnam against Chinese rule; revolt broke out in 39 c.e.; demonstrates importance of Vietnamese women in indigenous society.
Mountain people
part of National convention. Led by Robespierre and Danton. Sat on uppermost left hand benches. More reactionary than Girondists; both competitive for power.
Women and the Economy
Pre-industrial economy: spinning yarn, weaving cloth, making candles, soap, butter, cheese. Forbidden to form labor unions. Special place in family life:raised children to be good citizens, taught future generation. Most working women were single.
Swahili Coast
East African shores of the Indian Ocean between the Horn of Africa and the Zambezi River; from the Arabic sawahil, meaning 'shores.' (p. 383)
Ohio gang
Hardings friends that he brought to the white house were called this
Spanish Armada
Spanish fleet (made by Phillip II) that was conquered by smaller, swifter English ships and a storm in 1588; marked the beginning of the end of Spanish imperial dreams and ensured English naval dominance in the North Atlantic
john c fremont
commissioned by the Senate (especially Benton) to document and survey the west. His descriptions were to make the West look as nice as possible. His famous stories (e.g. Pathfinder) glorified the West and all the abundance of land and possible wealth
National Industrial Recovery Act
1933, NRA (National Recovery Administration), PWA (Public Works Administration, provided government jobs, relaxed anti-trust provisions, made minimum wage 30-40 cents, 35-40 work hours, abolished child labor, headed by Hugh Johnson)
T.S. Eliot
Missourian from Harvard who took up residence in England and wrote several famous poems; influenced by Pound.
Pearl Harbor
Naval base in Hawaii attacked by Japanese aircraft on December 7, 1941. The sinking of much of the U.S. Pacific Fleet brought the United States into World War II.
Tawdry
showy and flashy but lacking in good taste
democracy
government by the people; a form of government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised directly by them or by their elected agents under a free electoral system.
Boss Tweed
Most famous political boss - HQed in NYC
803. Streetcar suburbs
The appearance of the streetcar made living within the heart of the city unnecessary. People began moving to the edges of the cities and commuting to work by streetcar. Led to growth of suburbs.
Sepoy Rebellion
The revolt of Indian soldiers in 1857 against certain practices that violated religious customs; also known as the Sepoy Mutiny. (p. 661)
Monroe Doctrine*
(JMon) 1823, , A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.
Georiga was populated by __________?
a refuge to the poor
Great American Desert
Region between the Missouri River and the Rocky Mountains. Vast domain became accessible to Americans wishing to settle there. This region was called the "Great American Desert" in atlases published between 1820 and 1850, and many people were convinced this land was a Sahara habitable only to Indians. The phrase had been coined by Major Long during his exploration of the middle of the Louisiana Purchase region.
Mansa Musa
this Mali king brought Mali to its peak of power and wealth from 1312 the 1337; he was the most powerful king in west africa
Sir Walter Raleigh
An English adventurer and writer, who was prominent at the court of Queen Elizabeth I, and became an explorer of the Americas. In 1585, Raleigh sponsored the first English colony in America on Roanoke Island in present-day North Carolina. It failed and is known as " The Lost Colony."
billion dollar congress
under Benjamin Harrison in 1888, the Fifty-First Congress reached a spending milestone and was subsequently nicknamed this
 
 
 
 
197. French and British Intrigue over U.S. boundaries
 
 
 
The Treaty of Paris set the colonial boundaries as being the southern border of Canada, the northern border of Florida, the Atlantic coast, and the Mississippi River.
Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson were both banished for organizing rebellions against...
the MA Bay Authorites
Compromise of 1850
advocated by Henry Clay and Stephen A Douglas (1) California admitted as free state (2) territorial status and popular sovereignty of UT and NM (3) resolution of TX-NM boundaries (4) federal assumption of TX debt (5) slave trade abolished in DC (6) new fugitive slave law
1171. World Court
The judicial arm of the League of Nations, supported by several presidents.
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
linked the couple to British scientist Klaus Fuchs, an admitted spy, and David Greenglass, who provided the Soviets w/ info on the atomic bomb. He was recruited for the mission by the Rosenbergs, who were his sister and brother-in-law. Rosenbergs were sentenced to death.
United central Asia, Tibet, northern China, Persia and central Asia
Name Ghengis Khan's conquered lands
The Passage
what Lewis and Clark were sent to look for, the route to get to the Pacific Ocean
Oklahoma Land Rush
They were former Indian lands but were opened up for settlement in 1889, resulting in a race to lay claim for a homestead (Boomers and Sooners)
1361. Abdul Nasser, Suez Crisis
Egypt's dictator, Abdul Gamal Nasser, a former army officer who had led the coup that overthrew King Farouk, nationalized the Suez Canal in 1956, and was attacked by British, French and Israeli forces. The U.S. intervened on behalf of Egypt. Damaged Britain and France's standing as world powers.
General Douglas MacArthur
Head of the US occupation forces in Japan 
1117. Election of 1920: candidates, issues
Republican, Warren G. Harding, with V.P. running mate Coolidge, beat Democrat, Governor James Cox, with V.P. running mate, FDR. The issues were WW I, the post-war economy and the League of Nations.
sold war bonds for england
what did gandhi and tilak provide india whith shortly after wwi outbreak
Harriet Beecher Stowe, Uncle Tom's Cabin
depicted the evils of slavery (splitting of families and physical abuse); increased participation in abolitionist movement, condemned by South
200. New state constitutions (Massachusetts adopted by popular vote)
The first set of constitutions drafted by the individual states placed most of the government’s power in the legislature, and almost none in the executive in order to promote democracy and avoid tyranny. However, without the strong leadership of the executive, the state legislatures argued among themselves and couldn’t get anything done. After the Constitution was written, the states abandoned these old constitutions and wrote new ones that better balanced the power between the legislative and the executive.
106. Differences between French and British colonization
The British settled mainly along the coast, where they started farms, towns, and governments. As a general rule, whole families emigrated. The British colonies had little interaction with the local Indians (aside from occasional fighting). The French colonized the interior, where they controlled the fur trade. Most of the French immigrants were single men, and there were few towns and only loose governmental authority. The French lived closely with the Indians, trading with them for furs and sometimes taking Indian wives.
Cult of domesticity/ true womanhood
Men and women had long had separate spheres, but before the 1850's, it was solely inferior to men's. Now, however, a woman's value as mother and guardian of domestic virtue became important in the household. A female culture began to grow, one of social structures, friendships, women's magazines and clubs. To some, this showed that in their own way, women were superior to men. Women provided spiritual and moral guidance to children and were the counterpart to the masculinity of their husbands. However, women became more and more separated from public life 4: 1825-1865
the dred scott decision 1857
ruled that since he was not a citizen he had no rights, and had the same status as livestock and land
The theoretical purpose of the jihad was to
strive in the way of the Lord.
claimed to rule as emperor of the old western half of the Roman Empire
In the year 962, Otto of Saxony
Neutrality
Washington's ________ Proclamation of 1793 was based on calculations of America's self-interest
Hessians British
George Washington helped restore condidence in American's military when he defeated the _______ at Trenton and the _______ at Princeton
Nativism
a policy of favoring native-born individuals over foreign-born ones
primogeniture
English system of passing all inherited property to the first-born son, did not take root in New England where father divided land among all sons - father could control sons
Agricultural Political
Leaders determined by wealth, knowledge, militaryAn Autocracy-placed power of gov't in one's hands
first amendment freedoms
The Sedition Act threatened the
Whiskey Rebellion
protest on Whiskey taxes which resulted in an extreme response by washington
which fossil was the greatest find ever?
lucy
January 14, 1783
Treaty of Paris was ratified
evolution
The biological theory that, over time, changes occuring in plants and animals, mainly as a result of natural selection and genetic mutation, result in new species. (p. 6)
Mali
its captial Timbuktu became a great trading center
British invincibility
For the American colonies the French and Indian War ended the myth of
harappa
A large ancient city of the Indus civilization, created in present-day Pakistan
Caron de Beaumarchais
French actor turned secret agent, helped through the creation of a bogus trading firm, had blessing of King Louis XVI
National College Athletic Association (NCAA)
intercolligate association which revised the rules of football in an effor to make it safer and more honest
Townshend Duties
levied new taxes on various goods imported to colonies from England, lead, paper, paint, tea, Mass Assembly circulated lette urging objections, Townshend thought that taxes met internal and external tax definitions and colonists wouldn'
Linear B
A set of syllabic symbols, derived from the writing system of Minoan Crete, used in the Mycenaean palaces of the Late Bronze Age to write an early form of Greek. It was used primarily for palace records, and the surviving Linear B tablets provide substantial information about the economic organization of Mycenaean society and tantalizing clues about political, social, and religious institutions. (p. 75)
Specialization
The separation of tasks with in a system. Individuals specialize in one task of their choice making an efficient labor force.
military strategy French Canada
William Pitt became Prime Minister during the French and Indian War he focused his _______ ________ on the capture of ______ ________
Alexander Hamilton
Created funding at par and reduced the national debt
Samoan Islands
Remote Pacific site of a naval clash between the US and Germany in 1889
Prince Henry the Navigator
Responsible for the superiority of Portugal's navy, wanted to explore the west coast of Africa, some of his mariners went as far as Cape Verde
Treaty of Greenville
signed by Miami indians, gave up lots of land - US affirmed that land could only be given up by Indians themselves
hatred of Andrew Jackson
The "cement" that held the Whig Party together in its formative days was
World is NOT flat?
1. Greedy CEO's, only looking out for themselves, dominating the market, and not allowing others in.2. Lying CEO's, with dishonest policies3. The environment cannot uphold such a manufactured world for much longer
a major success of the Articles of Confedertation
devised land policies that would allow for the incorporation of new states
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