ap us history exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Islamic holy war
Franklin Pierce
1853-1857, 14th President
New England constitutionalist
Daniel Webster
"three-fifths compromise"
The Constitutional Convention addressed the North-South controversy over slavery through the
pioneered the world's largest revolution in Mesopotamia. Migrated and invented writing
Horse-Drawn chariots and bronze weapons were introduced to Egypt by the
The group of arrogant prejudice Americans, who had the audacity to refer to themselves as "native" Americans, who complained that the wave of immigrants was taking jobs away from well deserving Americans. This spawned groups like the Order of the Star- Spangled Banner which soon developed into the Know-Nothing party. It has continued to be a common trend in recent years with the increasing protests arising over immigrants taking the jobs of well deserving Americans. These "well deserving Americans" were once immigrants who had societies protesting against them for the same reasons. More or less it is vicious cycle that is likely to continue in our country to the extreme ignorance of the masses.
heavily armed Greek infantrymen who marched and fought in close ranks; most of the recruits were middle-class citizens
(William Jennings) Bryan
The already-twice-defeated Democratic nominee for the 1908 election. He ran against Taft.
13th amendment
abolishes slavery in the U.S.
had top authority, while regional churches had bishops
Egyptian writing system; system of pictures that represented letters and words
blood thirsty city state that conquered all of Mesopotamia by using chariots, battering rams, siege reamps, and armored horses
Political belief that extreme and seemingly random violence will destabilize a government and permit the terrorists to gain political advantage. Though an old technique, terrorism gained prominence in the late 20th Century (890)
bring under domination or control, esp. by conquest
Black Death
______ was a mid-fourteenth-century disease (primarily bubonic plague) epidemic that ravaged Europe and helped cause an economic decline.
Lyceum Movement/ Circuits
Movement that emphasized the organization of adult education. Inspired by Aristotle's Lyceum in ancient Greece. The Lyceum Movement contributed significantly to the education of adult Americans in the nineteenth century.
founded by lord baltimore as refuge for english catholics
laissez faire
The idea that government should refrain from interfering in economic affairs. The classic exposition of laissez-faire principles is Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations (1776). (p. 615)
John Marshall
federalist. Chief Justice that helped to bolster power of the government at the expense of the states. Judicial Review, Congress dealt with affairs between states, Contract upheld by government
The belief that you could transcend the limitations of inherited conventions and rationalism in order to penetrate the inner recesses of the self.
a theory or system of social organization that advocates the vesting of the ownership and control of the means of production and distribution, of capital, land, etc., in the community as a whole.
Gloria Steinem
is an American feminist icon, journalist, and social and political activist. Rising to national prominence in the 1970s, she became a leading political leader of the decade, and one of the most important heads of the second-wave of the women's rights movement.
Social status or position conferred by a system based on class in India
The term used in Spanish and Portuguese colonies to describe someone of mixed African and European descent.
Emancipation Proclamation
a proclamation issued by Abraham Lincoln on September 22, 1862, it declared that all slaves in the rebellious Confederate states to be free
German political party joined by Adolf Hitler, emphasizing nationalism, racism, and war. When Hitler became chancellor of Germany in 1933, the Nazi Party became the only legal party and an instrument of Hitler's absolute rule. (786)
A military fortress, or the troops stattioned at such a fortress, usually designed for defense or occupation of a territory,
They opposed the ratification of the Constitution because it gave more power to the federal government and less to the states, and because it did not ensure individual rights. Many wanted to keep the Articles of Confederation. The Antifederalists were instrumental in obtaining passage of the Bill of Rights as a prerequisite to ratification of the Constitution in several states. After the ratification of the Constitution, the Antifederalists regrouped as the Democratic-Republican (or simply Republican) party.
_______ flourished in east africa as early as five million years ago.
12 Tables of Rome
The law/code of Rome
955. Walter Reed
Discovered that the mosquito transmitted yellow fever and developed a cure. Yellow fever was the leading cause of death of American troops in the Spanish-American War.
Expansion of the Roman Empire
- - -
providing or serving for the time being only; existing only until permanently or properly replaced; temporary:
Boston Massacre
British soldiers shot into crowd of snowball fight; two of nine soldiers (defended by John Adams) found guilty of manslaughter
Shi Huangdi
Founder of the short-lived Qin dynasty and creator of the Chinese Empire (r. 221-210 B.C.E.). He is remembered for his ruthless conquests of rival states and standardization. (163)
a form of writing developed by the Sumerians using a wedge-shaped stylus and clay tablets
Ida Wells
was an African American civil rights advocate and an early women's rights advocate active in the Woman Suffrage Movement
Underground Railroad
a system that helped enslaved African Americans follow a network of escape routes out of the South to freedom in the North
Stamp Act Congress
intercolonial assemblage in 1765 in New York City which brought together twenty-seven distinguished delegates from nine colonies; beseeched Parliament to repeal Stamp Act; had little effect besides taking a step towards intercolonial unity
Francis Townsend
retired physician who proposed an old age revolving pension plan to give every retiree over the age of 60 $200 per month, provided that the person spend ine money each month in order to recieve their next payment; the object was to help retired workers as well as stimulate spending in order to boost production and end the depression
Balfour Declaration
British document that promised land in Palestine as homeland for Jews in exchange for Jews help in WWI.
The smallest units of the Roman army, each composed of some 100 foot soldiers and commanded by a centurion. A legion was made up of 60 of these. They also formed political divisions of Roman citizens.
Paleolithic peoples
old stone age, first humans appear, had art, religion and primitive inventions, hunter-gatherers
strategic defense initiative
Popularly known as "Star Wars," President Reagan's SDI proposed the construction of an elaborate computer-controlled, anti-missile defense system capable of destroying enemy missiles in outer spaced. Critics claimed that SDI could never be perfected.
Stephen Douglas
Senator from Illinois, author of the Kansas-Nebraska Act and the Freeport Doctrine, argues in favor of popular sovereignty
Augustus Caesar
The first empreror of Rome, the adopted son of Julius Caesar, help Rome come into Pax Romana, or the Age of Roman Peace
Virginia (London) Co.
Responsible for governing the southern colony.
relating to fields or land or their tenure
Clash of Cultures
The resultant clash between European and North and South American civilizations brought about by the European colonization and invasion of both continents. This clash manifested itself in many ways, often through violence. At the time of Columbus’ arrival, around an estimated 25 million lived in the Americas, most of them in South America. The culture of Native Americas flourished with regard to the geographical fertility of their land- if they had fertile fields, they had great culture, and vice versa. Understand the “clash of cultures” because a significant number of questions about it have been added to the AP.
Labor Unions
An organization of workers in a particular industry or trade, created to defend the interests of members through strikes or negotiations with employers.
Business corporations that would amass capital through sales of stock to the public and could raise enough funds for New World settlement.
Joint Stock Company
Were a group of people who opposed the increasing immigration levels and attempted to write legislation for rigid restrictions on immigration and naturalization and for laws authorizing the deportation of alien paupers. This was just an example of a group of people attempting to thwart the increase of immigration which has continued to make-up America.
Dollar Diplomacy
Term used to describe the efforts of the US to further its foreign policy through use of economic power by guaranteeing loans to foreign countries
Flying Money
Paper money that was first used in China in the 9th century AD. Originally it was called 'flying money' (fei-chien) because it could blow out of your hand. To start with it was used by merchants as a note of exchange, but the government soon caught onto the idea and used it for forwarding tax payments. Real paper money backed by deposited money started in the 10th century.
William Henry Harrison
9th President of the United States; caught pneumonia during his inauguration and died shortly after (1773-1841)
Declaration of Independence
written by Thomas Jefferson in 1776 based on Richard Henry Lee's resolution; formally approved by Congress on July 4, 1776
When did Constantine die? What happened to the Empire?
337. It was re-spilt.
Purchase of Florida
1819 - Under the Adams-Onis Treaty, Spain sold Florida to the U.S., and the U.S. gave up its claims to Texas.
Panama Canal
Ship canal cut across the isthmus of Panama by United States Army engineers; it opened in 1915. It greatly shortened the sea voyage between the east and west coasts of North America. The United States turned the canal over to Panama on Jan 1, 2000 (746)
Vasco da Gama
Went around the tip and reached India.
African National Congress
formed in protest of black segregation in South Africa. Outlawed because of its violence. Nelson Mandela (one of its leaders) sent to prison for 30 years.
Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act
legislation that let the president negotiate with foreign nations agreements that would reduce existing US tariffs by up to 50%; helped lower tariffs
Second Continental Congress
Convened just weeks after the battles of Lexington and Concord, and prepared for war through the creation of the Continental Army, printing and issuing money, and creating government offices. George Washington was chosen to lead the army since he was popular and from the south, where support for the Patriots was weaker.
pg. 927
Great Society
LBJ secured a stong standpoint for which his duties would pertain to in office by declaring that his plan was to achieve the great society. Like the new deal his proposals were to set up new boards and departments to regulate society
He improved the economy dramtically by reducing poverty in the U.S.
He did this by reforming education, creating medicaid, waging a war against poverty, and enforcing civil rights
Taken refuge north of the border after the Battle of Little Bighorn.
Sitting Bull
Martin Luther
a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Church. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices; started and ignited the Protestant Reformation
963. Boxer Rebellion
1900 - a secret Chinese society called the Boxers because their symbol was a fist revolted against foreigners in their midst and laid siege to foreign legislations in Beijing.
Cuban Missile Crisis
(JFK) , , an international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later, on condition that US doesn't invade Cuba
Effects of Kansas-Nebraska Act
wrecked compromise of 1820 & 1850; shattered the Democratic party; formed the Republican party(in protest of slavery)
Harvard founded
1636 - Founded by a grant form the Massachusetts general court. Followed Puritan beliefs.
Pure Food and Drug Act
the act that prohibited the manufacture, sale, or shipment of impure of falsely labeled food and drugs
Treaty of Ghent
return to normalcy after the war of 1812
domino theory
a theory that if one country is taken over by an expansionist, esp. Communist, neighbor, party, or the like, the nearby nations will be taken over one after another.
1215. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
1934 - Created to supervise stock exchanges and to punish fraud in sercurities trading.
free soil meant, at the minimum
no slavery west of missouri river
new states: vermont, kentucky, tennessee
after western land claims were ,were added to the us under constitution
Nullification Crisis, South Carolina Exposition and Protest
When faced with the protective Tariff of 1828, John Calhoun presented a theory in the South Carolina Exposition and Protest (1828) that federal tariffs could be declared null and void by individual states and that they could refuse to enforce them. South Carolina called a convention in 1832, after the revised Tariff of 1828 became the Tariff of 1832, and passed an ordinance forbidding collection of tariff duties in the state. Jackson protested this.
Assumption of State Debts
(GW) Plan by Hamilton meant to tie the states more securely to fed gov; states pay debt, created huge national debt, assumption bill. logrolling - one support another
500. Supreme Court: Worchester v. Georgia
1832 - Expanded tribal authority by declaring tribes sovereign entities, like states, with exclusive authority within their own boundaries. President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling.
Walt Whitman (-), Leaves of Grass
Leaves of Grass (1855) was his first volume of poetry. He broke away from the traditional forms and content of New England poetry by describing the life of working Americans and using words like "I reckon", "duds", and "folks". He loved people and expressed the new democracy of a nation finding itself. He had radical ideas and abolitionist views - Leaves of Grass was considered immoral. Patriotic.
French and British Intrigue over U Sboundaries
The Treaty of Paris set the colonial boundaries as being the southern border of Canada, the northern border of Florida, the Atlantic coast, and the Mississippi River.
supported umayyads
lateen sails
propelled dhows
Who wrote the Bacchae?
poorly built, overcrowded housing where many immigrants lived
Slender, long-hulled vessels utilized by Portuguese; highly maneuverable and able to sail against the wind; key to development of Portuguese trade empire in Asia
Early Indian sacred 'knowledge'-the literal meaning of the term-long preserved and communicated orally by Brahmin priests and eventually written down. (175)
Sun Yat-sen
Chinese nationalist revolutionary, founder and leader of the Guomindang until his death. He attempted to create a liberal democratic political movement in China but was thwarted by military leaders.
William Bennett
(RR) attention on educatio reform
Julius/Ethel Rosenberg
American citizens who received international attention when they were executed having been found guilty of conspiracy to commit espionage in relation to passing information on the American atomic bomb to the Soviet Union.
Site of great university that specialized in medicine
what nation did not experience military takeover
Pieter Brughel
Ren. Painter, realism (outside Italy)
Queen of Egypt (1473-1458 B.C.E.). Dispatched a naval expedition down the Red Sea to Punt (possibly Somalia), the faraway source of myrrh. There is evidence of opposition to a woman as ruler, and after her death her name was frequently expunged. (p.66)
one of Justinian's most important military commanders while reconquering Europe in North Africa and Italy
"openness", freedom to criticize the gov't, led to protests and independent E. Europe and Russian Republics
Washington's Farewell Address
Washington's reputation and image was being hurt by the two political parties.
Published in newspapers and was not really given.
Warned against foreign alliances that were permanent.
Set a precedent for two term president.
Helped promote no permanent foreign alliances.
Helped to promote isolisationism and to look West not East. 
Mountain region marking the northern border of the Indian subcontinent; site of the Aryan settlements that formed small kingdoms or warrior republics
golden age of Islam, capital at Baghdad, introduced the idea of credit
A vast epic chronicling the events leading up to a cataclysmic battle between related kinship groups in early India. It includes the Bhagavad-Gita, the most important work of Indian sacred literature. (p. 185)
Feminist (Feninism)
One who promotes complete politcal, social, and economic equality of opportunity for women.
Shawnee chief who tried to united Native American tribes in Ohio and Indiana against encroaching white rule. Failed.
Mehmed II
also called Mehmed the Conqueror, conquered Constaninople in 1453;destroyed what remained of the Byzantine Empire
Fervent belief and loyalty given to the political unit of the nation state
Emilio Aguinaldo
led the Filipinos against the Americans; he claimed to head the legitimate government of the nation
Lief Ericsson
established a colony in Newfoundland, Canada, for Scandinavia and called it Vinland--it had plentiful supplies of timber and fish
Adam Smith
Scottish moral philosopher and a pioneer of political economics. Seen today as the father of Capitalism. Wrote On the Wealth of Nations (1776) One of the key figures of the Scottish Enlightenment.
web dubois
believed that African Americans should strive for full rights immediately; wanted integration, not segregation
Last of the Ming Emperors; comited suicide in 1644 in the face of Jurchen capture of the Forbidden City of Bejing
Roman poet; First Century B.C.; wrote "Aeneid" which celebrated the founding of Rome.
Square Deal
Economic policy by Roosevelt that favored fair relationships between companies and workers
Alexander Hamilton
1789-1795; First Secretary of the Treasury. He advocated creation of a national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt.
20th Amendment
-lame duck amendment
shorted the time between election and inauguration
Missouri Compromise
Admitted Missouri as slave state, Maine as free state, southern border of Missouri was northernmost point slavery was allowed. Stalled the Civil War.
The theory developed in early modern England and spread elsewhere that royal power should be subject to legal and legislative checks. (p. 452)
Uncle Tom's Cabin
abolitionist book by Harriet Beecher Stowe
cultural imperialism
Domination of one culture over another by a deliberate policy or by economic or technological superiority. (p. 894)
Type of pottery having the a pale green glaze, originally produced in China. Chemically, celadon is formed by combining chromium oxide, cadmium yellow, and titanium-zinc white. It was most commonly used in Korean art.
New England Primer
widely used New England schoolbook that taught lessons of social duty and Christian faith, as well as reading and writing
World Bank
A specialized agency of the United Nations that makes loans to countries for economic development, trade promotion, and debt consolidation. Its formal name is the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development. (p. 834)
All of the following were reasons the Senate voted to acquit President Andrew Johnson except
A) opposition to abusing the Constitutional system of checks and balances.
B) concern about the person who would become President.
C) fears of creating a desta
Mansa Musa
Ruler of Mali (r. 1312-1337). His pilgrimage through Egypt to Mecca in 1324-1325 established the empire's reputation for wealth in the Mediterranean world. (p. 376)
the founder of the Islam religion; to Muslims, he is the ultimate and final prophet, the (570-632)
Representation: virtual vs. direct
Virtual taxation involves officials being elected by the people to represent them, whereas direct taxation means that every person can represent themselves directly in the government.
free-trade imperialism
Economic dominance of a weaker country by a more powerful one, while maintaining the legal independence of the weaker state. In the late nineteenth century, free-trade imperialism characterized the relations between the Latin American republics. (744)
French Revolution
the revolution that began in 1789, overthrew the absolute monarchy of the Bourbons and the system of aristocratic privileges, and ended with Napoleon's overthrow of the Directory and seizure of power in 1799.
First Continental Congress
Delagates from all colonies except georgia met to discuss problems with britain and to promote independence. Wanted to bring together common cause for the colonies.
Alexander of Macedon
definition: also known as Alexander the Great, by 331 BCE, controlled Syria, Egypt, Mesopotamia; invaded Persian homeland and burned Persepolis; crossed the Indus by 327
significance: Created Bactria which influenced India, helped diffuse Greek ideas
Neutrality Proclamation 1793
Washington says stay neutral from French Rev, Dem Rep's wanted in, Federalists wanted out. Secretly all 3 leaders agreed it would be best to stay out
The volta do mar relied on thorough knowledge of these
1105. League of Nations
Devised by President Wilson, it reflected the power of large countries. Although comprised of delegates from every country, it was designed to be run by a council of the five largest countries. It also included a provision for a world court.
Declaratory Act of 1766
Declared, "We affirm Parliament's right to bind the colonies in all cases whatsoever."
the class of wage earners, esp. those who earn their living by manual labor or who are dependent for support on daily or casual employment; the working class.
(George Washington) Goethals
This colonel, an autocratic West Point engineer, perfected the organization of the Panama canal effort.
bush doctrine
A policy adopted in 2001 that asserts America's right to attack any nation that has weapons of mass destruction that might be used against U.S. interests at home or abroad.
983. Elihu Root
Secretary of War under Roosevelt, he reorganized and monderized the U.S. Army. Later served as ambassador for the U.S. and won the 1912 Nobel Peace Prize.
Edgar Allan Poe
Edgar Allan Poe lived from 1809-1849 and was cursed with hunger, cold, poverty, and debt. He was orphaned as a child and when he married his fourteen year old wife, she died of tuberculosis. He wrote books that deal with the ghostly and ghastly, such as "The Fall of the House of Usher." (pg. 345)
(AL), 1863 , a decisive battle in the American Civil War (1863)
Molasses Act
act passed by Parliament (in 1773) to stop colonial trade with French West Indies; led to bribing and smuggling
Transport Binds Union
Southern cotton goes to New England and Britain, Western grain and livestock goes to feed factory workers in East and Europe, Eastern machines and textiles go to South and West. All shipped by railroad. Railroad links America.
Plessy v. Ferguson
A landmark United States Supreme Court decision in the jurisprudence of the United States, upholding the constitutionality of state laws requiring racial segregation in private businesses (particularly railroads), under the doctrine of "separate but equal".
French and Indian War
French and Britain arguing over control over the Ohio Valley
Foraker Act
Officially the Organic Act of 1900, is a United States federal law that established civilian (limited popular) government on the island of Puerto Rico, which had been newly acquired by the United States as a result of the Spanish-American War. President William McKinley signed the act on April 12, 1900
Sir Edmond Andros
Governor of the Dominion of New England from 1686 until 1692, when the colonists rebelled and forced him to return to England.
276. Residence Act
Set the length of time which immigrants must live in the U.S. in order to become legal citizens.
George Washington
Went with some Virginians to the Ohio Valley to claim land. Began the French & Indian War
All free adult males over 21
Who participated in Greek democracy?
King George's War 1743-1748
War of Austrian Succession -< New England takes French fort at Louisbourg
Treaty of Paris- 1898
The treaty that concluded the Spanish American War, Commissioners from the U.S. were sent to Paris on October 1, 1898 to produce a treaty that would bring an end to the war with Spain after six months of hostilitiy. From the treaty America got Guam, Puerto Rico and they paid 20 million dollars for the Philipines. Cuba was freed from Spain.
Boston Tea Party
a raid on three British ships in Boston Harbor (December 16, 1773) in which Boston colonists, disguised as Indians, threw the contents of several hundred chests of tea into the harbor as a protest against British taxes on tea and against the monopoly granted the East India Company.
Webster's 7th of March Speech
Speech that called upon American Citizens to join together. It adressed one issue for disunion which was the allowed slavery into New Mexican Territory.
99. War hawks
Clay and Calhoun, eager for war with Britain (War of 1812)
833. Mary Baker Eddy (1871-1910)
Founded the Church of Christian Scientists and set forth the basic doctrine of Christian Science.
What was the Gallipoli campaign?
winston churchill wanting to help russia
What two fronts did Germany fight WWI on?
Eastern: Russia; Western: France
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
Like CWA, but for younger single men in wilderness camps. $30.
Alien and Sedition Acts
These consist of four laws passed by the Federalist Congress and signed by President Adams in 1798: the Naturalization Act, which increased the waiting period for an immigrant to become a citizen from 5 to 14 years; the Alien Act, which empowered the president to arrest and deport dangerous aliens; the Alien Enemy Act, which allowed for the arrest and deportation of citizens of countries at was with the US; and the Sedition Act, which made it illegal to publish defamatory statements about the federal government or its officials. The first 3 were enacted in response to the XYZ Affair, and were aimed at French and Irish immigrants, who were considered subversives. The Sedition Act was an attempt to stifle Democratic-Republican opposition, although only 25 people were ever arrested, and only 10 convicted, under the law. The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, which initiated the concept of "nullification" of federal laws were written in response to the Acts.
1033. City Manager Plan, Commission Plan
Legislation designed to break up political machines and replace traditional political management of cities with trained professional urban planners and managers.
Adam-Onis Treaty of 1819
Made Spain cede all of Florida to the U.S.and give up its claim to the 42nd parallel in the Pacific Northwest. In return America gave up its claims to Texas.
Reawakening of commerce and advances in ship building and navigation and the rise of a stronger national government
played major roles in over seas exploration among Europeans
Hay Bunau Varilla Treaty
Helped US secure a ten mile zone to build their canal. (1902)
542. Election of 1848: Cass, Taylor
Zachary Taylor - Whig. Lewis Cass - Democrat. Martin Van Buren - Free Soil Party (Oregon issues). Taylor side-stepped the issue of slavery and allowed his military reputation to gain him victory. Cass advocated states' rights in the slavery issue. Free Soil Party wanted no slavery in Oregon.
How did the Mexican government react to the US victories in Texas, New Mexico, California and other northern states?
Santa Anna went on the offensive and attacked units of Zachary Taylor at Buena Vista
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