Ap Us history exam review Flashcards

Terms Definitions
The State
the gov.
Who wrote the Bacchae?
Assyrian Empire
- - -
Radical Republicans
Most prominent=Charles Sumner (senator)
Thaddeus Stevens in house.
Insisted on full political and civil rights for blacks (but many radicals still disagreed).
Gained control of Reconstruction in 1867.
Required ratification of Fourteenth Amendment for remission for former Confederate states.
The first Mesoamerican civilization. Between ca. 1200 and 400 B.C.E., these people of central Mexico created a vibrant civilization that included intensive agriculture, wide-ranging trade, ceremonial centers, and monumental construction.
composed of two legislative bodies
Charles Finney
2nd Great Awakening Presbyterian preacher; spoke of free will
Chinese Nationalist party founded by Sun Yat-sen in 1919; drew support from local warlords and Chinese criminal underworld; initially forged alliance with Communists in 1924; dominated by Chiang Kai-shek after 1925.
freedom dues
necessities given to indentured servants once they were freed; included a few barrels of corn, a suit of clothes, and perhaps a small parcel of land
an Apache leaderwho fled his reservation and led raids on the Arizona Mexico border for many years.
Traditions of the prophet Mohammad that played a critical role in Islamic law and rituals; recorded by women
Aid to Families with Dependent Children
the capital city of the Aztecs
Western name for the Chinese philosopher Kongzi (551-479 B.C.E.). His doctrine of duty and public service had a great influence on subsequent Chinese thought and served as a code of conduct for government officials.(p. 62)
United States frontier missionary who established a post in Oregon where Christianity and schooling and medicine were available to Native Americans (1802=1847)
Mt. Vernon
Name of George Washington's plantation
Kansas-Nebraska Act
Split Nebraska into two different states, Kansas and Nebraska, leaving the issue of slavery to be determined by popular sovereignty. One of the most momentous measures ever to pass congress. Greased the slippery slope to the Civil War. Resulted in the Republican Party.
The Vatican City
a city-state in Rome, Italy.
Five- year plans
Stalin's plans to hasten industrialization of USSR; constructed massive factories in metallurgy, mining and electric power; led to massive state-planned industrialization at cost of availability of consumer products.
813. Frank Lloyd Wright
Considered America's greatest architect. Pioneered the concept that a building should blend into and harmonize with its surroundings rather than following classical designs.
New England Colonies
Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Delaware.
Henry Clay
Federalist who was both a Representative and a Senator. He was a leader of the War Hawks, favoring war with Britain. Created the American System, supporting higher tariffs to generate revenue for the government.
the last imperial dynasty of China (from 1644 to 1912) which was overthrown by revolutionaries
the ancient style of vowed religious life which typically includes community, prayer, common worship, silence, and labour. It is governed by a monastic rule, or way of life, which involves a choice to live apart from society and the world, and so to witness in a radical way to Jesus Christ
An array of Germanic peoples, pushed further westward by nomads from central Asia. They in turn migrated west into Rome, upsetting the rough balance of power that existed between Rome and these people.
Marconi Guglielmo
invented the radio in the 1890s
Malay Peoples
A designation for peoples originating in south China and Southeast Asia who settled the Malay Peninsula, Indonesia, and the Philippines, then spread eastward across the islands of the Pacific Ocean and west to Madagascar. (p. 190)
A philosophy developed by the French count of Saint-Simon. Positivists believed that social and economic problems could be solved by the application of the scientific method, leading to continuous progress. Popular in France and Latin America. (616)
The Chesapeake
American frigate overhauled by a British frigate in 1807 off the coast of Virginia, demanding the surrender of four accused deserters. The American commander refused and the British responded by crippling the frigate and killing or wounding twenty-three.
Sons of Liberty
organized and controlled resistance against Parliamentary acts in less violent ways (strength of martyrdom), advocated nonimportation
An order from a government compelling someone to do a particular thing.
46. Holy experiment
William Penn’s term for the government of Pennsylvania, which was supposed to serve everyone and provide freedom for all.
And Indian changed to Hindu emperor who ruled northern India for 41 years
To assemble or marshal armed forces, military reserves, or civilian persons of military age into readiness for active service.
Thomas Jefferson
(up to Federalist Era) • From Virginia • Wrote the Declaration of Independence • Wrote "The Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking Up Arms" which justified the colonists hostilities • As governor during the war he called apon militia to fight
Lord Baltimore
Founded the colony of Maryland and offered religious freedom to all Christian colonists. He did so because he knew that members of his own religion (Catholicism) would be a minority in the colony.
Renaissance (European)
a period of intense artistic and intellectual activity, said to be a "rebirth" of Greco-Roman culture. Usually divided into an Italian one, from roughly the mid-14th to mid-15th century, and a Northern (trans-Alpine) one, from roughly the early-15th to early 17th century.
What was the wealthy trading state that controlled India from 850-1267?
Chola Kingdom
Abraham Lincoln
16th President of the United States saved the Union during the Civil War and emancipated the slaves; was assassinated by Booth (1809-1865)
Samuel Adams
person who helped found the patroit movement
Barbados slave code
code that gaves masters complete control over slaves and took all their rights
cowboy diplomacy
TR's policy the pursuit of foreign policy objectives with the aid of conspicuous displays of military power—implying or constituting a direct threat of warfare, should terms not be agreeable to the superior force.
Arab state based in Musqat, the main port in the southwest region of the Arabian peninsula. Oman succeeded Portugal as a power in the western Indian Ocean in the eighteenth century.
first: relating to or occurring at the first stages or form of something
Ex: Agriculture techniques remained relatively primitive. (B. 18)
Emergency Quota Act
Limited new immigration, by limiting yearly immigration to 3% of the population of a specific nationality living in the U.S.
11th Amendment
Prohibits citizens of one state or foreign country from suing another state.
Right of foreigners to be protected by the laws of their own nation.
People's Party
It was a short-lived political party in the United States established in 1891. It was most important in 1892-96, then rapidly faded away. Based among poor, white cotton farmers in the South and hard-pressed wheat farmers in the Plains states (especially Kansas and Nebraska), it represented a radical crusading form of agrarianism and hostility to banks, railroads, and elites generally. They were extremely anti-elitist.
Cotton GIn
machine that produced a more efficient way to get the seeds out of cotton, and expanded southern development
780. Strikes
The unions' method for having their demands met. Workers stop working until the conditions are met. It is a very effective form of attack.
Pacific Rim
Region identified in the 1990s as including Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and typified by rapid economic growth rates, expanding exports, and industrialization.
"King Cotton"
mid-19th century, a phrase used mainly by Southern politicians & authors who wanted to illustrate the importance of the crop to the Southern economy
Harper's Fairy
October of 1859; John Brown of Kansas attempted to create a Southern-wide slave revolt. He planned to ride down the river and provide slaves with guns, but the slaves were not organized. Brown was captured and hanged. This was just another reason for the South to separate from the North, which, in their opinion, was full of John Browns. John Brown became a martyr to the northern abolitionist cause.
Sepoy Rebellion
The revolt of Indian soldiers in 1857 against certain practices that violated religious customs; also known as the Sepoy Mutiny. (p. 661)
Atzerodt, Herold, Paine, and Surratt
Boothe's four conspirators: supposed to kill Johnson, helped Boothe escape, to kill Seward, Boardinghouse owner in DC
Andrew Johnson
"The Constitution as it is, and the Union as it was."
Democratic senator from Tennessee who was Lincoln's vice presidential running mate in 1864 on the National Union party ticket. Succeeded to the presidency when Lincoln was assassinated in 1865. His Reconstruction policies infuriated Radical Republicans in Congress, and he was impeached and nearly removed from office in 1867.
"Swing around the circle" =1866 election campaign (failed).
byzantine empire
a continuation of the Roman Empire in the Middle East after its division in 395
Pedro I
son and successor of Joao VI in brazil; aided in the declaration of Brazilian independence in 1822 and became constitutional emperor
Great Western Schism
A division in the Latin (Western) Christian Church between 1378 and 1417, when rival claimants to the papacy existed in Rome and Avignon. (p. 411)
Muhammad (570-632 C.E.)
Arab prophet; founder of religion of Islam. (p. 230)
Virginia & Kentucky Resolutions
Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.(1798)
the 3rd Caliph and the 1st to be chosen from the Umayyad clan, who was murdered in 656 as a political statement to promote Ali as the rightful caliph--> rift between Shi'ite and Sunnis
Monroe Doctrine
This was issued by the 4th president, James Monroe. It stated that other nations could not interfere with the western hemisphere. Main purpose was to keep Great Britain out of the Western Hemisphere.
1037. Ballinger-Pinchot Controversy
Cabinet members who had fought over conservation efforts and how much effort and money should be put into conserving national resources. Pinchot, head of the Forestry Department, accused Ballinger, Secretary of the Interior, of abandoning federal conservation policy. Taft sided with Ballinger and fired Pinchot.
Define: Germane
all things must be the same; must remain on topic and pertain to the issue at hand.
Lowell Girls
Farm girls that worked in a textile mill, they lived a highly structured life including church and behavior
Plessy v. Ferguson
the court case in which the Supreme Court validated the South's segregationist social order; ruled that "separate but equal" facilities were constitutional under the "equal protection" clause in the Fourteenth Amendment; in reality the quality of African American life was grotesquely unequal to that of whites
Charles Sumner
The same Senator who had been caned by Brooks in 1856, sumner returned to the Senate after the outbreak of the Civil War. He was the formulator of the state suicide theory, and supporter of emancipation. He was an outspoken radical Republican involved in the impeachment of Andrew Johnson.
Nine Power Pact
(WH) , Signed by the United States, France, Great Britain, Japan, Italy, Belgium, China, Netherlands, and Portugal. This treaty, created during the Washington Naval Conference, was third in a set of three treaties created during the conference. These treaties were all ways that President Harding tried to keep the Untied States isolated. The Treaty made the open door policy international law. The United States and Japan replaced Great Britain and Russia as major powers in the south Pacific
Jefferson Day Dinner
April 13, 1830 - At the Jefferson anniversary dinner, President Jackson toasted, "Our federal union! It must and shall be preserved!" making it clear to the nullifiers that he would resist the states' rights supporters' claim to nullify the tariff law. V.P. Calhoun's response to the toast was, "The union, next to our liberty, most dear. May we always remember that it can only be preserved by distributing evenly the benefits and burdens of the Union." Calhoun had wanted Jackson to side with him (for states' rights) in public, but he didn't succeed.
Midnight Judges
The 16 judges that were added by the Judiciary Act of 1801 that were called this because Adams signed their appointments late on the last day of his administration.
King Andrew I
as a new political party was created in opposition to the president, they began referring to Andrew Jackson with this name, representing his "abusive" use of political power.
Presidential Election of 1844
Polk ran against Henry Clay [Whigs] and James Birney [Liberty Party, took votes from Clay]
John J. Audubon
1785 to 1851; He was an artist who specialized in painting wild fowl. He had such works as Birds of America. Ironically, he shot a lot of birds for sport when he was young. The Audubon Society for the protection of birds was named after him. His depictions of western wildlife contributed to the western population movements.
Dred Scott v. Sandford
A Missouri slave sued for his freedom, claiming that his four year stay in the northern portion of the Louisiana Territory made free land by the Missouri Compromise had made him a free man. The U.S, Supreme Court decided he couldn't sue in federal court because he was property, not a citizen.
Treaty of Cordoba
a treaty signed in 1821 by Agustín de Iturbide, the man who had defeated Jose Maria Morelos but then joined the Mexican rebels, in which Mexico was granted independence from Spain
116. Fort Pitt, Fort Duquesne
Fort Duquesne became one of the principal French outposts in the northern Ohio Valley, and, in 1754 the French troops in Fort Dusquesne destroyed nearby British Fort Necessity, after Washington and the colonial army surrendered it to them. The British rebuilt Fort Necessity as Fort Pitt in 1758.
Examine the extent of social and cultural changes that took place in Africa as a result of the introduction of Islam and Christianity.AFRICAN RELIGION
DEFINITION: Monotheists, but believed in lesser gods.SIGNIFICANCE: African religion experienced a syncretic blend of Islam.
Things to Know: The Supreme Court under John Marshall - name 5
major cases and significance of decisions
Marbury v Madison, Fletcher v Peck, Dartmouth College v Woodward, McCulloch v Maryland, Gibbons v Ogden
1213. Home Owners' Local Corporation (HOLC)
Had authority to borrow money to refinance home mortgages and thus prevent forclosures. It lent over $3 billion to 1 million homeowners.
extreme conditions suffered on the second leg of the 18th century trading triangle
were product of the disire for profits by the traders
sinners in the hands of an angry god
title of Jonathan Edward's most famous sermon
Adolf Hilter
causing harm, hurtful
Brigham Young
Leader of Mormons
religions controversy within the Byzantine Empire (emperor tried to suppress veneration of icons)
Rule by a single person.
chief god of the Rig-Veda
European nation that originally settled the Hudson River valley.
clipper ship
Large, fast, streamlined sailing vessel, often American built, of the mid-to-late nineteenth century rigged with vast canvas sails hung from tall masts. (p. 666)
The process of discrediting and eliminating the political policies, methods, and personal image of Joseph Stalin.
The politically motivated practice of making accusations of disloyalty, subversion, or treason without proper regard for evidence. The term specifically describes activities associated with the period in the United States known as the Second Red Scare, lasting roughly from the late 1940s to the late 1950s and characterized by heightened fears of communist influence on American institutions and espionage by Soviet agents.
The largest part of Alexander's conquests, essentially the former Achaemenid empire, was taken over by
A designation for peoples originating in south China and Southeast Asia who settled the Malaysian Peninsula, Indonesia, and the Philippines, then spread eastward across the islands of the Pacific Ocean and west to Madagascar. (p. 190)
Bantu language with Arabic loanwords spoken in coastal regions of East Africa. (p. 542)
Agricultural village
A relatively small, egalitarian village, where most of the population was involved in agriculture. Starting over 10,000 years ago, people began to cluster in agricultural villages as they stayed in one place to tend their crops.
Noah Webster
a Yale-educated Connecticut Yankee; the "Schoolmaster of the Republic" who designed "reading lessons" that educated millions of children and were partly designed to increase patriotism; spent 20 years creating a dictionary, which was published in 1828 and helped standardize English
a small, colonial militia; reputedly could be ready to fight on a minute's notice
of, pertaining to, or characteristic of a secluded, dedicated, or austere manner of living.
King of the Franks (r. 768-814); emperor (r. 800-814). Through a series of military conquests he established the Carolingian Empire, which encompassed all of Gaul and parts of Germany and Italy. Illiterate, though started an intellectual revival. (250)
key three estates
church, nobles, and urban leaders
Safety Valve
Anything, such as the American frontier, that allegedly serves as a necessary outlet for built-up pressure, energy, and so on.
League of Nations
International organization founded in 1919 to promote world peace and cooperation but greatly weakened by the refusal of the US to join. It proved ineffectual in stopping aggression by Italy, Japan, and Germany in the 1930s, and it was superseded by the United Nations in 1945.
Emilano Zapata
Revolutionary and leader of peasants in the Mexican Revolution. He mobilized landless peasants in south-central Mexico in an attempt to seize and divide the lands of the wealthy landowners. Though successful for a time, he was ultimately assassinated. 819
Connected with the sea, especially in relation to seafaring commercial or military activity.
Arabic term for the East African coast.
place of internal rebellions that put an end to effective Mughal control
a heavily armed foot soldier of ancient Greece.
Emilio Aguinaldo
Leader of the Filipino independence movement against Spain (1895-1898). He proclaimed the independence of the Philippines in 1899, but his movement was crushed and he was captured by the United States Army in 1901. (p. 743)
0 factor
Curse, battle of tippecanoe, Harrison dies 30 days after wins; causes Madison to go to Congress for war
john calvin
Swiss theologian (born in France) whose tenets (predestination and the irresistibility of grace and justification by faith) defined Presbyterianism (1509-1564).
Amritsar Massacre
(1919) British soldiers kill 400 unarmed Indian men, women and children and wound 1000 more. India eventually gains independence because of this
Aswan dam project
The cornerstone of Egyptian development in the 1950s was
Henry David Thoreau
Close friend of transcendentalist Emerson. He conducted a 2-year experiment living by himself in the woods to discover the truth about life.
Chinook Society
a permanent paleolithic settlement in the Pacific Northwest of America
salmon,acorns, and berries were cultivated and hunted 
When did Mexico gain its independence from Spain?
George Grenville
Became prime minister of Britain in 1763 he persuaded the Parliament to pass a law allowing smugglers to be sent to vice-admiralty courts which were run by British officers and had no jury. He did this to end smuggling. also tried to tax them
prophet of Islam born c.570 to Banu Hashim clan of Quraysh tribe in Mecca; raised by father's family; received revelations from Allah in 610c.e. and thereafter; died in 632
crispus attucks
1st killed in boston massacre was crispus attucks- he is popular lack guy he is oug-everyone likes him-ppl of boston want guards tried for murder
1055. Income tax
The first step toward building government revenues and redistributing wealth, a tax that was levied on annual income over a specific amount and with certain legally permitted deductions.
A Christian sect found in Asia; tended to support Islamic invasions of this area in preference to Byzantine rule; cut off from Europe by Muslim invasions
Pax Romana
200 year period of peace and prosperity in Rome
a just society in which all citizens willingly subordinated their private, selfish interests to the common goode. Both the stability of society and the authority of government thus depended on the virtue of the citizenry-its capacity for selflessness, self-sufficiency, and courage.
(n.) an area of authority or control; the right to administer justice
Treaty of Versailles
treaty that ended WWI, included Wilson's ideas of peace, blamed Germany for the damages, started the League of Nations
Homeland Security Department
This department combined over 20 federal agencies with 170,000 employees, including Customs, Immigration and Naturalization, the Coast Guard, and the Secret Service. It was one of the largest governmental reorganizations since the introduction of the Department of Defense following World War II.
Gupta Empire
Powerful Indian state based, like its Mauryan predecessor, on a capital at Pataliputra in the Ganges Valley. It controlled most of the Indian subcontinent through a combination of military force and its prestige as a center of sophisticated culture (186)
Made Virginia Successful
the headright system which increased land ownership, allowing for the export of tobacco to England, providing a representative assembly
Robert Livingston
along with James Monroe, negotiated in Paris for the Louisiana land area; signed a treaty on April 30, 1803 ceding Louisiana to the United States for $15 million
by the middle of the first mellennium BCE the bantu people had begun to produce
Gentleman's Agreement
stated that Japan would respect the United States' Pacific possessions (Hawaii and Philippines); must abide by the Open Door Policy
Open door policy
The US, Germany, France, Russia, Japan, and Britain all had spheres of influence to trade with and within China
Sacco and Vanzetti
Italian immigrants who were convicted of robbery and murder. Liberals said that they were convicted only because they were poor immigrants and anarchists. Were executed in 1927.
Pendleton Act
1883 - The first federal regulatory commission. Office holders would be assessed on a merit basis to be sure they were fit for duty. Brought about by the assassination of Garfield by an immigrant who was angry about being unable to get a government job. The assassination raised questions about how people should be chosen for civil service jobs.
an act or instance of rising in revolt, rebellion, or resistance against civil authority or an established government.
Naturalization Act
1798, (JA) Act that increased the time to become a US citizen from 5 to 14 years
Treaty of Tordesillas
Signed in 1494 between Castile and Portugal; Clarified spheres of influence and rights of possesion in New World.
Who invented both the stern port runner and the magnetic compass?
The Chinese (Song)
Fugitive slave Act
alleged runaways were not permitted a jury trial or allowed to testify at their hearing, and the commissioners who decided the cases were paid $10if they returned accused fugitives to slavery but only $5 if they released them.
National American Women's Suffrage Association (NAWSA)
An American women's rights organization formed in May 1890 as a unification of the National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA) and the American Woman Suffrage Association (AWSA). Susan B. Anthony was the dominant figure in NAWSA from 1890 to 1900, at which time she stepped down in favor of Carrie Chapman Catt.
North German Confederation
Result of end of Austria-Prussian War, Austria doens't get involved in German affairs, North German Confederation made under rulership of Prussia. Bismark's first step towards German unification.
Great Depression
the economic crisis and period of low business activity in the U.S. and other countries, roughly beginning with the stock-market crash in October, 1929, and continuing through most of the 1930s ending around the beginning of WWII
one result of slave trade
debilitating social and econmic dislocations in West africa
New France
French colony in North America, with a capital in Quebec, founded 1608. New France fell to the British in 1763. (p. 489)
the impact of his rule last for 200 years known as the 200years of peace aka THE PAX ROMANA
Articles of Confederation
Early plan for governing the colonies. Ratified in 1781.
Unicameral legislature (9 f 13 states to pass laws)
Committee of states for when that legislature was not in session.
No power to collect money or levy taxes.
Power to wage war, make treaties, send representatives, and borrow money.
WEB Du Bois
that blacks should not have to tolerate white domination and should immediately fight for their social and political rights
The Open Door Note
Asked Imperialist Nations to offer assurance that they would respect the principle of equal trade opportunities, specifically in the China market.
- Asked European nationas to keep fair competition open to all nations willing and wanting to participate. It "saved" China from being carved up.
Second Bull Run
(AL) , McClellan gets his butt kick and the South defeats North, 1862
108. Peace of Utrecht, 1713
Ended Queen Anne's War. Undermined France's power in North America by giving Britain the Hudson Bay, Newfoundland, and Nova Scotia.
(Harry M.) Daugherty
U.S. attorney general and a member of Harding's corrupt "Ohio Gang" who was forced to resign in administration scandals, some involving the illegal sale of liquor permits.
Constitution: Majority whip
The person who tells members of the majority party in Congress how they should vote.
Mandate of heaven
a political theory of ancient China in which those in power were given the right to rule from a divine source
Declaratory Act (1766)
Act that repealed Stamp Act, BUT it allowed GBR to pass any tax to their liking.
966. Election of 1900: candidates, issues
Republican, William McKinley defeated Democrate, Williams Bryan. The issue was imperialism.
The National Bank
Part of Hamilton's Plan, it would save the government's surplus money until it was needed.
1353. Vietnam, Ho Chi Minh
North Vietnamese leader who had lead the resistance against the Japanese during WW II and at the end of the war had led the uprising against the French Colonial government. He had traveled in Europe, educated in Moscow, and was an ardent Communist. Became President of the North Vietnamese government established after the French withdrawal. Often called the George Washington of North Vietnam.
Nomadic People from Northeastern Asia
Who were the early inhabitants of Japan and where did they come from?
Seneca Falls Convention
In 1848, on the initiative of Mott and Stanton, the first women's rights convention met at a Wesleyan church chapel in Seneca Falls, New York. There were not only females, but many male sympathizers. After serious discussion of proposed means to achieve their ends, the delegates finally agreed that the primary goal should be attainment of the franchise. The convention then adopted a Declaration of Sentiments patterned after the American Declaration of Independence. 4: 1825-1865
In his interpretation of the Constitutionlal Convention, the historian Charles Beard focused on the importance of....
economic interest of a wealthy elite
339. Louisiana Purchase: reasons, Jefferson, loose construction
1803 - The U.S. purchased the land from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains from Napoleon for $15 million. Jefferson was interested in the territory because it would give the U.S. the Mississippi River and New Orleans (both were valuable for trade and shipping) and also room to expand. Napoleon wanted to sell because he needed money for his European campaigns and because a rebellion against the French in Haiti had soured him on the idea of New World colonies. The Constitution did not give the federal government the power to buy land, so Jefferson used loose construction to justify the purchase.
loose, strict interpertaion of the constitution
allows the government to do anything which the constitution does not specifically forbid it from doing. strict interpertation forbids the government from doing anything except what would the constition specifically empowers it to do
1555. American Indian Movement (AIM), Wounded Knee
Formed in 1968 by urban Indians who seized the village of Wounded Knee in February, 1973 to bring attention to Indian rights. This 71-day confrontation with federal marshalls ended in a government agreement to reexamine treaty rights of the Ogalala Sioux.
what gains has the african american community attained since the 60s? what are the greatest challenges still facing african americans and US society regarding race?
30% of african american families have incomes of at least $50,000 they have made headway headway in politics as the number of black officials is over 9000 including high positions in federal government. black candidates now appeal to a wide variety of voters. they have also made significant advances into higher education. shared culture through literature, art, and music. many still lack skill & face discrimination
How was life regulated during the war?
There was a national speed limit of 35 mph and the amount of consumer goods a person could buy was limited
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